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Evolution of Bridges and

Bridge Design Practice in


Different Countries
Nirjhar Dhang
Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology
Kharagpur
August, 2014

Gardon River Bridge, 13 BC, Aqueduct 49 m high

Pont du Diable (Ceret)


Stone Arch Bridge
Ceret, France, 1341

Suspension Bridge
Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco

4200 ft long main suspension span

Oresund Bridge

Oresund Bridge

Between Copenhagen, Denmark and Malmo, Sweden

Oresund Bridge
2000
The high bridge has the
longest cable-stayed
main span in the world for
both road and rail traffic.
Longest span : 490 m
Total length : 7845 m
Width : 23.5 m
Clearance below : 57 m

Millau Viaduct : Worlds tallest bridge

The Millau Viaduct


Paris - Barcelona

Under construction is the highest bridge in the world. This bridge will be
part of the A75 to link Paris with Barcelona.

This suspension bridge has a total length of 2.5 km and crosses the Tarn
River. It is 343 meters high, a world record. The road, with two lanes on each
side, will cross the river at 270 meters above ground. At its highest point, the
viaduct is even higher than the Eiffel Tower. Conceived by Norman Foster, this
suspension bridge is supported by seven pylons, instead of the two that are
common for this kind of construction.

The total cost of the project is around 310 million euros (AUD $525
million).

It is formally inaugurated in December 2004,


just 39 months after work began.

Translated from Portuguese by Mark Harrison, Adelaide

This is the only rotational boat transporter in the


world. It has two arms and each arm forms a kind
of huge tub filled with water. Boats enter the tub,
then the tub locks up and the huge arm starts
rotating .

lower canal

Entrance to lower canal

A Boat is approaching the tub

35 m

There are boats in both tubs upper and lower

Rotation is starting

Boats in both rotating arms

rotation

Oten...

Just before landing

Closing the gate , regulation of level of water and tubs rotation


Takes 15 min. only.

One tub 78ft. Long with water and boat weights about 300 tons.

The tubs are filled according the Archimedes Law.


So the weight of tubs are balanced.
To open the upper and lower lock and turn the whole
system
by 180 they need an engine of 22.5 kW which only use
1.5 kWh

India

Jubilee Bridge
Rail Bridge, West Bengal, India, 1887

Vivekanada Setu, Kolkata, 1932

Rabindra Setu, Howrah Bridge, Kolkata, 1943

Godavari Bridge, Kovur-Rajamundry,


Road cum Rail Bridge, 1974

Vidyasagar Setu
Second Hooghly Bridge
Total length of 823 m span,
Kolkata, 1992

Nivedita Bridge, Kolkata, 2007

3D View

Acknowledgement
Photographs are taken from different web sites/sources
These are used for academic purpose only