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Engineering

Engineering Materials
Materials
Materials
Materials

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Material
Material Properties
Properties

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Grain
Grain Structure
Structure

Figure 1.11 Schematic illustration of the stages during solidification of molten


metal; each small square represents a unit cell. (a) Nucleation of crystals at
random sites in the molten metal; note that the crystallographic orientation of
each site is different. (b) and (c) Growth of crystals as solidification continues.
(d) Solidified metal, showing individual grains and grain boundaries; note the
different angles at which neighboring grains meet each other.
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Metals
Metals

Solidification
Solidification of
of Molten
Molten Metal
Metal

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Figure 4.3 (a) Schematic illustration of grains, grain boundaries, and particles dispersed
throughout the structure of a two-phase system, such as a lead-copper alloy. The grains
represent lead in solid solution in copper, and the particles are lead as a second phase.
(b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system consisting of two sets of grains: dark
and light. The dark and the light grains have separate compositions and properties.

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Microstructure
Microstructure for
for Cast
Cast Irons
Irons

Cold,
Cold, Warm
Warm and
and Hot
Hot Working
Working

Figure 4.13 Microstructure for cast irons. Magnification: 100x. (a) Ferritic gray iron
with graphite flakes. (b) Ferritic ductile iron (nodular iron) with graphite in nodular
form. (c) Ferritic malleable iron. This cast iron solidified as white cast iron with the
carbon present as cementite and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon.
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Stress-strain
Stress-strain Curve
Curve

Mechanical
Mechanical Properties
Properties

Figure 2.2 A typical stress-strain curve obtained


from a tension test, showing various features
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Other
Other Mechanical
Mechanical Properties
Properties

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Hardness-testing
Hardness-testing Methods
Methods

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Brinnel
Brinnel Testing
Testing Indentation
Indentation

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Strength
Strength versus
versus Temperature
Temperature

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Heat
Heat Treating
Treating (Ch.4)
(Ch.4)

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Hardness
Hardness and
and Time
Time

Figure 4.16 Hardness of tempered martensite as a function of


tempering time for the 1080 steel quenched to 65 HRC. Hardness
decreases because the carbide particles coalesce and grow in size,
thereby increasing the interparticle distance of the softer ferrite.
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Gear
Gear Teeth
Teeth Cross-section
Cross-section

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Heat
Heat Treatment
Treatment Processes
Processes

Figure 4.1 Cross-section of gear teeth showing induction-hardened


surfaces. Source: Courtesy of TOCCO Div., Park-Ohio Industries, Inc.
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Metals
Metals

Heat
Heat Treatment
Treatment Processes
Processes (cont.)
(cont.)
z

Irons

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Cast irons
Steels
Stainless steel
Tool steels

Non-irons

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Aluminum
Copper
Magnesium
Nickel
Titanium

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Nonferrous
Nonferrous Metals
Metals and
and Alloys
Alloys

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Polymers
Polymers
Thermoplastics
Thermosets
z Elastomers
z
z

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Properties
Properties of
of Plastics
Plastics

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Ceramics
Ceramics and
and Graphite
Graphite
Glass
z Mineral
z Brick
z Mineral
z Diamond
z

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Ceramics
Ceramics in
in Products
Products

Ceramic
Ceramic Components
Components

Figure 8.1 A variety of ceramic components. (a) High-strength alumina for hightemperature applications. (b) Gas-turbine rotors made of silicon nitride. Source:
Courtesy of Wesgo Div., GTE.
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Composites
Composites

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Composites
Composites

Reinforced plastics
Ceramic-based
z Plywood and particleboard
z
z

Figure 9.2 Schematic illustration of methods of reinforcing plastics (matrix) with (a) particles, (b)
short or long fibers or flakes, and (c) continuous fibers. The laminate structures shown in (d) can
be produced from layers of continuous fibers or sandwich structures using a foam or honeycomb
core (see also Fig. 16.50).

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Boeing
Boeing 757-200
757-200

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Changing
Changing the
the Nature
Nature of
of
Materials
Materials
z
z

Mix/blend/grow
Process
Work
Hot
Warm
Cold

z
z

Heat treatment, anneal, hardening, quench


Layer

Figure 9.1 Application of advanced composite materials in Boeing 757-200 commercial aircraft.
Source: Courtesy of Boeing Commercial Airplane Company.

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Selection
Selection
z
z

American
American Society
Society of
of Materials
Materials

How do we select materials?


Resources and Standards
Reference books
Internet
http://www.asminternational.org/

Software (Cambridge Engineering


Selector)

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