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# Physical World & Measurements

## Q. Give the dimension formula for universal gravitational constant G.

Ans. Dimension formula for G = [ M 1 L3T 2 ]
Q.
Give physical quantity whose dimensional formula is same as that of gravitational potential.
Ans. Surface potential [ M 0 L2T 2 ] has some dimensions as that of gravitational potential .
Q.
The velocity of water V may depend upon their wavelength , density of water & the
acceleration due to gravity g. Find relation between these quantities using method of
dimensions.
Ans.
V a.
b
gc
V abgc
= Kabgc

........(1)

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9878024788

1 1
1 2 c
[ M 0 LT
] = K [ L1 ]a [ M 1 L3 ]b [ LT
]

= K [ La M b L3b LcT 2 c ]
1 1
[ M 0 LT
] = K [ M b La 3b + cT 2 c ]
b =0,
a 3b + c =
1,

2c =1
c=
1/ 2

a 3(0) + (1/ 2) =
1
a =1 (1/ 2)
=
=
a 1/ 2,
b 0,=
c 1/ 2
put in (1)
V = K 1/2 0 g 1/2
Q.
Ans.

V = K g
Given Y = sin (t k x). Find dimensions of & k.

Y A sin(t kx)
=

0 0 0
L T ], kx [ M 0 L0T 0 ]
=
=
t [ M

[ M 0 L0T 0 ]
[ M 0 L0T 0 ]
, k
=
=
[T 1 ]
[ L1 ]
0 0 1
L T ], k [ M 0 L1T 0 ]
=
=
[M
Q.
Give dimensions of a & b. F = a + bx

1 2
a [ M 1 LT
], =
b
=

1 2
F [ M 1 LT
]
=
= [ M 1 L0T 2 ]
1
x
[L ]

Ans.

F= a= bx

Q.

## Find the dimensions of a & b=

F a x + bt 2

Ans.

F a=
=
x bt 2

bt 2 = F
b
=

a=

1 2
]
F [ M 1 LT
=
= [ M 1 L1/2T 2 ]
1 1/2
[
]
L
x

1 2
F [ M 1 LT
]
1 2 2
]
=
= [ M 1 LT
2
2
t
[T ]

1 4
b = [ M 1 LT
]
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9878024788
Q.
Ans.

Rate of flow V of a liquid it depends on upon pressure gradient (P/l), radius of the pipe (r) and
coefficient of viscosity () Derive expression for V dimensionally.
V ( p /1) a rate of flow =
[ L3T 1 ]
rb

radius of pipe =
[ L1 ]

## coefficient of Vis cos ity =

[ M 1 L1T 1 ]

V ( P /1) a (r )b )c
= K ( p /1) a (r )b ( )c

..........(1)
a

M 1 L1T 2 1 b 1 1 1 c
[M L T ] = K
[ L ] [M L T ]
L1

a 2 a 2 a
0 3 1
[ M L T ] = K [ M L T ][ Lb ][ M c L cT C ]
0 3

[ M 0 L3T 1 ] = K [ M a + c L2 a +b cT 2 a c ]
Acc.To principal of hom ogeneity
a + c =0
2a + b + c =3.....(*)

2a c =1
(2a + c) = 1
(2a + c) =
1

Subtracting
=
a + c 0 from=
2a + c 1
we get a = 1
from a + c = 0 1 + c = 0 c = 1
from(*) 2(1) + b (1)= 3 b= 4
=
a 1,=
b 4, c = 1
Put in (1)
1

Q.

p (r )
V =K
l
Convert of power of one mega watt on a system whose fundamental units are 10kg , 1 dm & 1
minute.
4

Ans.
P = 1 MW

6W 106 J
=
Givensystem =
P 10
Re quired systen
s
6.
=
n 10
=
P [ M 1L2T 3 ] =
n
?
1
2
M =
1Kg
a=
1, b =
2, c =
3
M =
10kg .
1
2

L 1=
M
L 1dm
1
2
=
=
= 60 s
T 1sec.
T 1min
1
2
a
b
c
M
L
T
1
1
n =n 1
2 1M
L
2
T2
2

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1
3
1kg 1m 2
1sec
6
= 10

60 s
10kg 1dm
2
3
1
1 1

1
6
= 106 100 60 60 60 = 216 1010 = 2.16 1012
n = 10

2
10 101 60 60 60
10
As n u = n u
11 2 2
J
ergs
106 =
2.16 1012

s
s
Q.
Ans.

b
The velocity V of particle is given by V= at +
what are dimensions of a, b &c.
t + c
b
V= at +
t + c
t + c t Should have some dim ensions as that of ' t '.

b
V= at +
T
Acc. to dim ension analsis.
b
V at=
, V
=
T
1
V LT
=
a =

,
t T

Q.
Ans.

=
b V=
[T ] LT 1 [T ] ,

2
a [ LT
=
b [ L]
]
A body travels a distance of ( 13.8 0.2) m in time (4 0.3)s. calculate Velocity

s 13.8 m
=
t
4 s
v
s t
0.2
0.3

0.01449 0.75

=
v
s
t
138
4
= 0.2199

v=

Q.
Ans.

V
13.8
= (0.2199)
Calculate it.

V
4
Velocity of flow of liquid depends upon radius of tubes (r) density of liquid () & coefficients
of viscosity (). Derive an expression for velocity of liquid.

V ra
b
c

V r a b c ..........(1)
Taking dim ensions on the both sides
1 1
[ M 0 LT
] = k[ L1 ]a [ ML3 ][ M 1 L1T 1 ]c

= k [ La M b L3b M c L cT c ]
1 1
[ M 0 LT
] = k[ M b + c La 3b cT c ]
Acc. to principle of hom ogenitly

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b + c =0
b =c
b =1

a 3b c =1
c =1
a 3(1) 1 =1
c =1
a + 3 1 =1
a= 1 2
a = 1
a=
1, b =
1, c =
1
Put in (1)

=
V k=
r 1 1 1 V k

r
Q.
Convert 72 km/hr. into m/s.
Ans.
Requried systen
Given systen

km
n2 ?
=
hr
1 1
kg
M 2 1kg.
1=
[ M 0 LT
]

n1 72,
V 72
=
=
M1

L1 =
1 km a =
0, b =
1, c =
1 L2 =
1m.
T1 1=
hr
T2 1sec.
b

M L T
n2 = n1 1 1 1
M 2 L2 T2
0

= 72

## 1kg 1km 1sec

1kg
= 72

1kg

1km 1hr
1km 1sec

1000m 60 60sec
= 72
1m 1sec
1
=
72 1000 1

60 60
= 20
As n1u2 = n2u2
1

km
m
= 20
hr
s
Check the correctness of the relation V = (2GM/R) Where V is escape velocity, G = Gravitational
constant, M = mass of earth and R is radius of earth.
72

Q.
Ans.

1 1
L.H .S= v= [ M 0 LT
]

=
R.H .S

2GM
=
R

M
M 1 L3T 2
L

## ( As 2 is dim ension less )

= =
L2T 2 [ L1T 1 ]
L.H .S = R.H .S Hence the relation is correct.

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Q. If the speed of light c(= 3 10 m / s ), Plancks constant h(=
6.6 1034 J s ) and gravitational constant
8

=
G ( 6.67 1011 mks units ) be chosen as fundamental units, find out the dimensions and value of unit of
mass.
Ans. Let m = kc x h y G z
....(1)
[ M 1 L0T 0 ] = [ LT 1 ]x [ ML2T 1 ] y [ ML1 L3T 2 ]z
= [ M y z .Lx ++2 y +3 zT x y 2 x ]
Applying the principle of homogeneity of dimensions.
=
y + z 0 ( 2 )
x + 2y + 3z = 0... ( 3)
x y 2z =
0...... ( 4 )
Adding (3) and (4), we get
=
y + z 0 ( 5 )

Adding ( 2 ) and ( 5 ) =
2y 1,=
y
From ( 5 ) ,z = y =

1
,
2

1
2
3 1
=
2 2
ch
=K
G

From ( 3) ,x =2y 3z =1 +
from (1),

## 3 108 6.6 1034

107 kg
6.67 1011
Q. Show that if e is electronic change, h is Plancks constant, c is velocity of light and 0 is electric
Taking k 1; m

## permittivity of free space, the e 2 / 0 hc is dimensionless.

Ans. We known that electrostatic potential energy between two electrons separated by distance r is
e2
ee
U=
units of
= U r = ( M L2T 2 ) L Also, energy of a photon
0
4 0 r
hc
E = h v = units of hc = E = [ ML2T 2 ][ L]

[ ML2T 2 ]L
e
[ M 0 L0T 0 ], i.e., the given quantity is dimensionless.
= =
Now
2 2
0 hc [ ML T ]L
Q. Using dimensional analysis, check the correctness of the following relations:
a
u + (2n 1)
(1) S nth =
2
Ans.
distance L
L.H .S= S nth=
= = [ LT 1 ]
time
T
a
R.H .S =u + (2n 1) =[ LT 1 ] + [ LT 2T 1 ]
(2,1 are constants dimensionless )
2
= [ LT 1 ] + [ LT 1 ] = [ LT 1 ]
L.H .S = R.H .S
Formula is correct.
2

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(2) =

h
m

Ans.
L.H .S = = wavelength= [ L]

h
[ ML
/ 2T 1 ]
=
= [ L1 ]
1
mv [ M/ ][ LT ]
L.H .S = R.H .S
Formula is correct.
R.H =
.S

(3) E = mc 2
Ans.
L.H .S= E= Energy= [ ML2T 2 ]
2
1 2
R.H=
.S mc
=
[ M ][ LT =
] [ ML2T 2 ]
L.H .S = R.H .S

Formula is correct.
Where the symbols have their usual meanings.
b x2
a
Q. Write the dimensions of
in the relation P =
where P is power, x is distance and t is time.
at
b
Ans.
b x2
P=
at
b x2
P
=

at at
As like quantities can be added & subtracted .
b x2
=
= P
at at
b
x2
P =
P
=

&
at
at
x2
[ L]2
a=
=
= [ M 1T 2 ]
2 3
Pt [ ML T ][T ]

## b = Pat = [ ML2T 3 ][ M 1T 2 ][T ]= [ L2 ]

a [ M 1T 2 ]
= =
[ M 1 L2T 2 ]
2
b
[L ]
Or
As x 2 is sutracted from ' b ', the dimensions are of b are of x 2 i.e b =
[ L2 ]
Q. The velocity (v) of the transverse waves on a string may depend upon (1) length (l) of spring, (2)
tension T in the string and (3) mass per unit length (m) of the string. Derive the formula dimensionally.
Ans.
v l a length of string

v T b Tension in string
v mc mass per unit length
v l aT b m c
v = k l aT b m c

..........(1)

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## Taking dimensions on both sides

1 1
] = k[ L]a [ MLT 2 ]b [ M 1 L1 ]c
[ M 0 LT
1 1
[ M 0 LT
] = k[ La M b LbT 2b M c L c ]
1 1
[ M 0 LT
] = k[ M b + c La +b cT 2b ]
b + c =0,
a + b c =1,

2b =1
b
=

1
+c =
0
2

/1 1
=
/2 2

1
2
1 1
a + = 1 a + 1 = 1 a = 0
2 2
putting these values in (1)
c=

v = k l 0T 2 m
v =k
Q.
Ans.

T
m
Define the following :

(a ) Solar day :Time taken by earth to complete its one rotation around its own ax.s w.r .t sun.
(b) Sedrial day : Time taken by earth to complete its one rotation around its own ax.s w.r .tfixed ster
(c) Solar year : The time taken by earth to complete its one revolution around sun
1Solar year = 365.25 days .
(d ) Lunar month : it is time taken by moon to complete its one revolution around earth.
1L.M = 27.3 days
(e) Shake : It is smallest unit of time.
( f ) Light year : it is dis t ance traveled by light inoneyear invacuum.

Q.
Ans.

Q.
Ans

1 Lt. year
= 9.48 1015 m.
Define Parsec. Give its relation with light year?
Parsee : it is called parallactic sec ond .
It is defined as the dis tan ce at which an are of 1. AU
. subtends an angle of 1sec ond .
Relation of 1 parsec & light year.
1 par sec = 3.26 light year
Do 1 Ao and 1AU represent same unit of length.

## No,1AU &1 A0 represents two different units of lenght

is smallest unit of dis tan ce 10 A 10 10 m.
10 A it=
1 AU = it is average dis tan ce between centre of earth & centre of sun.
Q.
Ans.

1AU
= 1.5 1011 m.
What is the difference between 5.0 and 5.00 ?
5.0 has one sin gnificant figures,5.00 has two significant figures after decimal.
So more is the si gnificantfigures more is the accurate then 5.0
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Q.
Ans.

9878024788

3 2

Given X = a b /cd and %age errors in a, b ,c , d are 1%, 3%, 4%, 2% respectively. Find
%age error in X.

X
3a 2b 1 c 1 d
=

X
a
b
2 c 2 d
X
3a
2b
1 c
1 d
100 =

100
100
100
100
X
a
b
2 c
2 d
=
3% 6% 2% 1%
= 12%
Q. The initial and final temperatures of water as recorded by an observer are
(40.6 0.2)0 C and (78.3 0.3)0 C .Calculate the rise in temperature with proper error limits.
Ans. Hence 1 =
(40.6 0.2)0 C , 2 (78.3 0.3)0 C
Rise in temperature = 2 1 = 78.3 40.6 = 37.70 C
= ( 2 + 1 ) = (0.2 + 0.3) = 0.50 C
= (37.7 0.5)0 C
Rise in temperature

## Q. A physical quantity x is calculated from the relation x =

a 2ba 3
If percentage error in a, b, c, d are 2%,
c d

## 3% and 4% respectively, what is the percentage error in x

Ans.
x
b c 1 d
a 2b3
a

=
2
+3
+
+
x=
x
b
c 2 d
c d
a
x
b
c
1 d
1
a

100 =
2
100 + 3 100 +
100 +
100 =
2 2% + 3 1% + 3% + 4%
x
b
c
2 d
2
a

x
100 =
[ 4% + 3% + 3% + 2% ] =
12%
x
l
. Measured value of L is 20.0 can known
Q. The period of oscillation of a simple pendulum is T = 2
g
to 1mm accuracy and time for 100 oscillations of the pendulum is found to be 90 s using a wrist watch of
1 s resolution. What is the accuracy in the determination of g ?
L
Ans.
HereT = 2
squaring both sides
g
2

L
L
=
T 2 4 2
[T ] 2 =
g
g

As per rule
2

=
g 4 2

L
T2

0.1

g
T
L

1
100 =
100 + 2
100 =

100 + 2 100 =
2.7%
g
T
L

90
20.0

Q. What is percentage error in volume of a sphere, when error in measuring its radius is 2 % ?
4
V
r
Ans. AsV r 3
=3
=3 ( 2% ) =6%.
3
V
r
Q. What is error in density of a cube when its mass is uncertain by 2% and length of its edge is
uncertain by 1% ?
Ans.
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M
M M V
L
= 3
=3
+3
= ( 2% + 3 1% ) =5%.
V
L
V
M
L
How large a millisecond than a microsecond ?

As

Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans .

milli sec ond = 103 micro sec ond , 1 milli sec ond is 1000 times micro sec ond .
How many times a Kg larger than a mg ?
kg 103 g &1 mg
= 103 g 1=
g 103 mg 1=
kg 106 mg .
1=
What is the advantage of choosing the wavelength of light radiation as a standard of length.
Advantage of choosing wavelenght as standard of length are :
(1) Wavelenght of light is not effected by change in environment.
(2) Use Kr 86 is easily available in laboratories, hence this s tan dard is easily
& acccurately reproducible.

## Er. Vishal Kalra(B.Tech, M.Sc(IT), MCA, M.Sc(Physics))

Physics Is Fun, Just Love it ,Feel it, and Enjoy It..!!!!!
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