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CHAPTER 4

EQUIVALENT LATERAL FOCE METHOD


4.1. INTRODUCTION
Equivalent lateral force procedure is a simplified analysis procedure that as stated in
section 17.4.1 of ASCE -16 can be applied to certain structures having regular
horizontal and vertical geometry and limited number of stories. The structure is
analyzed using equivalent lateral force procedure, ELF for both upper and lower
bound properties of the isolation system. The building is analyzed for design
earthquake loading with upper bound properties and for MCE R earthquake with
lower bound properties, this is because the resultant displacements is creating a
boundary as the smallest and largest displacements and the displacements from DE
loading with lower bound properties and MCE R loading with upper bound
properties will fall between the above mentioned values. The potential for uplift is
checked using SAP2000. The calculations follow ASCE 7-16, section 17.5. Since the
resultant vertical force in the upper stories is more than what will be produced using
ASCE 7-10 procedure of vertical distribution. It should be noted that the building is
required to remain elastic; therefore it is analyzed using RI equal to 1

4.2. ANALYIS RESULTS


The results of the ELF analysis for both upper and lower bound properties are
summarized here. Detailed calculations and information is provided in the
subsequent sections.
It should be noted that in subsequent chapters, X direction refers to the longitudinal
and Y refers to the transvers direction of the building.
Table 4 1 Key parameters calculated using ELF for design earthquake, DE

DTD (xDTD (yVb


Vst
dir)
dir)
kip/in
sec
in
in
in
kip
kip
341.16
3.15
9.25
10.17
10.17
3155.69
3155.69
Note: D TD for x and y direction is same, since same factor of 1.1 was used per
exception of section 17.5.3.5 of ASCE 7-10
KD

TD

DD

Table 4 2 Key parameters calculated using ELF for design earthquake, MCER

DTM (xDTM (yVb


Vst
dir)
dir)
kip/in
sec
in
in
in
kip
kip
148.55
4.77
29.4
32.3
32.3
4368.3
3804.92
Note: D TM for x and y direction is same, since same factor of 1.1 was used per
KM

TM

DM

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exception of section 17.5.3.5 of ASCE 7-10


Table below shows the maximum and minimum axial load on bearings due to
various load combinations.

Table 4 3 Maximum and minimum axial load on bearing from various load combinations

Combination Description
A1
A6
D6
COMB1
1 DEAD + 0.5 LL
149.90 303.14 600.38
COMB2 (UB) 1.2 DEAD + 1 LL + 0.3 VERT_EQ + EQ H
306.13 557.34 943.07
COMB3 (UB) 0.9 DEAD - 0.3 VERT_EQ + 1 EQ H
-3.37
155.40 307.60
COMB2 (LB)
1.2 DEAD + 1 LL + 0.3 VERT_EQ + EQ H
308.98 560.41 943.07
COMB3 (LB) 0.9 DEAD - 0.3 VERT_EQ + 1 EQ H
-6.68
155.35 307.59
NOTE: UB stands for Upper Bound, LB for Lower Bound and VERT_EQ for vertical
Effects of earthquake and EQ H for vertical load due to horizontal earthquake effects

Table 4 4 Building Uplift from ELF analysis

Load Combination
COMB6 (UB)
COMB6 (LB)
COMB7 (UB)
COMB7 (LB)

Joint
F12
F12
A1
A1

Tension in joint (kip)


-15.334
-18.983
-3.372
-6.681

Vertical Joint Displacement (in)


0.02
0.03
0.004
0.008

Detailed analysis calculations and SAP2000 modeling details are provided below.

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