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Man is goal-oriented and his behavior is motivated by a desire to attain some goal. To predict behavior, a manager, a manager must know what motivates people. Keith dais says, “There are no simple, cookbook formulas for working with people. “ Motivation is a basic element of all human behavior. Motivation explains why some people work better and others perform poorly. Allen had said, “Poorly motivated people can nullify the soundest organization.” The primary task of managers is knowing” what leads people to do things, what motivates them. “Likert also regards motivation as the core of management. Today, a worker is not a “small cog in the wheel” who is motivated only by money, but is mainspring of the concern motivated by challenges, achievements and responsibilities. What is Motivation? The term motivation derives from the Latin word movere, which means “to move.” Thus, motives are movers or goods to action. Motivation is the process by which behavior is mobilized and sustained in a particular direction. It is in fact impossible to determine a person’s motivation until he behaves or acts. Motivation is a general term which applies to the entire class of drives, needs desires, and similar forces. To understand the motivating situation, its components should be explained. It involves the following factors1. Motives- These are needs, wants, drives, or impulses opening within
the man. Motives are “whys”, of behavior. The initiate activity and determine the direction of the behavior.
2. Goals- These are outside the individual and often called incentives or
3. Goal –directed activity- It is a motivated behavior directed at
reaching a goal. Or, there may be goal activity which means engaging in the goal itself.
Thus, the motive along with goal products behavior which may be either goal- directed or goal activity. The relationship between motives, goals, and activity in a motivating situation is shown:-
Goal Directed Activity
Motive (Hunger) Behaviour
Goal Activity (Eating food)
1. In the words MC Farland , ‘ Motivation refers to the way in the which urges drives, desired, aspirations, strivings, or needs influence the choice of alternatives in the behaviour of human beings.” 2. According to M.R. Jones, “Motivation is concerned with how behaviour gets started, is started is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism while all this is going on.” 3. In the words of Craig Pinder, “Work motivation is a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individual’s being, to intimate work related behaviour, and to determine its form, direction intensity and duration.” 4. According to Stanley Vance, Motivation implies “ any emotion or desire which so conditions one’s will that individual is propelled into action” 5. Breach defines motivation “as willingness to expand energy to achieve a goal or a reward.”
Nature or Characteristics of Motivation
The following key points illustrate the nature of motivation1. Energetic force O – Motivation energizes, directs and sustain human behaviour. It is the activation and direction of energy. It is a desire and enthusiasm to act. David Hold says “This force can originate “Within’ or “beyond” an individual”. It is an urge to accomplish a task. 2. An Internal feeling- Motivation is maintain psychological . It relates to those forces operating within individuals that impels them to act in certain ways. It is related with needs, drives, desire, tensions and motives, which are mental states.
3. Goal-directed behaviour- Shartle says, “Motivation is a reported urge or tension to move in a given direction to achieve a certain goal.” It harnesses human energy to organizational requirements. 4. Either positive or negative – Motivation can be either positive or negative. Positive motivation is based on rewards such as pay, praise, pride, participation, etc. Negative motivation uses punishment. It is based on force of fear. Depending on the situation, each type has its place in organization.
5. Person in totality, not in part, is motivated- Each employee is a selfcontained and inseparable unit and his all needs are interrelated. He can be motivated with totals zeal and enthusiasm. 6. Individuals differ in their motivation- A man has variety of needs and desired. He has different motives. As a result, man is motivated by different factors.
7. Motivation is not always conscious and visible- Freud uncovered this fact that mans mind is like iceberg. Only a small part is conscious and visible. This explains why man cannot always verbalize his motivation to achieve certain goals. 8. Motivation change – Motivations of each individual change from time to time as one need is satisfied, it is replaced by other unsatisfied need. People are beings who want whose wants influence their behaviour.
9. Process- oriented- M.R. Jones says that motivation is process oriented and concerns behavioral choice, direction, goals, and the rewards received for performing. 10.Individual Phenomenon- Motivation is highly individualistic. No
Two people are alike. Different people, having different need, aspirations, and backgrounds, rank the things differently. Thus,
management’s role is to create a work climate in which persons with different needs and personalities can remain motivated. 11.More than mere techniques – Motivation is more inclusive than the mere application of specific techniques to increase output,. In fact. It is a philosophy, or way of life, founded on the needs and desires of employees.
12.Complex process- Motivation is a complex process. It is difficult to explain and predict and the behaviour of employees. In order to motivate people, a manager has to understand and satisfy multiplicity of human needs. It is complex due to the following reasons• Motive is hypothetical construct, it cannot be seen. • Individuals may have a host of needs that are changing continuously sometimes in conflict with each other. • People satisfy their needs in different ways. • Goal-directed behaviour does not always lead to need satisfaction. • Motivations are expressed does not always lead to need satisfaction. • Motivations are expressed differently. The ways in which needs are translated into action also vary considerably.
Process of Motivation
The motivational process may be described as circular, because it is repeated in a circle. It is diagram and involves the following steps1.
Needs a deficiency within a man. It
Provides The spark which begins the sequence of behaviour. An unsatisfied need causes physical or psychological tension within the individual. It is an energizer or trigger or behavioural responses.
Search of means-
People seek means to reduce need
deficiencies and thereby reduce the tension.
Goal the behaviourbehaviour occurs.
Their activity is directed towards a
goal. They select a course of action and , thus outcome-directed
After a period of time, managers assess that
behaviour.They evaluate the goals accomplished.
Rewards or punishments-
the performance evaluation
results in some type of reward or punishment. Manager offers something valuable to the person for good work. On the other
hand, he provides negative motivation, if performance is unacceptable.
Re-evaluation of situation-
The process is completed
when the person weighs the outcomes and re-evaluates the need deficiencies. He evaluates the extent of satisfaction obtained and makes decisions about the behaviour that is to follow. Discovery of new needs also starts and this, in turn, triggers the process. Thus the circular pattern is started once again.
Need Deficiencies (1)
Need deficiencies reassessed by the employee (6)
Search for ways to satisfy needs (2)
Rewards or Punishments (5)
Goaldirected behaviour (3)
Peroformance (evaluation of goals accomplished) (4)
Objective of motivation
The primary purposes of motivation in an organization are as follows : 1. To stimulate employees to perform effectively. 2. To channelise behaviour into a specific course. 3. To understand individuals motives, needs, aspirations. 4. To encourage employees to stay with the organization. 5. To predict, to change and even to control future behaviour. 6. To create enthusiasm, initative, and loyalty. 7. To direct and sustain behaviour towards the accomplishment of organizational goals. 8. To effectively utilize the resources- financial, physical and human of the organization. 9. To raise the morale and level of satisfaction of employee. 10.To build good human relations and team work.
General Principle of Motivation
Basic principles of motivation exist that are applicable to learning in any situation.
1. The environment can be used to focus the student's attention on
what needs to be learned. Teachers who create warm and accepting yet business-like atmospheres will promote persistent effort and favorable attitudes toward learning. This strategy will be successful in children and in adults. Interesting visual aids, such as booklets, posters, or practice equipment, motivate learners by capturing their attention and curiosity.
2. Incentives motivate learning.
Incentives include privileges and receiving praise from the instructor. The instructor determines an incentive that is likely to motivate an individual at a particular time. In a general learning situation, selfmotivation without rewards will not succeed. Students must find satisfaction in learning based on the understanding that the goals are useful to them or, less commonly, based on the pure enjoyment of exploring new things.
3. Internal motivation is longer lasting and more self-directive than
is external motivation, which must be repeatedly reinforced by praise or concrete rewards. Some individuals -- particularly children of certain ages and some adults -- have little capacity for internal motivation and must be guided and reinforced constantly. The use of incentives is based on the principle that learning occurs more effectively when the student experiences feelings of satisfaction. Caution should be exercised in using external rewards when they are not absolutely necessary. Their use may be followed by a decline in internal motivation.
4. Learning is most effective when an individual is ready to learn,
that is, when one wants to know something. Sometimes the student's readiness to learn comes with time, and the instructor's role is to encourage its development. If a desired change in behavior is urgent, the instructor may need to supervised directly to ensure that the desired behavior occurs. If a student is not ready to learn, he or she may not be reliable in following instructions and therefore must be supervised and have the instructions repeated again and again.
5. Motivation is enhanced by the way in which the instructional
material is organized. In general, the best organized material makes the information meaningful to the individual. One method of organization includes relating new tasks to those already known. Other ways to relay
meaning are to determine whether the persons being taught understand the final outcome desired and instruct them to compare and contrast ideas. None of the techniques will produce sustained motivation unless the goals are realistic for the learner. The basic learning principle involved is that success is more predictably motivating than is failure. Ordinarily, people will choose activities of intermediate uncertainty rather than those that are difficult (little likelihood of success) or easy (high probability of success). For goals of high value there are fewer tendencies to choose more difficult conditions. Having learners assist in defining goals increases the probability that they will understand them and want to reach them. However, students sometimes have unrealistic notions about what they can accomplish. Possibly they do not understand the precision with which a skill must be carried out or have the depth of knowledge to master some material. To identify realistic goals, instructors must be skilled in assessing a student's readiness or a student's progress toward goals.
1. Because learning requires changed in beliefs and behavior, it
normally produces a mild level of anxiety. This is useful in motivating the individual. However, severe anxiety is incapacitating. A high degree of stress is inherent in some educational situations. If anxiety is severe, the individual's perception of what is going on around him or her is limited. Instructors must be able to identify anxiety and understand its effect on learning. They also have a responsibility to avoid causing severe anxiety in learners by setting ambiguous of unrealistically high goals for them.
2. It is important to help each student set goals and to provide
informative feedback regarding progress toward the goals. Setting a goal demonstrates an intention to achieve and activates learning from one day to the next. It also directs the student's activities toward the goal and offers an opportunity to experience success.
3. Both affiliation and approval are strong motivators.
People seek others with whom to compare their abilities, opinions, and emotions. Affiliation can also result in direct anxiety reduction by the social acceptance and the mere presence of others. However, these motivators can also lead to conformity, competition, and other behaviors that may seem as negative.
4. Many behaviors result from a combination of motives.
It is recognized that no grand theory of motivation exists. However, motivation is so necessary for learning that strategies should be planned to organize a continuous and interactive motivational dynamic for maximum effectiveness. The general principles of motivation are interrelated. A single teaching action can use many of them simultaneously. Finally, it should be said that an enormous gap exists between knowing that learning must be motivated and identifying the specific motivational components of any particular act. Instructors must focus on learning patterns of motivation for an individual or group, with the realization that errors will be common.
Theories of Motivation
Since motivation influences productivity, supervisors need to understand what motivates employees to reach peak performance. It is not an easy task to increase employee motivation because employees respond in different ways to their jobs and their organization's practices. Motivation is the set of processes that moves a person toward a goal. Thus, motivated behaviors are voluntary choices controlled by the individual employee. The supervisor (motivator) wants to influence the factors that motivate employees to higher levels of productivity. Factors that affect work motivation include individual differences, job characteristics, and organizational practices. Individual differences are the personal needs, values, and attitudes, interests and abilities that people bring to their jobs. Job characteristics are the aspects of the position that determine its limitations and challenges. Organizational practices are the rules, human resources policies, managerial practices, and rewards systems of an organization. Supervisors must consider how these factors interact to affect employee job performance.
Simple Model of Motivation
The purpose of behavior is to satisfy needs. A need is anything that is required, desired, or useful. A want is a conscious recognition of a need. A need arises when there is a difference in self-concept (the way I see myself) and perception (the way I see the world around me). The
presence of an active need is expressed as an inner state of tension from which the individual seeks relief. Many methods of employee motivation have been developed. The study of work motivation has focused on the motivator (supervisor) as well as the motivatee (employee). Motivation theories are important to supervisors attempting to be effective leaders. Two primary approaches to motivation are content and process. The content approach to motivation focuses on the assumption that individuals are motivated by the desire to fulfill inner needs. Content theories focus on the needs that motivate people.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs identifies five levels of needs, which are best seen as a hierarchy with the most basic need emerging first and the most sophisticated need last. People move up the hierarchy one level at a time. Gratified needs lose their strength and the next level of needs is activated. As basic or lower-level needs are satisfied, higher-level needs become operative. A satisfied need is not a motivator. The most powerful employee need is the one that has not been satisfied. Abraham Maslow first presented the five-tier hierarchy in 1942 to a psychoanalytic society and published it in 1954 in Motivation and Personality (New York: Harper and Row).
Level I - Physiological needs are the most basic human needs. They include food, water, and comfort. The organization helps to satisfy employees' physiological needs by a paycheck. Level II - Safety needs are the desires for security and stability, to feel safe from harm. The organization helps to satisfy employees' safety needs by benefits. Level III - Social needs are the desires for affiliation. They include friendship and belonging. The organization helps to satisfy employees' social needs through sports teams, parties, and celebrations. The supervisor can help fulfill social needs by showing direct care and concern for employees. Level IV - Esteem needs are the desires for self-respect and respect or recognition from others. The organization helps to satisfy employees' esteem needs by matching the skills and abilities of the employee to the job. The supervisor can help fulfill esteem needs by showing workers that their work is appreciated. Level V - Self-actualization needs are the desires for self-fulfillment and the realization of the individual's full potential. The supervisor can help fulfill self-actualization needs by assigning tasks that challenge employees' minds while drawing on their aptitude and training.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory describes needs in terms of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Frederick Herzberg examined motivation in the light of job content and contest. (See Work an the Nature of Man, Crowell Publications, 1966.) Motivating employees is a two-step process. First provide hygienes and then motivators. One continuum ranges from no satisfaction to satisfaction. The other continuum ranges from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction. Satisfaction comes from motivators that are intrinsic or job content, such as achievement, recognition, advancement, responsibility, the work itself, and growth possibilities. Herzberg uses the term motivators for job satisfiers since they involve job content and the satisfaction that results from them. Motivators are considered job turnons. They are necessary for substantial improvements in work performance and move the employee beyond satisfaction to superior performance. Motivators correspond to Maslow's higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization. Dissatisfaction occurs when the following hygiene factors, extrinsic or job context, are not present on the job: pay, status, job security, working conditions, company policy, peer relations, and supervision. Herzberg uses the term hygiene for these factors because they are preventive in nature. They will not produce motivation, but they can prevent motivation from occurring. Hygiene factors can be considered job stay-ons because they encourage an employee to stay on a job.
Once these factors are provided, they do not necessarily promote motivation; but their absence can create employee dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors correspond to Maslow's physiological, safety, and social needs in that they are extrinsic, or peripheral, to the job. They are present in the work environment of job context. Motivation comes from the employee's feelings of accomplishment or job content rather than from the environmental factors or job context. Motivators encourage an employee to strive to do his or her best. Job enrichment can be used to meet higher-level needs. To enrich a job, a supervisor can introduce new or more difficult tasks, assign individuals specialized tasks that enable them to become experts, or grant additional authority to employees.
McGregor Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human motivation created and developed by Douglas McGregor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1960s that have been used in human resource management, organizational behavior, and organizational development. They describe two very different attitudes toward workforce motivation. McGregor felt that companies followed either one or the other approach.
In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can. Because of this workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each level. According to this theory employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. Many managers (in the 1960s) tended to subscribe to Theory X, in that they take a rather pessimistic view of their employees. A Theory X manager believes that his or her employees do not really want to work, that they would rather avoid responsibility and that it is the manager's job to structure the work and energize the employee. The result of this line of thought is that Theory X managers naturally adopt a more authoritarian style based on the threat of punishment. One major flaw of this management style is it is much more likely to cause Diseconomies of Scale in large businesses. Theory Y allows a business to
expand while making more profit because factory-floor workers have their own responsibility.
In this theory management assumes employees are ambitious, selfmotivated, anxious to accept greater responsibility, and exercise self-control and self-direction. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work activities. It is also believed that employees have the desire to be imaginative and creative in their jobs if they are given a chance. There is an opportunity for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to be their best. A Theory Y manager believes that, given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work and that there is a pool of unused creativity in the workforce. They believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation in and of itself. A Theory Y manager will try to remove the barriers that prevent workers from fully actualizing themselves .
McGregor and Maslow's hierarchy
McGregor's work was based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He grouped Maslow's hierarchy into "lower order" (Theory X) needs and "higher order" (Theory Y) needs. He suggested that management could use either set of needs to motivate employees
Today the theories are seldom used explicitly, largely because the insights they provided have influenced and been incorporated by further generations of management theorists and practitioners. More commonly, workplaces are described as "hard" versus "soft." Taken too literally any such dichotomy including Theory X and Y seem to represent unrealistic extremes. Most employees (and managers) fall somewhere in between these poles. Naturally, McGregor was well aware of the heuristic as opposed to literal way in which such distinctions are useful. Theory X and Theory Y are still important terms in the field of management and motivation. Recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, but McGregor's X-Y Theory remains a guiding principle of positive approaches to management, to organizational development, and to improving organizational culture