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Chapter 3

The Derivative
It is impossible to determine how quickly a person
is running from a single photograph, since speed is
calculated as a change in distance over a change
in time. Nevertheless, we may estimate a persons
speed at a particular instant in time by determining
the distance traveled over a small interval of time
(e.g., one second). A runners speed may be classified as a rate of change in distance. A key component of calculus is the study of rates of change.

3.1

Average Rate of Change

3.1 Average Rate


of Change
3.2 Limits and
Instantaneous
Rates of Change
3.3 The Derivative as
a Slope: Graphical
Methods
3.4 The Derivative as a
Function: Algebraic
Method
3.5 Interpreting the
Derivative

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Shutterstock

Colleges and universities periodically raise their


tuition rates in order to cover rising stafng and
facilities costs. As a result, it is often difcult for
students to know how much money they should
save to cover future tuition costs. By calculating
the average rate of change in the tuition price
over a period of years, we can estimate projected
increases in tuition costs. In this section, we will
demonstrate how to calculate the average rate of

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notation [a, b] is equivalent


to a # x # b.)
In calculating the difference quotient, we answer the question, Over
the interval 3 a, b 4 , on average, how
much does a one-unit increase in the
x-value change the y-value of the
function?

The Difference Quotient:


An Average Rate of Change
The average rate of change of a function
y 5 f 1 x 2 over an interval 3 a, b 4 is

CHAPTER

change in the value of a


function over a specied
interval [a, b]. (The interval

f1b2 2 f1a2
b2a
This expression is referred to as the difference
quotient. For a linear function, the difference
quotient gives the slope of the line.

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48

Chapter 3: The Derivative

EXAMPLE 1 Calculating an Average Rate


of Change from a Table

The annual cost of tuition and fees for full-time,


resident, undergraduate students majoring in
the Arts and Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh is
shown in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1

Years (since
20042005)
t

Annual Tuition Change in Tuition


and Fees (dollars) from Prior Year
f(t)
(dollars)

10,130

10,736

606

11,368

632

12,106

738

12,832

726

13,344

512

Source: University of Pittsburgh

What is the average rate of change in the tuition and fees


from the 20042005 academic year to the 20092010
academic year? Rounded to the nearest dollar, what do
you estimate the 20122013 tuition and fees will be?
SOLUTION

The average rate of change may be calculated by using


the difference quotient formula. For the period 2004
2005 to 20092010, the interval 3 a, b 4 5 3 0, 5 4 . The
average rate of change of the tuition is
f1b2 2 f1a2
f152 2 f102
5
b2a
520
5

13,344 2 10,130 dollars


5 years

3214 dollars
5
5 years
5 642.8 dollars per year
Over the five-year period between 20042005 and
20092010, tuition increased by $3,214. Although the
annual increase varied from year to year, the average
annual increase was $642.80.
The 20092010 tuition and fees cost was $13,344.
We predict that tuition and fees will increase by $642.80
per year in subsequent years. To predict the 20122013
tuition and fees cost, we repeatedly increase the annual
cost by $642.80.

20102011:
20112012:
20122013:

13,344 1 642.80 5 13,986.80


13,986.80 1 642.80 5 14,629.60
14,629.60 1 642.80 5 15,272.40

We estimate that the 20122013 tuition and fees cost


will be $15,272.40. This value may be calculated more
quickly as follows: 13,344 1 3 1 642.80 2 5 15,272.40.
When determining the meaning of an average rate
of change in a real-life problem, it is essential to find
the units of measurement of the result. Fortunately,
the units are easily determined. The units of the rate of
change are the units of the output divided by the units
of the input. In Example 1, the units of the output were
dollars and the units of the input were years. Consequently, the units of the average rate of change were
dollars divided by years, or dollars per year.

EXAMPLE 2 Calculating an Average Rate


of Change from an Equation

Based on data from 19902009, the population of Washington state may be modeled by
the function P 1 t 2 5 4.933 1 1.017 2 t, where P is the
population in millions of people and t is the number of years since 1990. (Source: Modeled from data
at www.census.gov) According to the model, what is
the average rate of change in the population between
1990 and 2010?
SOLUTION

We observe that in the model, t is the number of years


since 1990. So for the model, t 5 0 represents 1990
and t 5 20 represents 2010. The average rate of change
in the population over the interval 3 0, 20 4 is
6.911 2 4.933 million people
P 1 20 2 2 P 1 0 2
5
20 2 0
20 years
5 0.0989 million people per year
5 98,900 people per year
Between 1990 and 2010, the population of Washington
state increased by an average of 98,900 people per year.

Graphical Interpretation
of the Difference Quotient
A line connecting any two points on a graph is referred
to as a secant line. Graphically speaking, the difference quotient for a function y 5 f 1 x 2 is the slope of
the secant line connecting (a, f(a)) and 1 b, f 1 b 2 2 (Figure 3.1).

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3.1

Figure 3.1 Secant line slope 5

f1b2 2 f1a2
b2a

y
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

(b, f (b))

f (b)
Secant line

f (b) f (a)

f (a)

(a, f (a))
ba

EXAMPLE 3 Finding the Slope


of a Secant Line

The graph of the function f 1 x 2 5 3x2 2 6x 1 5


is shown in Figure 3.2. Calculate the slope of the
secant line of f that passes through (1, 2) and (2, 5).

y = 3x 2 6x + 5

Secant line
(2, 5)

(1, 2)
0

This line is the secant line of the graph between


x 5 1 and x 5 2. The slope of the secant line is given by
m5

f1b2 2 f1a2
b2a

f122 2 f112
221

522
1

Figure 3.2

53

y
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1

49

Figure 3.3

y = f (x)

Average Rate of Change

The slope of the secant line is 3. That is, on the interval


[1, 2], a one-unit increase in x results in a three-unit
increase in y, on average.

y = 3x 2 6x + 5

3.1 Exercises
0

In Exercises 15, calculate the average rate of change of


the function over the given interval.
1. f 1 x 2 5 2x 2 5 over the interval 3 3, 5 4
2. v 1 x 2 5 2x3 over the interval 3 21, 1 4
3. v 1 m 2 5 m2 2 m over the interval 3 23, 4 4
ln 1 x 2
over the interval 3 1, 5 4
x

SOLUTION

4. z 5

We rst plot the points (1, 2) and (2, 5) and draw the
line connecting them (Figure 3.3).

5. q 1 x 2 5 "x 1 2 over the interval 3 0, 6 4

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50

Chapter 3: The Derivative

In Exercises 610, calculate the average rate of change


in the designated quantity over the given interval(s).
6. Air Temperature Temperature between 11:00 A.M.
and 3:00 P.M.

10. Poverty Level Percentage of people below poverty


level when the unemployment rate decreased from
5.6 percent (in 1990) to 4.0 percent (in 2000).

Time of Day

Temperature (F)

Unemployment Rate
(percentage)

11:00 A.M.

68

5.6

13.5

1:00 P.M.

73

4.2

11.8

3:00 P.M.

75

4.0

11.3

7. Dow Jones Industrial Average Dow Jones Industrial


Average between 2000 and 2007 and between
2002 and 2008.

Year

Dow Jones Industrial


Average Closing Value at
the End of the Year (points)

2000

10,787

2002

8342

2007

13,265

2008

8776

Source: www.census.gov

8. Reading Scores A third-grade students reading


score between the rst and third quarter.

Quarter

Reading Score
(words per minute)

69

107

Source: www.census.gov

In Exercises 1113, graph each function. Then use the


f1b2 2 f1a2
difference quotient,
, to calculate the slope of
b2a
the secant line through the points 1 1, f 1 1 2 2 and 1 3, f 1 3 2 2 .
11. f 1 x 2 5 2x
12. f 1 x 2 5 5
13. f 1 x 2 5 1 x 2 2 2 2
In Exercises 14 and 15, use the difference quotient,
f1b2 2 f1a2
, to calculate the slope of the secant line
b2a
through the points (1, f(1)) and (3, f(3)) for the given
graph of f.
14.

y
4

y = f (x)

129

Source: Authors data

9. Newspaper Subscriptions Daily newspaper


subscriptions as the number of cable TV
subscribers increased from 50.5 million (in
1990) to 67.7 million (in 2000).

1
0
0

15.

Cable TV Subscribers
(millions)

Daily Newspaper Circulation


(millions)

50.5

62.3

60.9

58.2

66.7

56.0

67.7

55.8

Source: www.census.gov

People below Poverty Level


(percentage)

y = f (x)

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3.2

In Exercises 1620, calculate the average rate of change


in the state populations (in people per year) between
2000 and 2009.
16. Population

Montana
Date

Population (in thousands)

2000

902.2

2009

975.0

Limits and Instantaneous Rates of Change

51

20. Population

Pennsylvania
Date

Population (in thousands)

2000

12,281.1

2009

12,604.8

Source: www.census.gov

Source: www.census.gov

17. Population

Massachusetts
Date

Population (in thousands)

2000

6349.1

2009

6593.6

Source: www.census.gov

18. Population

Missouri
Date

Population (in thousands)

2000

5595.2

2009

5987.6

Source: www.census.gov

19. Population

West Virginia
Date

Population (in thousands)

2000

1808.3

2009

1819.8

Source: www.census.gov

3.2

Limits and
Instantaneous
Rates of Change

In the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing,


Usain Bolt set the world record for the
100-meter dash with a time of 9.69
seconds. How fast was he running (in
meters per second) when the accompanying picture was taken?
From a single photo, it is impossible for us to determine his speed. However, if we knew how long it took
him to reach various checkpoints during the race, we
could approximate his speed at the finish line. In this
section, we will demonstrate how to use the difference
Nicolas Asfouri/AFP/Getty Images

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52

Chapter 3: The Derivative

quotient to estimate and the derivative to calculate an


instantaneous rate of change.
Whereas an average rate of change is calculated
over an interval 3 a, b 4 , an instantaneous rate of change
is calculated at a single value a. For example, the average highway speed of a person over a 200-mile trip may
have been 59 miles per hour. However, when he passed
a state patrol car exactly 124 miles into the trip, he was
speeding at 84 miles per hour. His average speed on the
interval 3 0, 200 4 was 59 miles per hour; however, his
instantaneous speed at d 5 124 was 84 miles per hour.

EXAMPLE 1 Estimating an Instantaneous


Rate of Change

Suppose that a runner in the 100-meter dash


recorded the times shown in Table 3.2.

His average speed over the last 10 meters was


100 2 90 meters
9.69 2 8.70 seconds

Average speed 5

10 meters
0.99 seconds

5 10.10 meters per second


His average speed over the last 5 meters was
Average speed 5
5

100 2 95 meters
9.69 2 9.18 seconds
5 meters
0.51 second

5 9.80 meters per second


And his average speed over the last meter was

Table 3.2

Average speed 5

Total Distance
Traveled (meters)
(D(t))

Time (seconds)
(t)
0

4.85

50

8.70

90

9.18

95

9.60

99

9.69

100

Estimate his speed when he crossed the finish line.


SOLUTION

His average speed over various distances may be


D1b2 2 D1a2
calculated using the difference quotient,
.
b2a
His average speed over the 100-meter distance was
100 2 0 meters
9.69 2 0 second

Average speed 5

5 10.32 meters per second


His average speed over the last 50 meters was
Average speed 5
5

100 2 50 meters
9.69 2 4.85 seconds

100 2 99 meters
9.69 2 9.60 seconds
1 meter
0.09 second

5 11.11 meters per second


Although each calculation yielded a different result,
all of these difference quotients estimate the runners
finish-line speed. Which of the estimates do you think
is most accurate?
The last calculation best estimates his finish-line
speed because it measures the change in distance over
the smallest interval of time: 0.1 second. (Reducing the
time interval to an even smaller amount of time, say
0.01 second, would further improve the estimate.) We
estimate that the runners speed when he crossed the
finish line was 11.11 meters per second.
To estimate the instantaneous rate of change of a
function y 5 f sxd at a point (a, f(a)), we calculate the
average rate of change of the function over a very small
interval [a, b]. If we let the variable h represent the distance between x 5 a and x 5 b, then b 5 a 1 h. Consequently, the difference quotient may be rewritten as
f1b2 2 f1a2
f1a 1 h2 2 f1a2
5
1a 1 h2 2 a
b2a
5

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a2
h

50 meters
4.84 seconds

5 10.33 meters per second

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3.2

The Difference Quotient as an


Estimate of an Instantaneous
Rate of Change
The instantaneous rate of change of a
function y 5 f(x) at a point (a, f(a)) may be
estimated by calculating the difference
quotient of f at a,

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a2
h
using an h arbitrarily close to 0. (If h 5 0, the
difference quotient is undefined.)

Limits and Instantaneous Rates of Change

of change over a short interval by picking small


values of h. The terms short and small are vague.
Numerically, what does small mean? Mathematicians
struggled with this dilemma for years before developing the concept of the limit. We will explore the limit
concept graphically before giving a formal definition.
Consider the graph of the function f 1 x 2 5 2x2 1 4
over the interval 3 23, 3 4 (Figure 3.4).

Figure 3.4
y
4
3
2
1

EXAMPLE 2 Estimating an Instantaneous


Rate of Change

Based on data from 20042005 and projections


for 20062009, the amount of money spent by
consumers on books may be modeled by

SOLUTION

In 2010, t 5 6. Using the difference quotient


S16 1 h2 2 S162
h
and selecting increasingly small values of h, we generate
Table 3.3.

1 1

y = f (x)

2
3
4
5

b(x) 5 41.01x3 2 416.3x2 1 2999x 1 49,180


million dollars
where x is the number of years since 2004. (Source:
Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United States,
2007, Table 1119) According to the model, how quickly
was consumer spending on books increasing in 2010?

53

We ask the question, As x gets close to 2, to what


value does f sxd get close?
Observe from the graph of f that as the value of x
moves from 0 to 2, the value of f sxd moves from 4 to 0.
We represent this behavior symbolically with the notation
lim f 1 x 2 5 0

xS22

which is read, the limit of f sxd as x approaches 2 from


the left is 0. This is commonly referred to as a left-hand
limit because we approach x 5 2 through values to the
left of 2.

Table 3.3

1.000

2795

0.100

2465

0.010

2436

0.001

2433

We
books
W conclude
l d that
h in
i 2010 consumer spending
di on b
k
is increasing by $2,433 million per year.

Limits
In Examples 1 and 2, we estimated the instantaneous
rate of change at a point by calculating the average rate

Shutterstock

S16 1 h2 2 S162
h

Observe from the graph of f that as the value of x


moves from 3 to 2, the value of f sxd moves from 25 to
0. We write
lim1 f 1 x 2 5 0
xS2

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54

Chapter 3: The Derivative

which is read, the limit of f sxd as x approaches 2 from


the right is 0. This is commonly referred to as a righthand limit because we approach x 5 2 through values
to the right of 2.
On a number line, 2` lies to the left of 1`. For the
left-hand limit, lim2 f 1 x 2 , the minus sign is used to indi-

Figure 3.5
y
3
2
1

xSa

cate that we are approaching x 5 a from the direction


of 2`. For the right-hand limit, lim1 f 1 x 2 , the plus sign

xSa

1 1

y = f (x)

2
3
4
5
6

is used to indicate that we are approaching x 5 a from


the direction of 1`.
The left- and right-hand limit behavior can also be
seen from a table of values for f sxd (Table 3.4).

Table 3.4

T
Left of x 5 2
T

c
Right of x 5 2
c

f(x)

0.00

4.000

1.00

3.000

1.90

0.390

1.99

0.040

2.00

0.000

2.01

0.040

2.10

0.410

3.00

5.000

f(x) gets close to


0 as x nears 2

lim f 1 x 2 5 2

xS11

f(x) gets close to


0 as x nears 2

When the left- and right-hand limits of f sxd


approach the same finite value, we say that the limit
exists. In this case, the left- and right-hand limits of
f sxd neared the same value (y 5 0) as x approached 2.
We say that the limit of f sxd as x approaches 2 is 0
and write
lim f 1 x 2 5 0

xS2

Sometimes the left- and right-hand limits of a function at a point are not equal. Consider the graph of the
piecewise function
2x2 1 2
f1x2 5 e
x11

x#1
x.1

on the interval 3 23, 3 4 (see Figure 3.5).


We ask the question, As x gets close to 1, to what
value does f sxd get close?
Observe from the graph that as the value of x
moves from 0 to 1, the value of f sxd moves from 2 to
1. We write
lim f 1 x 2 5 1

xS12

That is, the left-hand limit of f sxd as x approaches 1 is


1. Similarly, as the value of x moves from 2 to 1, the
value of f s xd moves from 3 to 2. We write

That is, the right-hand limit of f sxd as x approaches


1 is 2. Since for this function, the left- and right-hand
limits are not equal, we say that the limit of f sxd as x
approaches 1 does not exist or, simply, the limit does
not exist. This can also be seen from a table of values
for f sxd (Table 3.5).

Table 3.5
T
Left of x 5 1
T

c
Right of x 5 1
c

f(x)

0.00

2.000

0.90

1.190

0.99

1.020

1.00

1.000

1.01

2.010

1.10

2.100

2.00

3.000

3.00

4.000

f(x) gets close to


1 as x nears 1

f(x) gets close to


2 as x nears 1

One of the most powerful features of limits is that


the limit of a function may exist at a point where the
function itself is undefined. This feature will be used
often when we introduce the limit definition of the
derivative later in this section.

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3.2

The Limit of a Function


If f(x) is defined for all values of x near c, then
lim
f1x2 5 L
xSc
means that as x approaches c, f(x) approaches L.
We say that the limit exists if
1. L is a finite number and
2. Approaching c from the left or right yields
the same value of L.

The theory surrounding limits is rich and worthy of


study; however, in this text, we are most interested in
the limit of the difference quotient as h approaches zero.
That is,
1
2
1 2
lim f a 1 h 2 f a
hS0
h
Recall that the difference quotient represents the average rate of change of f sxd over the interval 3 a, a 1 h 4 .
When we place the limit on the difference quotient, we
are symbolically asking, As the distance between the two
x-values (a and a 1 h) gets smaller, what happens to the
average rate of change of f sxd on the interval 3 a, a 1 h 4 ?
The limit of the difference quotient as h approaches zero
(if the limit exists) is the instantaneous rate of change in
f sxd at x 5 a. Note that even though the difference quotient is undefined when h 5 0, the limit may still exist.

EXAMPLE 3 Calculating an Instantaneous


Rate of Change

Let f 1 x 2 5 x2. What is the instantaneous rate of


change of f sxd when x 5 3?

SOLUTION

We can calculate the instantaneous rate of change by


taking the limit of the difference quotient as h approaches
zero. The instantaneous rate of change of f 1 x 2 at x 5 3
is given by
1
2
1 2
lim f 3 1 h 2 f 3
hS0
h
13 1 h22 2 1322
5 hlim
S0
h

Since f ( x ) 5 x2

2
5 lim 1 9 1 6h 1 h 2 2 9
hS0
h
2
5 lim 6h 1 h
hS0
h
1
h
6
1 h2
5 lim
hS0
h
5 lim 1 6 1 h 2 for h 2 0 Since
hS0

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Limits and Instantaneous Rates of Change

55

As h nears zero, what happens to the value of 6 1 h?


Lets pick values of h near zero (Table 3.6).

Table 3.6

6 1 h, h 2 0

20.100

5.900

20.010

5.990

20.001

5.999

0.000

Undefined

0.001

6.001

0.010

6.010

0.100

6.100

As seen from the table, even though the difference quotient is undefined when h 5 0, the value of the simplified
difference quotient, 6 1 h, gets close to 6 as h approaches
zero. In fact, by picking sufficiently small values of h, we
can get as close to 6 as we would like. So the instantaneous rate of change of f sxd when x 5 3 is 6.
Observe that we can attain the same result by plugging in h 5 0 after canceling out the h in the denominator of the difference quotient. That is,
5 lim 1 6 1 h 2 5 6 1 0
hS0

56
Throughout the rest of this chapter, we will substitute in h 5 0 after eliminating the h in the denominator
of the difference quotient. This process will simplify our
computations while still giving the correct result.
The limit of the difference quotient as h approaches
zero is used widely throughout calculus and is called
the derivative.

The Derivative of a Function


at a Point
The derivative of a function y 5 f 1 x 2 at a
point (a, f(a)) is
fr 1 a 2 5 lim f 1 a 1 h 2 2 f 1 a 2
hS0
h
fr 1 a 2 is read f prime of a and is the
instantaneous rate of change of the
function f at the point (a, f(a)).

h
5 1 for h ? 0
h

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Chapter 3: The Derivative

EXAMPLE 4 Calculating the Derivative


of a Function at a Point

Pr 1 25 2 5 lim

hS0

Given f 1 x 2 5 3x 1 1, nd f 9s2d.

P 1 25 1 h 2 2 P 1 25 2
h

5 lim

1 4.933 1 1.017 2 251h 2 2 1 4.933 1 1.017 2 25 2


h

5 lim

4.933 1 1 1.017 2 251h 2 1 1.017 2 25 2


Factor out 4.933
h

hS0

SOLUTION

f12 1 h2 2 f122
hS0
h

fr 1 2 2 5 lim

1312 1 h2 1 12 2 13122 1 12
hS0
h

5 lim

5 lim

hS0

hS0

Since f(2 1 h) 5
(3(2 1 h) 1 1) and
f(2) 5 3(2) 1 1

1 6 1 3h 1 1 2 2 1 7 2
h

Since 11.0172 251h 5 11.0172 25 11.0172 h

1 3h 1 7 2 2 1 7 2
hS0
h

5 lim

5 lim

hS0

hS0

Since

h
51
h

53
In this case, the difference quotient turned out to be a
constant value of 3, so taking the limit of the difference
quotient as h approached zero did not alter the value of
the difference quotient.
For linear functions, the slope of the line is the
instantaneous rate of change of the function at any
value of x. Consequently, the derivative of a linear function will always be a constant value that is equal to the
slope of the line.

EXAMPLE 5 Finding and Interpreting


the Meaning of the Derivative
of a Function at a Point

5 lim

4.933 1 1.017 2 25 1 1 1.017 2 h 2 1 2


h
Factor out 11.0172 25

5 lim

7.519 1 1 1.017 2 h 2 1 2
h

hS0

3h
h

5 lim 3

4.933 1 1 1.017 2 25 1 1.017 2 h 2 1 1.017 2 25 2


hS0
h

5 lim

The population of Washington state may be


modeled by the function
P 1 t 2 5 4.933 1 1.017 2 t million people

where t is the number of years since 1990. (Source:


Modeled from www.census.gov data) Find and interpret the meaning of Pr 1 25 2 .
SOLUTION

Since t is the number of years since 1990, t 5 25 is the


year in 2015. Pr 1 25 2 is the instantaneous rate of change
in the population in 2015, given in millions of people
per year.

hS0

Unlike in Example 3, we are unable to eliminate the


h in the denominator algebraically and calculate the
exact value of Pr 1 25 2 . Nevertheless, by picking a small
value for h (say h 5 0.001), we can estimate the instantaneous rate of change.
7.519 1 1 1.017 2 0.001 2 1 2
5 0.1267 million people
0.001
per year
5 126.7 thousand people
per year
^ 127 thousand people
per year
According to the model, the population of Washington
will be increasing by approximately 127,000 people per
year in 2015.
Although we were unable to obtain the exact value
of the derivative of the exponential function in Example 5, we will develop the theory in later sections that
will allow us to calculate the exact value of the derivative of an exponential function.

3.2 Exercises
In Exercises 15, use the difference quotient
f1a 1 h2 2 f1a2
(with h 5 0.1, h 5 0.01, and h 5 0.001)
h
to estimate the instantaneous rate of change of the
function at the given input value.
1. f 1 x 2 5 x2; x 5 2

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3.2

2. s 1 t 2 5 216t2 1 64; t 5 2
3. w 1 t 2 5 4t 1 2; t 5 5
4. P 1 t 2 5 5; t 5 25
5. P 1 r 2 5 500 1 1 1 r 2 2; r 5 0.07
In Exercises 610, use the derivative to calculate the
instantaneous rate of change of the function at the given
input value. (In each exercise, you can eliminate the h
algebraically.) Compare your answers to the solutions
of Exercises 15.
6. f 1 x 2 5 x2; x 5 2
7. s 1 t 2 5 216t2 1 64; t 5 2
8. w 1 t 2 5 4t 1 2; t 5 5
9. P 1 t 2 5 5; t 5 25
10. P 1 r 2 5 500 1 1 1 r 2 2; r 5 0.07
In Exercises 1115, use the difference quotient (with
h 5 0.1, h 5 0.01, and h 5 0.001) to estimate the
instantaneous rate of change of the function at the
given input value. You may find it helpful to apply the
techniques on the Chapter 3 Tech Card.
11. f 1 x 2 5 2x23; x 5 3
12. P 1 t 2 5 230 1 0.9 2 t; t 5 25
13. P 1 r 2 5 500 1 1 1 r 2 10; r 5 0.07
14. y 5 ln 1 x 2 ; x 5 2
15. g 1 x 2 5 e3x; x 5 1
In Exercises 1620, determine the instantaneous rate
of change of the function at the indicated input value.
(You may find it helpful to apply the techniques on
the Chapter 3 Tech Card.) Then explain the real-life
meaning of the result.
16. Yogurt Production Based on data from 1997
2005, the amount of yogurt produced in the
United States annually may be modeled by
y 1 x 2 5 14.99x2 1 62.14x 1 1555 million pounds
where x is the number of years since 1997. (Source:
Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United
States, 2007, Table 846) Find and interpret the
meaning of Sr 1 10 2 .

57

Limits and Instantaneous Rates of Change

where t is the number of years since 1980. (Source:


Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2006, Table
106) Find and interpret the meaning of Dr 1 55 2 .
18. DVD Player Sales Based on data from 19972004,
the number of DVD players sold may be modeled by
D 1 p 2 5 77,100 1 0.989 2 p thousand DVD players
where p is the average price per DVD player
in dollars. (Source: Modeled from Consumer
Electronics Association data) Find and interpret
the meaning of Dr 1 100 2 .
19. Theme Park Tickets Based on 2007 ticket prices,
the cost of a childs Disney Park Hopper Bonus
Ticket may be modeled by
T 1 d 2 5 23.214d2 1 41.19d 1 34.2 dollars
where d is the number of days that the ticket
authorizes entrance into Disneyland and Disney
California Adventure. (Source: www.disneyland
.com) Find and interpret the meaning of Tr 1 4 2 .
20. United States Populations Based on data from
19952005, the population of the United States
may be modeled by
U 1 t 2 5 298,213 1 1.009 2 t thousand people
where t is the number of years since 2005.
(Source: World Health Statistics 2006, World
Health Organization) Find and interpret the
meaning of Ur 1 10 2 .
Exercises 21 and 22 deal with the velocity of a free-falling
object on earth. The vertical position of a free-falling
object may be modeled by s 1 t 2 5 216t2 1 v0t 1 s0
feet, where v0 is the velocity of the object and s0 is the
vertical position of the object at time t 5 0 seconds.
21. Velocity of a Dropped Object A can of soda is
dropped from a diving board 40 feet above the
bottom of an empty pool. How fast is the can
traveling when it reaches the bottom of the pool?
22. Velocity of a Ball A small rubber ball is thrown into
the air by a child at a velocity of 20 feet per second.
The child releases the ball 4 feet above the ground.
What is the velocity of the ball after 1 second?

17. Heart Disease Death Rate Based on data from


19802003, the age-adjusted death rate due to
heart disease may be modeled by
R 1 t 2 5 27.597t 1 407.4 deaths per 100,000 people

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Chapter 3: The Derivative

3.3

The Derivative as
a Slope: Graphical
Methods

Based on data from 19902003, the


amount of money spent on prescription
drugs (per capita) may be modeled by

t 5 c. Recall from Section 3.1 that, graphically speaking, the difference quotient is the slope of the secant line
connecting the two points on the graph of a function.
According to the prescription drug spending model,
C(0) 5 158.7 and C(20) 5 1262. Were interested in
the slope of the secant line between (0, 158.7) and
(20, 1262). The slope of this line represents the average rate of change in the prescription drug spending
between 1990 and 2010 (Figure 3.6).

Figure 3.6

where t is the number of years since


1990. (Source: Statistical Abstract of
the United States, 2006, Table 121) To
help project future drug costs, an insurance company wants to know what the
average annual increase in the amount of
money spent on prescription drugs was
from 1990 to 2010 and at what rate
the drug spending will be increasing at
the end of 2010. We will answer these
questions by calculating the average and
instantaneous rates of change in the prescription drug spending.
In Sections 3.1 and 3.2, you learned how to calculate the average rate of change of a function over
an interval and the instantaneous rate of change of a
function at a point. In this section, we will revisit these
concepts from a graphical standpoint. We will also
demonstrate how to use tangent-line approximations
to estimate the value of a function.
As shown in Section 3.1, the difference quotient forf1a 1 h2 2 f1a2
mula,
, gives the average rate of change
h
in the value of the function between the points (a, f(a))
and 1 a 1 h, f 1 a 1 h 2 2 . If we let a 5 c 2 h, then the diff1c2 2 f1c 2 h2
ference quotient formula becomes
. We
h
will use this modified form of the difference quotient in
our exploration of prescription drug spending, since we
will be approaching t 5 c through values to the left of

Drug spending (in dollars)

P(t) 5 2.889t2 2 2.613t 1 158.7 dollars

C(t)
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100

(20, 2162)

(0, 158.7)

C(t) = 2.889t 2 2.613t + 158.7


0

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
Years (since 1990)

The prescription drug spending graph secant line


between 1 0, 158.7 2 and (20, 1262) has the slope
m5

C 1 20 2 2 C 1 0 2 dollars
20 years

1262 2 158.7 dollars


20 years

5 55.17 dollars per year


Between 1990 and 2010, the per capita spending on
prescription drugs increased by $55.17 per year. Does
this mean that from 2010 to 2011, the spending will
increase by about $55.17 ? No. Looking at the graph of
the model, we notice that the prescription drug spending is rising at an increasing rate as time progresses
(the steeper the graph, the greater the magnitude of the
rate of change). We can approximate the instantaneous
rate of change at the end of 2010 (t 5 20) by calculating the slope of a secant line through (20, 1262) and a
nearby point as shown in Figure 3.7.

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3.3

C(t)
1400
1300
1200
1100
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100

m5

(20, 1262)

1262 2 1152 dollars


1 year

By zooming in (Figure 3.9), we can see that between


t 5 19 and t 5 20, the secant line and the graph of the
function are extremely close together.

(10, 421.5)

C 1 20 2 2 C 1 19 2 dollars
20 2 19 years

5 110.0 dollars per year

59

As shown in Figure 3.8, the prescription drug


spending graph secant line between 1 19, 1152 2 and
(20, 1262) has the slope

Figure 3.7

Drug spending (in dollars)

The Derivative as a Slope: Graphical Methods

Figure 3.9

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
Years (since 1990)

The prescription drug spending graph secant line


between (10, 421.5) and (20, 1262) has the slope
C 1 20 2 2 C 1 10 2 dollars
m5
10 years
5

1262 2 421.5 dollars


10 years

Drug spending (in dollars)

C(t)

1300

(20, 1262)
1200

(19, 1152)
1100

5 84.05 dollars per year

19

18

20
Years (since 1990)

21 t

Drug spending (in dollars)

Figure 3.8
C(t)
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100

The prescription drug spending graph secant line


between (19.9, 1251) and (920, 1262) has the slope

(20, 1262)
(19, 1152)

m5
5
C

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
Years (since 1990)

C 1 20 2 2 C 1 19.9 2 dollars
20 2 19.9 years
1262 2 1251 dollars
0.1 years

5 110.0 dollars per year

Through (19.9, 1251) and (20, 1262), the slope of the


secant line is $110.0 per year.
Again zooming in, we see that the secant line and
the graph of the function are nearly identical between
t 5 19.9 and t 5 20 (Figure 3.10). In fact, we are
unable to visually distinguish between the two.

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60

Chapter 3: The Derivative

Figure 3.10

Figure 3.11

Drug spending (in dollars)

C(t)

f (x)

1270
P
1260

(20, 1262)
Q4
Q3

1250

(19.9, 1251)
Q2

1240
19.8

Tangent line

Q1
19.9
20
Years (since 1990)

20.1 t

As t gets closer and closer to 20, the slope of the


secant line will approach Cr 1 20 2 . This occurs because
C 1 20 2 2 C 1 20 2 h 2
< Cr 1 20 2 for small values of h.
h
Since h is the horizontal distance between the points,
h becomes increasingly small as t nears 20. Using the
methods covered in Section 3.2, we determine algebraically that Cr 1 20 2 5 112.9. At the end of 2010, per capita prescription drug spending was increasing at a rate
of roughly $113 per year. In other words, we anticipate
that per capita prescription drug spending increased by
approximately $113 between 2010 and 2011.
As the preceding example demonstrates, to find the
instantaneous rate of change of a function y 5 f 1 x 2 at a
point P 5 1 a, f 1 a 2 2 , we can find the limit of the slope of
the secant line through P and a nearby point Q as the
point Q gets closer and closer to P. Graphically speaking, we select values Q1, Q2, Q3, . . . , with each consecutive value of Qi being a point on the curve that is
closer to the point P than the one before it. The limit of
the slope of the secant lines (imagine the points P and
Q finally coinciding) is the line tangent to the curve at
the point P 5 1 a, f 1 a 2 2 (Figure 3.11).
The tangent line to a graph f at a point (a, f(a)) is
the line that passes through (a, f(a)) and has slope fr 1 a 2 .

The Graphical Meaning


of the Derivative
The derivative of a function f at a point
(a, f(a)) is the slope of the tangent line to
the graph of f at that point. The slope of the
tangent line at a point is also referred to as
the slope of the curve at that point.

EXAMPLE 1 Finding the Equation


of a Tangent Line

Find the equation of the tangent line to the graph


of f 1 x 2 5 x2 that passes through (2, 4). Then
graph the tangent line and the graph of f.

SOLUTION

The slope of the tangent line is f 9(2).


fr 1 2 2 5 hlim
S0

f12 1 h2 2 f122
h

1 2 1 h 2 2 2 22
5 hlim
S0
h

Since f sxd 5 x2

4 1 4h 1 h2 2 4
5 hlim
S0
h
4h 1 h2
5 hlim
S0
h
h14 1 h2
5 hlim
S0
h

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3.3

61

The Derivative as a Slope: Graphical Methods

5 lim 1 4 1 h 2
hS0

Figure 3.13

5410

C(t)
4.8

54
The slope of the tangent line is 4 at the point (2, 4). Using
the slope-intercept form of a line, we have y 5 4x 1 b.
Substituting in the point (2, 4), we get

4.6

4 5 4122 1 b

4.2

4.4

4.0

4581b

(2,4)
3.8

b 5 24

y=

3.6

The equation of the tangent line is y 5 4x 2 4.


We generate a table of values for y 5 4x 2 4 and
f 1 x 2 5 x2. Then we graph the results (Figure 3.12).

x2

3.4
y = 4x4

3.2
1.8

Figure 3.12

y = 4x 4

f(x)

12

16

Tangent-Line Approximations
In Example 1 you may have noticed that the tangent line
lies very near to the graph of f for values of x near a. In
fact, if we zoom in to the region immediately surrounding (a, f(a)), the graph of f and the tangent line to the
graph of f at (a, f(a)) appear nearly identical. For values
of x near 2, the tangent-line y-value is a good approximation of the actual function value (see Figure 3.13).
Because it is frequently easier to calculate the values
of the tangent line than the values of the function, sometimes the tangent line is used to estimate the value of the
function. For example, suppose we wanted to estimate
f 1 1.9 2 given f 1 x 2 5 x2. Since x 5 1.9 is near x 5 2, we
may use the equation of the tangent line, y 5 4x 2 4,
to estimate f 1 1.9 2 . That is, f 1 1.9 2 < 4 1 1.9 2 2 4 5 3.6.
The actual value is
f 1 1.9 2 5 1 1.9 2 2
5 3.61

EXAMPLE 2 Using a Tangent-Line


Approximation for Apple iPod Net Sales

Based on data from 2005 to 2009, Apple iPod


net sales may be modeled by

P 1 t 2 5 20.58t2 1 3.2t 1 4.7 billion dollars

where t is the number of years since the end of 2005.


(Source: Model based on data from Apple Computer
Corporation) According to the model, iPod net sales
were $8.22 billion in 2009.
Use the model to predict how quickly iPod net sales
were changing at the end of 2009. Then use a tangent line
to estimate iPod net sales at the end of 2010. Compare
the estimate to the actual value predicted by the model.
SOLUTION

Since t 5 4 corresponds with the year 2009, the


instantaneous rate of change in iPod net sales at the
end of 2009 is given by
Pr 1 4 2 5 lim

hS0

P 1 4 1 h 2 2 P 1 4 2 million dollars
h years

We already know that


P 1 4 2 5 8.22. Well calculate P 1 4 1 h 2 and then
substitute the simplified value into
the derivative
formula.

tock

(2, 4)

2.2 t

Our tangent-line estimate 1 y 5 3.6 2 was remarkably


close to the actual value of the function 1 f 1 1.9 2 5 3.61 2 .

f (x) = x 2

2.1

tters

1 2
4
6

2.0

Shu

y
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

1.9

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Chapter 3: The Derivative

P 1 4 1 h 2 5 20.58 1 4 1 h 2 2 1 3.2 1 4 1 h 2 1 4.7


5 20.58 1 16 1 8h 1 h2 2 1 12.8 1 3.2h 1 4.7

Figure 3.14
C(t)
12

5 29.28 2 4.64h 2 0.58h2 1 3.2h 1 17.5


5 20.58h2 2 1.44h 1 8.22

1 20.58h2 2 1.44h 1 8.22 2 2 8.22


5 lim
S
h 0
h
20.58h 2 1.44h
h
2

5 lim

hS0

h 1 20.58h 2 1.44 2
5 lim
hS0
h

iPod net sales (billion dollars)

P14 1 h2 2 P142
Pr 1 4 2 5 lim
hS0
h

y = 1.44(x 4) + 8.22

11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4

y = 0.58x2 + 3.2x + 4.7

3
2
1
1

5 lim 1 20.58h 2 1.44 2

3
4
Years (since 2005)

hS0

5 20.58 1 0 2 2 1.44
5 21.44

billion dollars
year

At the end of 2009, iPod net sales were decreasing at


a rate of $1.44 billion per year. That is, between 2009
and 2010, the iPod net sales were expected to decrease
by approximately $1.44 billion.
The point-slope form of the tangent line is
y 2 y1 5 21.44 1 x 2 x1 2 . Using the point 1 4, 8.22 2 , we
determine
y 2 8.22 5 21.44 1 x 2 4 2
This is the tangent-line equation. At t 5 5, we have
y 2 8.22 5 21.44 1 5 2 4 2
y 5 8.22 2 1.44

Although both functions were equal at t 5 4, by the


time t reached 5, the value of the model fell below the
tangent-line estimate by about $0.6 billion. Although
tangent-line estimates of a functions value are not
exact, they are often good enough for their intended
purpose.

Numerical Derivatives
Often we encounter real-life data in tables or charts. Is
it possible to calculate a derivative from a table of data?
Well investigate this question by looking at a table of
data for f 1 x 2 5 x2 (see Table 3.7). For this function,
fr 1 2 2 5 4.

5 6.78
Using the tangent-line equation, we estimate that iPod
net sales are about $6.8 billion in 2010. According to
the model, the actual number of iPod net sales was
somewhat less.
P 1 5 2 5 20.58 1 5 2 2 1 3.2 1 5 2 1 4.7
5 6.2
The model indicates that iPod net sales were $6.2 billion in 2010.
Why was there a discrepancy between the two estimates in Example 2? Look at the graph of the model
and the tangent line (Figure 3.14).

Table 3.7

f(x)

16

We can estimate f 9(2) by calculating the slope of the


secant line through points whose x-values are equidistant from x 5 2. That is,

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3.3

fr 1 2 2 <

f132 2 f112
321

If a is the smallest domain value in the data set, then


fr 1 a 2 <

921
5
2

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a2
h
In both cases, h is the distance between a and the next
closest domain value.

54
In this case, our estimate was equal to the tangentline slope. Lets look at the situation graphically (see
Figure 3.15).

Numerical Estimate of the Derivative


The derivative of a function f at a point (a, f(a))
may be approximated from a table by
fr 1 a 2 <

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a 2 h2
1a 1 h2 2 1a 2 h2

<

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a 2 h2
2h

Figure 3.15
f (x) = x 2

16

where h is the horizontal distance between


a and a 1 h.

m=4

14
12
10

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a2
1a 1 h2 2 1a2

<

8
5
2

63

The Derivative as a Slope: Graphical Methods

f ' (2) = 4

(3, 9)

8
Function
Secant
Tangent

6
(2, 4)

4
2
1

(1, 1)
0

When estimating a derivative numerically, we typically select the two closest data points that are horizontally equidistant from our point of interest. Doing so
often yields a line that is parallel or near-parallel to the
tangent line. Picking two points that are equidistant from
the point of interest will tend to give the best estimate
of the derivative and can be used as long as the point of
interest is not an endpoint. (If the point of interest is an
endpoint, we find the slope of the secant line between the
endpoint and the next closest point.) If we assume that
each output in a table of data represents f 1 a 2 for a corresponding input a, then we can symbolically represent the
process of numerically estimating a derivative as follows.
If a is the largest domain value in the data set, then
fr 1 a 2 <

f1a2 2 f1a 2 h2
1a2 2 1a 2 h2

<

f1a2 2 f1a 2 h2
h

EXAMPLE 3 Estimating the Derivative


from a Table of Data

Use Table 3.8 to estimate how quickly home


sales prices in the southern United States were
increasing at the end of 2006. (That is, estimate the
slope of the tangent line at (6, 208.2).)

Table 3.8

Median Sales Price of a New One-Family House


in the Southern United States
Years (since 2000)
Price (thousands of dollars)
(t)
(P)
0

148.0

163.4

181.1

208.2

203.7

Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2010, Table 940

SOLUTION

Well estimate the slope of the tangent line at (6, 208.2)


by calculating the slope of the secant line between
(4, 181.1) and (8, 203.7).

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64

Chapter 3: The Derivative

fr 1 6 2 <
<

f 1 8 2 2 f 1 4 2 thousand dollars
8 2 4 years
203.7 2 181.1
4

< 5.65 thousand dollars per year


We estimate that home prices in the southern United
States were increasing at a rate of about 5.7 thousand
dollars per year at the end of 2006. (Since the original
data were accurate to one decimal place, we rounded
our final result to one decimal place.)

12. New One-Family Home Size Based on data from


2000 to 2008, the average number of square feet
in new one-family homes may be modeled by
H 1 t 2 5 20.0023t2 1 3447t 1 2265 square feet
where t is the number of years after 2000. (Source:
Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United
States, 2010, Table 936)
At what rate was home size changing in 2008?
What was the estimated size of a new home in
2009? (Use a tangent-line approximation.)
13. Student-to-Teacher Ratio Based on data from
1995 to 2007, the student-to-teacher ratio at
private elementary and secondary schools may
be modeled by

3.3 Exercises
In Exercises 110, determine the equation of the tangent
line of the function at the given point. Then graph the
tangent line and the function together.
1. f 1 x 2 5 x2 2 4x; 1 1, 23 2
2. f 1 x 2 5 2x2 1 6; 1 2, 2 2
3. g 1 x 2 5 x2 1 2x 1 1; 1 0, 1 2
4. g 1 x 2 5 x2 2 4; 1 3, 5 2

R(t) 5 0.00639t2 2 0.284t 1 15.7 students per teacher


where t is the number of years since 1995. (Source:
Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United
States, 2010, Table 245)
According to the model, how quickly was the
student-to-teacher ratio changing in 2008? What
was the estimated student-to-teacher ratio for
2009? (Use a tangent-line approximation.)

6. h 1 x 2 5 x3; 1 2, 8 2

14. Cassette Tape Shipment Value Based on data from


19902004, the value of music cassette tapes
shipped may be modeled by

7. h 1 x 2 5 x3; 1 0, 0 2

V(s) 5 20.00393s2 1 9.74s 2 63.0 million dollars

8. h 1 x 2 5 x ; 1 1, 1 2

where s represents the number of music cassette


tapes shipped (in millions). (Source: Modeled from
Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2006,
Table 1131)
According to the model, at what rate is the
value of the cassette tapes shipped changing when
the number of cassette tapes shipped is 250 million?
What was the estimated shipment value when 251
million cassette tapes were shipped? (Use a tangentline approximation.)

5. g 1 x 2 5 x2 2 4x 2 5; 1 4, 25 2

9. f 1 x 2 5 1 x 2 3 2 2; 1 3, 0 2
10. f 1 x 2 5 1 x 1 2 2 2; 1 21, 1 2
In Exercises 1115, answer the questions by calculating
the slope of the tangent line and the tangent-line
equation, as appropriate.
11. Median Price of a New Home Based on data from
2003 to 2008, the median price of a home in
the western region of the United States may be
modeled by
W 1 t 2 5 29.2t 1 55t 1 253 thousand dollars
2

where t is the number of years since 2003. (Source:


Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United
States, 2010, Table 940)
How quickly was the median sales price
changing in 2009? What was the estimated
median sales price in 2010? (Use a tangent-line
approximation.)

15. College Attendance Based on data from 20002002


and Census Bureau projections for 20032013,
private college enrollment may be modeled by
P 1 x 2 5 0.340x 2 457 thousand students
where x is the number of students (in thousands)
enrolled in public colleges. (Source: Modeled from
Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2006,
Table 204)

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3.3

Calculate the rate of change in private


college enrollment when 12,752 thousand public
college students are enrolled. Use a tangent-line
approximation to estimate the number of students
enrolled in private colleges when there are 12,753
thousand public college students.
In Exercises 1620, estimate the specified derivative by
using the data in the table. Then interpret the result.

18. Undergraduate Tuition at the University


of Pittsburgh

Full-Time Resident Tuition and Fees


Annual Tuition and Fees
Years
(dollars)
(since 20042005)
f1t2
t

16. Worker Wages

Average Annual Salary per Worker: Motion Picture


and Sound Recording Industries
Annual Salary (dollars)
Years (since 2000)
t
W1t2
0

55,355

54,776

54,877

55,991

60,424

62,051

65,764

67,055

3.69

3.90

4.08

4.28

10,736

11,368

12,106

12,832

13,344

Boneless Sirloin Steak Prices


Years (since 2004)
t

Price per Pound (dollars)


S1t2

6.09

5.93

5.79

5.91

6.07

Ice Cream Retail Price

3.85

19. Steak Prices

17. Ice Cream Prices

10,130

Estimate fr 1 4 2 and fr 1 5 2 . What can you conclude


about the rate of increase in tuition and fees at the
University of Pittsburgh?

Estimate Wr 1 6 2 .

Price of 1/2 Gallon


of Ice Cream
I1t2

Source: University of Pittsburgh

Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2010, Table 628

Years (since 2004)


t

65

The Derivative as a Slope: Graphical Methods

Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2010, Table 717

Estimate Sr 1 3 2 .
20. Bread Prices

Whole Wheat Bread Prices


Years (since 2004)
t

Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2010, Table 717

Estimate Ir 1 3 2 .

Price per Loaf (dollars)


B1t2

1.30

1.29

1.62

1.81

1.95

Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2010, Table 717

Estimate Br 1 2 2 .

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66

Chapter 3: The Derivative

3.4

The Derivative
as a Function:
Algebraic Method

Based on data from 2000 to 2006, the


cumulative number of homicides resulting
from a romantic triangle may be modeled
by R(t) 5 21.57t2 1 119t 1 125 homicides between the start of 2000 and the
end of year t, where t is the number of
years since 2000. (Source: Modeled
from Crime in the United States 2006,
Uniform Crime Report, FBI) At what rate
was the cumulative number of homicides
increasing at the end of 2004, 2005,
and 2006? Although we could calculate
the derivative at t5 4, t55, and t5 6,
we can save time by nding the derivative
function and then substituting in the various values of t.
In this section, we will introduce the derivative
function and show how to find it algebraically. Your
skill in finding the derivative at a point will prove to
be especially useful in this section. Well begin with a
simple example before returning to the romantic triangle problem.
Shutterstock

EXAMPLE 1 Calculating the Derivative


of a Function at Multiple Points

Determine the instantaneous rate of change of


f 1 x 2 5 3x2 at 1 1, 3 2 , 1 3, 27 2 , and 1 10, 300 2 .

SOLUTION

Although we could calculate fr 1 1 2 , fr 1 3 2 , and fr 1 10 2


individually, it will be more efcient to nd the
derivative function itself and then substitute in the
different values of x.
We begin with the derivative formula; however,
instead of substituting a specific value for a, we replace
a with the variable x.
fr 1 x 2 5 lim

hS0

f1x 1 h2 2 f1x2
h

1 3 1 x 1 h 2 2 2 2 1 3x2 2
hS0
h

5 lim

Since f1x2 5 3x2

1 3 1 x2 1 2hx 1 h2 2 2 2 1 3x2 2
hS0
h

5 lim

1 3x2 1 6hx 1 3h2 2 2 1 3x2 2


hS0
h

5 lim

5 lim

6hx 1 3h2
h

5 lim

h 1 6x 1 3h 2
h

hS0

hS0

5 lim 1 6x 1 3h 2
hS0

5 6x 1 3 1 0 2
5 6x
The result fr 1 x 2 5 6x is the derivative function for
f 1 x 2 5 3x2. It can be used to calculate the instantaneous rate of change of f at any point (a, f(a)).
fr 1 1 2 5 6 1 1 2
56
The instantaneous rate of change of f at 1 1, 3 2 is 6.
fr 1 3 2 5 6 1 3 2
5 18
The instantaneous rate of change of f at 1 3, 27 2 is 18.
fr 1 10 2 5 6 1 10 2
5 60
The instantaneous rate of change of f at 1 10, 300 2 is 60.
As demonstrated in Example 1, the techniques used
to find the derivative function are virtually identical to

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3.4

the procedures used to find the derivative at a point.


However, knowing the derivative function allows us to
calculate the derivative at a number of different points
more quickly than calculating the derivative at each
point separately. The derivative function for a function
f is called the derivative of f.

The Derivative Function


The derivative function of a function f is
given by
fr 1 x 2 5 lim

hS0

f1x 1 h2 2 f1x2
h

The Derivative as a Function: Algebraic Method

67

Substituting both of these quantities into the derivative


formula yields
Rr 1 t 2 5 lim

hS0

R1t 1 h2 2 R1t2
h

23.14ht 2 1.57h2 1 119h


hS0
h

5 lim
5 lim

hS0

h 1 23.14t 2 1.57h 1 119 2


h

5 lim 1 23.14t 2 1.57h 1 119 2


hS0

Since

h
5 1 for h 2 0
h

5 23.14t 2 1.57 1 0 2 1 119


5 23.14t 1 119

if the limit exists.

So Rr 1 t 2 5 23.14t 1 119 homicides per year. We can


now compute the instantaneous rate of change in the
cumulative number of homicides in 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Rr 1 4 2 5 23.14 1 4 2 1 119
5 106.4

EXAMPLE 2 Calculating the


Instantaneous Rate of Change
of a Function at Multiple Points

< 106 homicides per year

Based on data from 2000 to 2006, the cumulative number of homicides resulting from a
romantic triangle between the start of 2000 and the end
of year t may be modeled by

Rr 1 5 2 5 23.14 1 5 2 1 119

R 1 t 2 5 21.57t2 1 119t 1 125 homicides

Rr 1 6 2 5 23.14 1 6 2 1 119

where t is the number of years since 2000. (Source:


Modeled from Crime in the United States 2006, Uniform Crime Report, FBI) At what rate was the cumulative number of homicides increasing at the end of 2004,
2005, and 2006?
SOLUTION

We will begin by nding the derivative Rr 1 t 2 .


Rr 1 t 2 5 lim

hS0

R1t 1 h2 2 R1t2
h

Because of the complex nature of R 1 t 2 , we will first calculate R 1 t 1 h 2 and then substitute the result into the
derivative formula.
R(t 1 h) 5 21.57(t 1 h)2 1 119(t 1 h) 1 125
5 21.57t2 (t2 1 2ht 1 h2) 1 119t
1 119h 1 125
5

2 3.14ht 2
1 119h 1 125

21.57t2

1.57h2

1 119t

We already know that R 1 t 2 5 21.57t2 1 119t 1 125.

5 103.3
< 103 homicides per year

5 100.2
< 100 homicides per year
The cumulative number of homicides resulting
from a romantic triangle was increasing at a rate of 106
homicides per year in 2004, 103 homicides per year in
2005, and 100 homicides per year in 2006. According to the model, although the cumulative number of
homicides continued to increase, the rate at which these
homicides were increasing slowed between the end of
2004 and the end of 2006.

EXAMPLE 3 Finding the Derivative


of a Function

Find the derivative of g 1 t 2 5 2t3 2 4t 1 3.

SOLUTION

g1t 1 h2 2 g1t2
. Well rst
h
nd g 1 t 1 h 2 and then substitute the result into the
derivative formula.
We must nd gr 1 t 2 5 lim

hS0

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Chapter 3: The Derivative

g1t 1 h2 5 21t 1 h23 2 41t 1 h2 1 3


5 2 1 t3 1 3t2h 1 3th2 1 h3 2 2 4t 2 4h 1 3
5 2t3 1 6t2h 1 6th2 1 2h3 2 4t 2 4h 1 3

SOLUTION

We must evaluate Wr 1 t 2 at t 5 22, 24, and 26.


W1t 1 h2 2 W1t2
Wr 1 t 2 5 hlim
S0
h

5 g 1 t 2 1 6t2h 1 6th2 1 2h3 2 4h


5 lim

g1t 1 h2 2 g1t2
gr 1 t 2 5 lim
hS0
h
1 6t h 1 6th 1 2h 2 4h 2
h
2

5 lim

hS0

hS0

h 1 6t2 1 6th 1 2h2 2 4 2


5 lim
hS0
h
5 lim 1 6t2 1 6th 1 2h2 2 4 2
hS0

5 6t2 1 6t 1 0 2 1 2 1 0 2 2 2 4
5 6t2 2 4
The derivative of g 1 t 2 5 2t3 2 4t 1 3 is gr 1 t 2 5 6t2 2 4.

Estimating Derivatives
For polynomial functions, all terms in the numerator of
the derivative formula without an h will cancel out. This
allows us always to eliminate the h in the denominator.
However, with some other types of functions, the h in
the denominator cannot be eliminated algebraically. In
this case, we can estimate the derivative function by substituting in a small positive value (e.g., 0.001) for h. The
closer the value of h is to zero, the more accurate the
estimate of the derivative will be.

EXAMPLE 4 Calculating the


Instantaneous Rate of Change of
a Function at Multiple Points

1 2.593 1 1.106 2 t1h 2 2 1 2.593 1 1.106 2 t 2


h

1 2.593 1 1.106 2 t 1 1.106 2 h 2 2 1 2.593 1 1.106 2 t 2


hS0
h Since 11.1062 t1h 5 11.1062 t 11.1062 h

5 lim

2.593 1 1.106 2 t 1 1 1.106 2 h 2 1 2


hS0
h

5 lim

Factor out 2.593(1.106)t

1 1 1.106 2 h 2 1 2
h
We can move the expression 2.593 1 1.106 2 t to the other
side of the limit because it does not contain an h. Since
5 2.593 1 1.106 2 t # lim

hS0

lim

hS0

1 1 1.106 2 0.001 2 1 2
1 1 1.106 2 h 2 1 2
<
h
0.001
< 0.1008

we have
1 1 1.106 2 h 2 1 2
hS0
h

Wr 1 t 2 5 2.593 1 1.106 2 t # lim

< 2.593 1 1.106 2 t # 1 0.1008 2


< 0.2614 1 1.106 2 t
We will now evaluate the derivative function at
t 5 22, 24, and 26.
Wr 1 22 2 < 0.2614 1 1.106 2 22
< 2.398
According to the model, bottled water consumption was
increasing by 2.398 gallons per year at the end of 2002.

The per capita consumption of bottled water in the United States may
be modeled by

Wr 1 24 2 < 0.2614 1 1.106 2 24

W 5 2.593 1 1.106 2 t gallons

Bottled water consumption was increasing by 2.934


gallons per year at the end of 2004.

Shutterstock

where t is the number of years since


the end of 1980. (Source: Modeled from Statistical Abstract
of the United States, 2001, Table
204)
Determine how quickly
bottled water consumption
was increasing at the end of
2002, 2004, and 2006.

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 68

< 2.934

Wr 1 26 2 < 0.2614 1 1.106 2 26


< 3.589
Bottled water consumption was increasing at a rate of
3.589 gallons per year at the end of 2006.

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3.4

3.4 Exercises
In Exercises 15, find the derivative of the function.
1. f 1 x 2 5 x2 2 4x
2. g 1 x 2 5 x2 1 2x 1 1
3. g 1 x 2 5 x 2 4x 2 5
2

4. j 1 x 2 5 x3 1 2
5. f 1 t 2 5 1 t 2 3 2 2
In Exercises 610, find the slope of the tangent line of
the function at x 5 1, x 5 3, and x 5 5.
6. g 1 x 2 5 2x2 1 x 2 1
7. f 1 x 2 5 x2 2 2x
8. j 1 x 2 5 25
9. W 1 x 2 5 24x 1 9
10. S 1 x 2 5 3x2 2 2x 1 1
In Exercises 1113, estimate the derivative of the
function. When you are unable to eliminate the h in the
denominator of the derivative formula algebraically, use
h 5 0.001.
11. P 1 x 2 5 3x
12. C 1 x 2 5 23 # 4x
13. R 1 x 2 5 5.042 # 1 0.98 2 x
In Exercises 1418, use the derivative function to
answer the questions.
14. Median Price of a New Home Based on data from
2003 to 2008, the median price of a home in
the western region of the United States may be
modeled by
W 1 t 2 5 29.2t2 1 55t 1 253 thousand dollars
where t is the number of years since 2003. (Source:
Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United
States, 2010, Table 940)
According to the model, was the median sales
price changing more quickly at the end of 2006 or
the end of 2008?
15. Median Price of a New Home Based on data from
2003 to 2008, the median price of a home in the
United States may be modeled by

69

The Derivative as a Function: Algebraic Method

where t is the number of years since 2003. (Source:


Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United
States, 2010, Table 940)
According to the model, was the median sales
price changing more quickly at the end of 2007 or
the end of 2009?
16. Walmart Net Sales Based on data from 19962006,
the net sales of Walmart may be modeled by
s 1 t 2 5 0.8636t2 1 14.39t 1 84.72 billion dollars
where t is the number of years since 1996.
(Source: Modeled from Walmart Annual Report,
2006, pp.1819)
According to the model, how much more
rapidly were net sales increasing in 2006
compared to 2005?
17. Prescription Drug Spending Based on data from
19902003, per capita prescription drug spending
may be modeled by
P 1 t 2 5 2.889t2 2 2.613t 1 158.7 dollars
where t is the number of years since 1990. (Source:
Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2006,
Table 121)
In what year was prescription drug spending
increasing twice as fast as it was increasing in
2000?
18. Oil Production Based on data from 19852004,
the difference between U.S. oil eld production
and net oil imports may be modeled by
b 1 t 2 5 4.29t2 2 278t 1 2250 million barrels
where t is the number of years since 1985. (Source:
Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United
States, 2007, Table 881)
At what rate was the difference in U.S. oil
eld production and net oil imports changing in
2000 and 2005, according to the model?
Exercises 19 and 20 are intended to challenge your
understanding.
19. Given fr 1 x 2 5 3x and g 1 x 2 5 x2 1 3 1 f 1 x 2 , nd
gr 1 x 2 .
20. Given f 1 x 2 5 x3 2 3x, determine where fr 1 x 2 5 0.

U 1 t 2 5 25.1t2 1 33t 1 194 thousand dollars

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70

Chapter 3: The Derivative

3.5

2,758 million dollars between 1999 and 2000. The terms


about, approximately, or roughly must be used when
using the second interpretation of the derivative, since we
are using a tangent-line approximation to estimate the
increase over the next year. (For a graphical discussion of
tangent-line approximations, refer to Section 3.3.)

Interpreting the
Derivative

Many of us feel inundated by the advertisements we are sent through the mail.
Dont expect this to let up anytime soon:
Spending on direct-mail advertising has
risen every year since 1990. The amount
of money spent on direct-mail advertising

Interpreting the Derivative


Let f(x) be a function. The meaning of fr 1 a 2 5 c may
be written in either of the following two ways:

may be modeled by

A(t) 5

70.54t2

When x 5 a, the value of the function f is


increasing (decreasing) at a rate of c units of
output per unit of input.

1 1488t 1 22,828
million dollars

The value of the function f will increase (decrease)


by about c units of output between a units of
input and a 1 1 units of input.

where t is the number of years since


1990. (Source: Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2001,
Table 1272) According to the model,
A(9) 5 41,934 and A9(9) 5 2,758. But
what does this mean? In this section, we
will discuss how to interpret the meaning of a derivative in the context of a
real-life problem.

EXAMPLE 1 Interpreting the Meaning


of the Derivative

Based on data from 1940 to 2000, the


average monthly Social Security benet
for men may be modeled by
P 1 t 2 5 0.3486t2 2 5.505t 1 35.13 dollars

where t is the number of years since 1940.


(Source: Modeled from Social Security
Administration data)
Interpret the meaning of P 1 60 2 5 959.79
and Pr 1 60 2 5 36.33.

Recall that the units of the derivative are the units of the output
divided by the units of the input.

tter

sto

ck

SOLUTION

Shu

In this case, the units of Ar are


millions of dollars
or millions of
year
dollars per year. Note that t 5 9 corresponds to the year 1999. We
conclude that in 1999, 41,934
million dollars were spent on
direct-mail advertising, and
spending was increasing by
2,758 million dollars per year.
In other words, according to the
model, 41,934 million dollars were
spent on direct-mail advertising in
1999 and spending increased by about

Since t is the number of years since 1940, t 5 60


corresponds to 2000. P 1 60 2 5 959.79 means that
(according to the model) the average Social Security
benet for men in 2000 was $959.79.
dollars
The units of the derivative are
.
year
P9 s60d 5 36.33 means that in 2000, the average Social
Security benefit for men was increasing by $36.33 per
year. In other words, the average Social Security benefit for men was expected to increase by about $36.33
between 2000 and 2001.

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3.5

EXAMPLE 2 Using a Tangent-Line


Approximation to Estimate
a Function Value

The average weight of a boy between 2 and 13


years of age may be modeled by

71

Interpreting the Derivative

Tr 1 12 2 5 10.7 means that in 2004, the number of television sets in U.S. homes was increasing at a rate of
10.7 million sets per year. In other words, the number
of television sets in homes was expected to increase by
about 10.7 million sets between 2004 and 2005.

W 1 a 2 5 0.215a2 1 2.993a 1 23.78 pounds

where a is the age of the boy in years. (Source: Modeled


from www.babybag.com data)
Interpret the meaning of W 1 10 2 5 75.21 and
Wr 1 10 2 5 7.29. Then use a tangent-line approximation to estimate W 1 11 2 .
SOLUTION

Since a is the age of the boy, a 5 10 corresponds to


a 10-year-old boy. W 1 10 2 5 75.21 means that the
average weight of a 10-year-old boy is 75.21 pounds.
pounds
.
The units of the derivative are
year of his age
Wr 1 10 2 5 7.29 means that the average weight of a
10-year-old boy is increasing by 7.29 pounds per year
of his age. In other words, the average weight of a boy
will increase by about 7.29 pounds between his 10th
and 11th years.
We use a tangent-line approximation to estimate
W 1 11 2 .
W 1 11 2 < W 1 10 2 1 Wr 1 10 2
< 75.21 1 7.29
< 82.5
We estimate that the average weight of an 11-year-old
boy is 82.5 pounds.

EXAMPLE 3 Interpreting the Meaning


of the Derivative

Based on data from 19922005, the number of


television sets in U.S. homes may be modeled by

T 1 x 2 5 0.06680x 2 1.276x 1 12.46x 1 190.7 million sets


3

where x is the number of years since 1992. (Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2007, Table 1111)
Interpret the meaning of T 1 12 2 5 271.9 and
1
Tr 12 2 5 10.7.
SOLUTION

Since t is the number of years, t 5 12 corresponds with


2004. T 1 12 2 5 271.9 means that in 2004, there were
271.9 million television sets in U.S. homes.
television sets
The units of the derivative are
.
year

3.5 Exercises
In Exercises 118, interpret the real-life meaning of
the indicated values. Answer additional questions as
appropriate.
1. Body Weight The weight of a girl between 2 and
13 years of age may be modeled by
W 1 a 2 5 0.289a2 1 2.464a 1 23.10 pounds
where a is the age of the girl. (Source: Modeled
from www.babybag.com data)
Interpret the meaning of W 1 10 2 5 76.64 and
Wr 1 10 2 5 8.24. Then estimate W 1 11 2 .
2. Body Weight Compare the results of Example 2
and Exercise 1. Were boys or girls expected to gain
more weight between their 10th and 11th years?
Explain.
3. Carbon Monoxide Pollution Based on data from
19902003, carbon monoxide pollution may be
modeled by
P 1 t 2 5 20.248t 1 5.99 parts per million
where t is the number of years since 1990. (Source:
Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2006,
Table 359)
Interpret the meaning of P 1 15 2 5 2.27 and
Pr 1 15 2 5 20.248.
4. Kazakhstan Population Based on data from
19952005, the population of Kazakhstan may be
modeled by
K 1 t 2 5 14,825 1 0.993 2 t thousand people
where t is the number of years since 2005. (Source:
World Health Statistics 2006, World Health
Organization)
Interpret the meaning of K 1 10 2 5 13,819 and
1
Pr 10 2 5 297.08.
5. India Population Based on data from 19952005,
the population of the India may be modeled by
I 1 t 2 5 1,103,371 1 1.015 2 t thousand people

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