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3rd Chapter of Applied Calculus Textbook

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The Derivative

It is impossible to determine how quickly a person

is running from a single photograph, since speed is

calculated as a change in distance over a change

in time. Nevertheless, we may estimate a persons

speed at a particular instant in time by determining

the distance traveled over a small interval of time

(e.g., one second). A runners speed may be classified as a rate of change in distance. A key component of calculus is the study of rates of change.

3.1

of Change

3.2 Limits and

Instantaneous

Rates of Change

3.3 The Derivative as

a Slope: Graphical

Methods

3.4 The Derivative as a

Function: Algebraic

Method

3.5 Interpreting the

Derivative

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 46

Shutterstock

tuition rates in order to cover rising stafng and

facilities costs. As a result, it is often difcult for

students to know how much money they should

save to cover future tuition costs. By calculating

the average rate of change in the tuition price

over a period of years, we can estimate projected

increases in tuition costs. In this section, we will

demonstrate how to calculate the average rate of

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to a # x # b.)

In calculating the difference quotient, we answer the question, Over

the interval 3 a, b 4 , on average, how

much does a one-unit increase in the

x-value change the y-value of the

function?

An Average Rate of Change

The average rate of change of a function

y 5 f 1 x 2 over an interval 3 a, b 4 is

CHAPTER

function over a specied

interval [a, b]. (The interval

f1b2 2 f1a2

b2a

This expression is referred to as the difference

quotient. For a linear function, the difference

quotient gives the slope of the line.

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48

of Change from a Table

resident, undergraduate students majoring in

the Arts and Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh is

shown in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1

Years (since

20042005)

t

and Fees (dollars) from Prior Year

f(t)

(dollars)

10,130

10,736

606

11,368

632

12,106

738

12,832

726

13,344

512

from the 20042005 academic year to the 20092010

academic year? Rounded to the nearest dollar, what do

you estimate the 20122013 tuition and fees will be?

SOLUTION

the difference quotient formula. For the period 2004

2005 to 20092010, the interval 3 a, b 4 5 3 0, 5 4 . The

average rate of change of the tuition is

f1b2 2 f1a2

f152 2 f102

5

b2a

520

5

5 years

3214 dollars

5

5 years

5 642.8 dollars per year

Over the five-year period between 20042005 and

20092010, tuition increased by $3,214. Although the

annual increase varied from year to year, the average

annual increase was $642.80.

The 20092010 tuition and fees cost was $13,344.

We predict that tuition and fees will increase by $642.80

per year in subsequent years. To predict the 20122013

tuition and fees cost, we repeatedly increase the annual

cost by $642.80.

20102011:

20112012:

20122013:

13,986.80 1 642.80 5 14,629.60

14,629.60 1 642.80 5 15,272.40

will be $15,272.40. This value may be calculated more

quickly as follows: 13,344 1 3 1 642.80 2 5 15,272.40.

When determining the meaning of an average rate

of change in a real-life problem, it is essential to find

the units of measurement of the result. Fortunately,

the units are easily determined. The units of the rate of

change are the units of the output divided by the units

of the input. In Example 1, the units of the output were

dollars and the units of the input were years. Consequently, the units of the average rate of change were

dollars divided by years, or dollars per year.

of Change from an Equation

Based on data from 19902009, the population of Washington state may be modeled by

the function P 1 t 2 5 4.933 1 1.017 2 t, where P is the

population in millions of people and t is the number of years since 1990. (Source: Modeled from data

at www.census.gov) According to the model, what is

the average rate of change in the population between

1990 and 2010?

SOLUTION

since 1990. So for the model, t 5 0 represents 1990

and t 5 20 represents 2010. The average rate of change

in the population over the interval 3 0, 20 4 is

6.911 2 4.933 million people

P 1 20 2 2 P 1 0 2

5

20 2 0

20 years

5 0.0989 million people per year

5 98,900 people per year

Between 1990 and 2010, the population of Washington

state increased by an average of 98,900 people per year.

Graphical Interpretation

of the Difference Quotient

A line connecting any two points on a graph is referred

to as a secant line. Graphically speaking, the difference quotient for a function y 5 f 1 x 2 is the slope of

the secant line connecting (a, f(a)) and 1 b, f 1 b 2 2 (Figure 3.1).

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 48

9/24/10 10:14 AM

3.1

f1b2 2 f1a2

b2a

y

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

(b, f (b))

f (b)

Secant line

f (b) f (a)

f (a)

(a, f (a))

ba

of a Secant Line

is shown in Figure 3.2. Calculate the slope of the

secant line of f that passes through (1, 2) and (2, 5).

y = 3x 2 6x + 5

Secant line

(2, 5)

(1, 2)

0

x 5 1 and x 5 2. The slope of the secant line is given by

m5

f1b2 2 f1a2

b2a

f122 2 f112

221

522

1

Figure 3.2

53

y

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

1

49

Figure 3.3

y = f (x)

[1, 2], a one-unit increase in x results in a three-unit

increase in y, on average.

y = 3x 2 6x + 5

3.1 Exercises

0

the function over the given interval.

1. f 1 x 2 5 2x 2 5 over the interval 3 3, 5 4

2. v 1 x 2 5 2x3 over the interval 3 21, 1 4

3. v 1 m 2 5 m2 2 m over the interval 3 23, 4 4

ln 1 x 2

over the interval 3 1, 5 4

x

SOLUTION

4. z 5

We rst plot the points (1, 2) and (2, 5) and draw the

line connecting them (Figure 3.3).

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 49

9/24/10 10:14 AM

50

in the designated quantity over the given interval(s).

6. Air Temperature Temperature between 11:00 A.M.

and 3:00 P.M.

level when the unemployment rate decreased from

5.6 percent (in 1990) to 4.0 percent (in 2000).

Time of Day

Temperature (F)

Unemployment Rate

(percentage)

11:00 A.M.

68

5.6

13.5

1:00 P.M.

73

4.2

11.8

3:00 P.M.

75

4.0

11.3

Average between 2000 and 2007 and between

2002 and 2008.

Year

Average Closing Value at

the End of the Year (points)

2000

10,787

2002

8342

2007

13,265

2008

8776

Source: www.census.gov

score between the rst and third quarter.

Quarter

Reading Score

(words per minute)

69

107

Source: www.census.gov

f1b2 2 f1a2

difference quotient,

, to calculate the slope of

b2a

the secant line through the points 1 1, f 1 1 2 2 and 1 3, f 1 3 2 2 .

11. f 1 x 2 5 2x

12. f 1 x 2 5 5

13. f 1 x 2 5 1 x 2 2 2 2

In Exercises 14 and 15, use the difference quotient,

f1b2 2 f1a2

, to calculate the slope of the secant line

b2a

through the points (1, f(1)) and (3, f(3)) for the given

graph of f.

14.

y

4

y = f (x)

129

subscriptions as the number of cable TV

subscribers increased from 50.5 million (in

1990) to 67.7 million (in 2000).

1

0

0

15.

Cable TV Subscribers

(millions)

(millions)

50.5

62.3

60.9

58.2

66.7

56.0

67.7

55.8

Source: www.census.gov

(percentage)

y = f (x)

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3.2

in the state populations (in people per year) between

2000 and 2009.

16. Population

Montana

Date

2000

902.2

2009

975.0

51

20. Population

Pennsylvania

Date

2000

12,281.1

2009

12,604.8

Source: www.census.gov

Source: www.census.gov

17. Population

Massachusetts

Date

2000

6349.1

2009

6593.6

Source: www.census.gov

18. Population

Missouri

Date

2000

5595.2

2009

5987.6

Source: www.census.gov

19. Population

West Virginia

Date

2000

1808.3

2009

1819.8

Source: www.census.gov

3.2

Limits and

Instantaneous

Rates of Change

Usain Bolt set the world record for the

100-meter dash with a time of 9.69

seconds. How fast was he running (in

meters per second) when the accompanying picture was taken?

From a single photo, it is impossible for us to determine his speed. However, if we knew how long it took

him to reach various checkpoints during the race, we

could approximate his speed at the finish line. In this

section, we will demonstrate how to use the difference

Nicolas Asfouri/AFP/Getty Images

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52

instantaneous rate of change.

Whereas an average rate of change is calculated

over an interval 3 a, b 4 , an instantaneous rate of change

is calculated at a single value a. For example, the average highway speed of a person over a 200-mile trip may

have been 59 miles per hour. However, when he passed

a state patrol car exactly 124 miles into the trip, he was

speeding at 84 miles per hour. His average speed on the

interval 3 0, 200 4 was 59 miles per hour; however, his

instantaneous speed at d 5 124 was 84 miles per hour.

Rate of Change

recorded the times shown in Table 3.2.

100 2 90 meters

9.69 2 8.70 seconds

Average speed 5

10 meters

0.99 seconds

His average speed over the last 5 meters was

Average speed 5

5

100 2 95 meters

9.69 2 9.18 seconds

5 meters

0.51 second

And his average speed over the last meter was

Table 3.2

Average speed 5

Total Distance

Traveled (meters)

(D(t))

Time (seconds)

(t)

0

4.85

50

8.70

90

9.18

95

9.60

99

9.69

100

SOLUTION

D1b2 2 D1a2

calculated using the difference quotient,

.

b2a

His average speed over the 100-meter distance was

100 2 0 meters

9.69 2 0 second

Average speed 5

His average speed over the last 50 meters was

Average speed 5

5

100 2 50 meters

9.69 2 4.85 seconds

100 2 99 meters

9.69 2 9.60 seconds

1 meter

0.09 second

Although each calculation yielded a different result,

all of these difference quotients estimate the runners

finish-line speed. Which of the estimates do you think

is most accurate?

The last calculation best estimates his finish-line

speed because it measures the change in distance over

the smallest interval of time: 0.1 second. (Reducing the

time interval to an even smaller amount of time, say

0.01 second, would further improve the estimate.) We

estimate that the runners speed when he crossed the

finish line was 11.11 meters per second.

To estimate the instantaneous rate of change of a

function y 5 f sxd at a point (a, f(a)), we calculate the

average rate of change of the function over a very small

interval [a, b]. If we let the variable h represent the distance between x 5 a and x 5 b, then b 5 a 1 h. Consequently, the difference quotient may be rewritten as

f1b2 2 f1a2

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a2

5

1a 1 h2 2 a

b2a

5

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a2

h

50 meters

4.84 seconds

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3.2

Estimate of an Instantaneous

Rate of Change

The instantaneous rate of change of a

function y 5 f(x) at a point (a, f(a)) may be

estimated by calculating the difference

quotient of f at a,

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a2

h

using an h arbitrarily close to 0. (If h 5 0, the

difference quotient is undefined.)

values of h. The terms short and small are vague.

Numerically, what does small mean? Mathematicians

struggled with this dilemma for years before developing the concept of the limit. We will explore the limit

concept graphically before giving a formal definition.

Consider the graph of the function f 1 x 2 5 2x2 1 4

over the interval 3 23, 3 4 (Figure 3.4).

Figure 3.4

y

4

3

2

1

Rate of Change

for 20062009, the amount of money spent by

consumers on books may be modeled by

SOLUTION

S16 1 h2 2 S162

h

and selecting increasingly small values of h, we generate

Table 3.3.

1 1

y = f (x)

2

3

4

5

million dollars

where x is the number of years since 2004. (Source:

Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United States,

2007, Table 1119) According to the model, how quickly

was consumer spending on books increasing in 2010?

53

value does f sxd get close?

Observe from the graph of f that as the value of x

moves from 0 to 2, the value of f sxd moves from 4 to 0.

We represent this behavior symbolically with the notation

lim f 1 x 2 5 0

xS22

the left is 0. This is commonly referred to as a left-hand

limit because we approach x 5 2 through values to the

left of 2.

Table 3.3

1.000

2795

0.100

2465

0.010

2436

0.001

2433

We

books

W conclude

l d that

h in

i 2010 consumer spending

di on b

k

is increasing by $2,433 million per year.

Limits

In Examples 1 and 2, we estimated the instantaneous

rate of change at a point by calculating the average rate

Shutterstock

S16 1 h2 2 S162

h

moves from 3 to 2, the value of f sxd moves from 25 to

0. We write

lim1 f 1 x 2 5 0

xS2

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54

the right is 0. This is commonly referred to as a righthand limit because we approach x 5 2 through values

to the right of 2.

On a number line, 2` lies to the left of 1`. For the

left-hand limit, lim2 f 1 x 2 , the minus sign is used to indi-

Figure 3.5

y

3

2

1

xSa

of 2`. For the right-hand limit, lim1 f 1 x 2 , the plus sign

xSa

1 1

y = f (x)

2

3

4

5

6

the direction of 1`.

The left- and right-hand limit behavior can also be

seen from a table of values for f sxd (Table 3.4).

Table 3.4

T

Left of x 5 2

T

c

Right of x 5 2

c

f(x)

0.00

4.000

1.00

3.000

1.90

0.390

1.99

0.040

2.00

0.000

2.01

0.040

2.10

0.410

3.00

5.000

0 as x nears 2

lim f 1 x 2 5 2

xS11

0 as x nears 2

approach the same finite value, we say that the limit

exists. In this case, the left- and right-hand limits of

f sxd neared the same value (y 5 0) as x approached 2.

We say that the limit of f sxd as x approaches 2 is 0

and write

lim f 1 x 2 5 0

xS2

Sometimes the left- and right-hand limits of a function at a point are not equal. Consider the graph of the

piecewise function

2x2 1 2

f1x2 5 e

x11

x#1

x.1

We ask the question, As x gets close to 1, to what

value does f sxd get close?

Observe from the graph that as the value of x

moves from 0 to 1, the value of f sxd moves from 2 to

1. We write

lim f 1 x 2 5 1

xS12

1. Similarly, as the value of x moves from 2 to 1, the

value of f s xd moves from 3 to 2. We write

1 is 2. Since for this function, the left- and right-hand

limits are not equal, we say that the limit of f sxd as x

approaches 1 does not exist or, simply, the limit does

not exist. This can also be seen from a table of values

for f sxd (Table 3.5).

Table 3.5

T

Left of x 5 1

T

c

Right of x 5 1

c

f(x)

0.00

2.000

0.90

1.190

0.99

1.020

1.00

1.000

1.01

2.010

1.10

2.100

2.00

3.000

3.00

4.000

1 as x nears 1

2 as x nears 1

the limit of a function may exist at a point where the

function itself is undefined. This feature will be used

often when we introduce the limit definition of the

derivative later in this section.

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3.2

If f(x) is defined for all values of x near c, then

lim

f1x2 5 L

xSc

means that as x approaches c, f(x) approaches L.

We say that the limit exists if

1. L is a finite number and

2. Approaching c from the left or right yields

the same value of L.

study; however, in this text, we are most interested in

the limit of the difference quotient as h approaches zero.

That is,

1

2

1 2

lim f a 1 h 2 f a

hS0

h

Recall that the difference quotient represents the average rate of change of f sxd over the interval 3 a, a 1 h 4 .

When we place the limit on the difference quotient, we

are symbolically asking, As the distance between the two

x-values (a and a 1 h) gets smaller, what happens to the

average rate of change of f sxd on the interval 3 a, a 1 h 4 ?

The limit of the difference quotient as h approaches zero

(if the limit exists) is the instantaneous rate of change in

f sxd at x 5 a. Note that even though the difference quotient is undefined when h 5 0, the limit may still exist.

Rate of Change

change of f sxd when x 5 3?

SOLUTION

taking the limit of the difference quotient as h approaches

zero. The instantaneous rate of change of f 1 x 2 at x 5 3

is given by

1

2

1 2

lim f 3 1 h 2 f 3

hS0

h

13 1 h22 2 1322

5 hlim

S0

h

Since f ( x ) 5 x2

2

5 lim 1 9 1 6h 1 h 2 2 9

hS0

h

2

5 lim 6h 1 h

hS0

h

1

h

6

1 h2

5 lim

hS0

h

5 lim 1 6 1 h 2 for h 2 0 Since

hS0

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 55

55

Lets pick values of h near zero (Table 3.6).

Table 3.6

6 1 h, h 2 0

20.100

5.900

20.010

5.990

20.001

5.999

0.000

Undefined

0.001

6.001

0.010

6.010

0.100

6.100

As seen from the table, even though the difference quotient is undefined when h 5 0, the value of the simplified

difference quotient, 6 1 h, gets close to 6 as h approaches

zero. In fact, by picking sufficiently small values of h, we

can get as close to 6 as we would like. So the instantaneous rate of change of f sxd when x 5 3 is 6.

Observe that we can attain the same result by plugging in h 5 0 after canceling out the h in the denominator of the difference quotient. That is,

5 lim 1 6 1 h 2 5 6 1 0

hS0

56

Throughout the rest of this chapter, we will substitute in h 5 0 after eliminating the h in the denominator

of the difference quotient. This process will simplify our

computations while still giving the correct result.

The limit of the difference quotient as h approaches

zero is used widely throughout calculus and is called

the derivative.

at a Point

The derivative of a function y 5 f 1 x 2 at a

point (a, f(a)) is

fr 1 a 2 5 lim f 1 a 1 h 2 2 f 1 a 2

hS0

h

fr 1 a 2 is read f prime of a and is the

instantaneous rate of change of the

function f at the point (a, f(a)).

h

5 1 for h ? 0

h

9/24/10 10:15 AM

56

of a Function at a Point

Pr 1 25 2 5 lim

hS0

Given f 1 x 2 5 3x 1 1, nd f 9s2d.

P 1 25 1 h 2 2 P 1 25 2

h

5 lim

h

5 lim

Factor out 4.933

h

hS0

SOLUTION

f12 1 h2 2 f122

hS0

h

fr 1 2 2 5 lim

1312 1 h2 1 12 2 13122 1 12

hS0

h

5 lim

5 lim

hS0

hS0

Since f(2 1 h) 5

(3(2 1 h) 1 1) and

f(2) 5 3(2) 1 1

1 6 1 3h 1 1 2 2 1 7 2

h

1 3h 1 7 2 2 1 7 2

hS0

h

5 lim

5 lim

hS0

hS0

Since

h

51

h

53

In this case, the difference quotient turned out to be a

constant value of 3, so taking the limit of the difference

quotient as h approached zero did not alter the value of

the difference quotient.

For linear functions, the slope of the line is the

instantaneous rate of change of the function at any

value of x. Consequently, the derivative of a linear function will always be a constant value that is equal to the

slope of the line.

the Meaning of the Derivative

of a Function at a Point

5 lim

h

Factor out 11.0172 25

5 lim

7.519 1 1 1.017 2 h 2 1 2

h

hS0

3h

h

5 lim 3

hS0

h

5 lim

modeled by the function

P 1 t 2 5 4.933 1 1.017 2 t million people

Modeled from www.census.gov data) Find and interpret the meaning of Pr 1 25 2 .

SOLUTION

year in 2015. Pr 1 25 2 is the instantaneous rate of change

in the population in 2015, given in millions of people

per year.

hS0

h in the denominator algebraically and calculate the

exact value of Pr 1 25 2 . Nevertheless, by picking a small

value for h (say h 5 0.001), we can estimate the instantaneous rate of change.

7.519 1 1 1.017 2 0.001 2 1 2

5 0.1267 million people

0.001

per year

5 126.7 thousand people

per year

^ 127 thousand people

per year

According to the model, the population of Washington

will be increasing by approximately 127,000 people per

year in 2015.

Although we were unable to obtain the exact value

of the derivative of the exponential function in Example 5, we will develop the theory in later sections that

will allow us to calculate the exact value of the derivative of an exponential function.

3.2 Exercises

In Exercises 15, use the difference quotient

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a2

(with h 5 0.1, h 5 0.01, and h 5 0.001)

h

to estimate the instantaneous rate of change of the

function at the given input value.

1. f 1 x 2 5 x2; x 5 2

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3.2

2. s 1 t 2 5 216t2 1 64; t 5 2

3. w 1 t 2 5 4t 1 2; t 5 5

4. P 1 t 2 5 5; t 5 25

5. P 1 r 2 5 500 1 1 1 r 2 2; r 5 0.07

In Exercises 610, use the derivative to calculate the

instantaneous rate of change of the function at the given

input value. (In each exercise, you can eliminate the h

algebraically.) Compare your answers to the solutions

of Exercises 15.

6. f 1 x 2 5 x2; x 5 2

7. s 1 t 2 5 216t2 1 64; t 5 2

8. w 1 t 2 5 4t 1 2; t 5 5

9. P 1 t 2 5 5; t 5 25

10. P 1 r 2 5 500 1 1 1 r 2 2; r 5 0.07

In Exercises 1115, use the difference quotient (with

h 5 0.1, h 5 0.01, and h 5 0.001) to estimate the

instantaneous rate of change of the function at the

given input value. You may find it helpful to apply the

techniques on the Chapter 3 Tech Card.

11. f 1 x 2 5 2x23; x 5 3

12. P 1 t 2 5 230 1 0.9 2 t; t 5 25

13. P 1 r 2 5 500 1 1 1 r 2 10; r 5 0.07

14. y 5 ln 1 x 2 ; x 5 2

15. g 1 x 2 5 e3x; x 5 1

In Exercises 1620, determine the instantaneous rate

of change of the function at the indicated input value.

(You may find it helpful to apply the techniques on

the Chapter 3 Tech Card.) Then explain the real-life

meaning of the result.

16. Yogurt Production Based on data from 1997

2005, the amount of yogurt produced in the

United States annually may be modeled by

y 1 x 2 5 14.99x2 1 62.14x 1 1555 million pounds

where x is the number of years since 1997. (Source:

Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United

States, 2007, Table 846) Find and interpret the

meaning of Sr 1 10 2 .

57

Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2006, Table

106) Find and interpret the meaning of Dr 1 55 2 .

18. DVD Player Sales Based on data from 19972004,

the number of DVD players sold may be modeled by

D 1 p 2 5 77,100 1 0.989 2 p thousand DVD players

where p is the average price per DVD player

in dollars. (Source: Modeled from Consumer

Electronics Association data) Find and interpret

the meaning of Dr 1 100 2 .

19. Theme Park Tickets Based on 2007 ticket prices,

the cost of a childs Disney Park Hopper Bonus

Ticket may be modeled by

T 1 d 2 5 23.214d2 1 41.19d 1 34.2 dollars

where d is the number of days that the ticket

authorizes entrance into Disneyland and Disney

California Adventure. (Source: www.disneyland

.com) Find and interpret the meaning of Tr 1 4 2 .

20. United States Populations Based on data from

19952005, the population of the United States

may be modeled by

U 1 t 2 5 298,213 1 1.009 2 t thousand people

where t is the number of years since 2005.

(Source: World Health Statistics 2006, World

Health Organization) Find and interpret the

meaning of Ur 1 10 2 .

Exercises 21 and 22 deal with the velocity of a free-falling

object on earth. The vertical position of a free-falling

object may be modeled by s 1 t 2 5 216t2 1 v0t 1 s0

feet, where v0 is the velocity of the object and s0 is the

vertical position of the object at time t 5 0 seconds.

21. Velocity of a Dropped Object A can of soda is

dropped from a diving board 40 feet above the

bottom of an empty pool. How fast is the can

traveling when it reaches the bottom of the pool?

22. Velocity of a Ball A small rubber ball is thrown into

the air by a child at a velocity of 20 feet per second.

The child releases the ball 4 feet above the ground.

What is the velocity of the ball after 1 second?

19802003, the age-adjusted death rate due to

heart disease may be modeled by

R 1 t 2 5 27.597t 1 407.4 deaths per 100,000 people

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 57

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58

3.3

The Derivative as

a Slope: Graphical

Methods

amount of money spent on prescription

drugs (per capita) may be modeled by

t 5 c. Recall from Section 3.1 that, graphically speaking, the difference quotient is the slope of the secant line

connecting the two points on the graph of a function.

According to the prescription drug spending model,

C(0) 5 158.7 and C(20) 5 1262. Were interested in

the slope of the secant line between (0, 158.7) and

(20, 1262). The slope of this line represents the average rate of change in the prescription drug spending

between 1990 and 2010 (Figure 3.6).

Figure 3.6

1990. (Source: Statistical Abstract of

the United States, 2006, Table 121) To

help project future drug costs, an insurance company wants to know what the

average annual increase in the amount of

money spent on prescription drugs was

from 1990 to 2010 and at what rate

the drug spending will be increasing at

the end of 2010. We will answer these

questions by calculating the average and

instantaneous rates of change in the prescription drug spending.

In Sections 3.1 and 3.2, you learned how to calculate the average rate of change of a function over

an interval and the instantaneous rate of change of a

function at a point. In this section, we will revisit these

concepts from a graphical standpoint. We will also

demonstrate how to use tangent-line approximations

to estimate the value of a function.

As shown in Section 3.1, the difference quotient forf1a 1 h2 2 f1a2

mula,

, gives the average rate of change

h

in the value of the function between the points (a, f(a))

and 1 a 1 h, f 1 a 1 h 2 2 . If we let a 5 c 2 h, then the diff1c2 2 f1c 2 h2

ference quotient formula becomes

. We

h

will use this modified form of the difference quotient in

our exploration of prescription drug spending, since we

will be approaching t 5 c through values to the left of

C(t)

1400

1300

1200

1100

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

(20, 2162)

(0, 158.7)

0

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

Years (since 1990)

between 1 0, 158.7 2 and (20, 1262) has the slope

m5

C 1 20 2 2 C 1 0 2 dollars

20 years

20 years

Between 1990 and 2010, the per capita spending on

prescription drugs increased by $55.17 per year. Does

this mean that from 2010 to 2011, the spending will

increase by about $55.17 ? No. Looking at the graph of

the model, we notice that the prescription drug spending is rising at an increasing rate as time progresses

(the steeper the graph, the greater the magnitude of the

rate of change). We can approximate the instantaneous

rate of change at the end of 2010 (t 5 20) by calculating the slope of a secant line through (20, 1262) and a

nearby point as shown in Figure 3.7.

Shutterstock

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 58

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3.3

C(t)

1400

1300

1200

1100

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

m5

(20, 1262)

1 year

t 5 19 and t 5 20, the secant line and the graph of the

function are extremely close together.

(10, 421.5)

C 1 20 2 2 C 1 19 2 dollars

20 2 19 years

59

spending graph secant line between 1 19, 1152 2 and

(20, 1262) has the slope

Figure 3.7

Figure 3.9

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

Years (since 1990)

between (10, 421.5) and (20, 1262) has the slope

C 1 20 2 2 C 1 10 2 dollars

m5

10 years

5

10 years

C(t)

1300

(20, 1262)

1200

(19, 1152)

1100

19

18

20

Years (since 1990)

21 t

Figure 3.8

C(t)

1400

1300

1200

1100

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

between (19.9, 1251) and (920, 1262) has the slope

(20, 1262)

(19, 1152)

m5

5

C

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

Years (since 1990)

C 1 20 2 2 C 1 19.9 2 dollars

20 2 19.9 years

1262 2 1251 dollars

0.1 years

secant line is $110.0 per year.

Again zooming in, we see that the secant line and

the graph of the function are nearly identical between

t 5 19.9 and t 5 20 (Figure 3.10). In fact, we are

unable to visually distinguish between the two.

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 59

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60

Figure 3.10

Figure 3.11

C(t)

f (x)

1270

P

1260

(20, 1262)

Q4

Q3

1250

(19.9, 1251)

Q2

1240

19.8

Tangent line

Q1

19.9

20

Years (since 1990)

20.1 t

secant line will approach Cr 1 20 2 . This occurs because

C 1 20 2 2 C 1 20 2 h 2

< Cr 1 20 2 for small values of h.

h

Since h is the horizontal distance between the points,

h becomes increasingly small as t nears 20. Using the

methods covered in Section 3.2, we determine algebraically that Cr 1 20 2 5 112.9. At the end of 2010, per capita prescription drug spending was increasing at a rate

of roughly $113 per year. In other words, we anticipate

that per capita prescription drug spending increased by

approximately $113 between 2010 and 2011.

As the preceding example demonstrates, to find the

instantaneous rate of change of a function y 5 f 1 x 2 at a

point P 5 1 a, f 1 a 2 2 , we can find the limit of the slope of

the secant line through P and a nearby point Q as the

point Q gets closer and closer to P. Graphically speaking, we select values Q1, Q2, Q3, . . . , with each consecutive value of Qi being a point on the curve that is

closer to the point P than the one before it. The limit of

the slope of the secant lines (imagine the points P and

Q finally coinciding) is the line tangent to the curve at

the point P 5 1 a, f 1 a 2 2 (Figure 3.11).

The tangent line to a graph f at a point (a, f(a)) is

the line that passes through (a, f(a)) and has slope fr 1 a 2 .

of the Derivative

The derivative of a function f at a point

(a, f(a)) is the slope of the tangent line to

the graph of f at that point. The slope of the

tangent line at a point is also referred to as

the slope of the curve at that point.

of a Tangent Line

of f 1 x 2 5 x2 that passes through (2, 4). Then

graph the tangent line and the graph of f.

SOLUTION

fr 1 2 2 5 hlim

S0

f12 1 h2 2 f122

h

1 2 1 h 2 2 2 22

5 hlim

S0

h

Since f sxd 5 x2

4 1 4h 1 h2 2 4

5 hlim

S0

h

4h 1 h2

5 hlim

S0

h

h14 1 h2

5 hlim

S0

h

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 60

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3.3

61

5 lim 1 4 1 h 2

hS0

Figure 3.13

5410

C(t)

4.8

54

The slope of the tangent line is 4 at the point (2, 4). Using

the slope-intercept form of a line, we have y 5 4x 1 b.

Substituting in the point (2, 4), we get

4.6

4 5 4122 1 b

4.2

4.4

4.0

4581b

(2,4)

3.8

b 5 24

y=

3.6

We generate a table of values for y 5 4x 2 4 and

f 1 x 2 5 x2. Then we graph the results (Figure 3.12).

x2

3.4

y = 4x4

3.2

1.8

Figure 3.12

y = 4x 4

f(x)

12

16

Tangent-Line Approximations

In Example 1 you may have noticed that the tangent line

lies very near to the graph of f for values of x near a. In

fact, if we zoom in to the region immediately surrounding (a, f(a)), the graph of f and the tangent line to the

graph of f at (a, f(a)) appear nearly identical. For values

of x near 2, the tangent-line y-value is a good approximation of the actual function value (see Figure 3.13).

Because it is frequently easier to calculate the values

of the tangent line than the values of the function, sometimes the tangent line is used to estimate the value of the

function. For example, suppose we wanted to estimate

f 1 1.9 2 given f 1 x 2 5 x2. Since x 5 1.9 is near x 5 2, we

may use the equation of the tangent line, y 5 4x 2 4,

to estimate f 1 1.9 2 . That is, f 1 1.9 2 < 4 1 1.9 2 2 4 5 3.6.

The actual value is

f 1 1.9 2 5 1 1.9 2 2

5 3.61

Approximation for Apple iPod Net Sales

net sales may be modeled by

(Source: Model based on data from Apple Computer

Corporation) According to the model, iPod net sales

were $8.22 billion in 2009.

Use the model to predict how quickly iPod net sales

were changing at the end of 2009. Then use a tangent line

to estimate iPod net sales at the end of 2010. Compare

the estimate to the actual value predicted by the model.

SOLUTION

instantaneous rate of change in iPod net sales at the

end of 2009 is given by

Pr 1 4 2 5 lim

hS0

P 1 4 1 h 2 2 P 1 4 2 million dollars

h years

P 1 4 2 5 8.22. Well calculate P 1 4 1 h 2 and then

substitute the simplified value into

the derivative

formula.

tock

(2, 4)

2.2 t

close to the actual value of the function 1 f 1 1.9 2 5 3.61 2 .

f (x) = x 2

2.1

tters

1 2

4

6

2.0

Shu

y

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

1.9

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 61

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62

5 20.58 1 16 1 8h 1 h2 2 1 12.8 1 3.2h 1 4.7

Figure 3.14

C(t)

12

5 20.58h2 2 1.44h 1 8.22

5 lim

S

h 0

h

20.58h 2 1.44h

h

2

5 lim

hS0

h 1 20.58h 2 1.44 2

5 lim

hS0

h

P14 1 h2 2 P142

Pr 1 4 2 5 lim

hS0

h

y = 1.44(x 4) + 8.22

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

1

3

4

Years (since 2005)

hS0

5 20.58 1 0 2 2 1.44

5 21.44

billion dollars

year

a rate of $1.44 billion per year. That is, between 2009

and 2010, the iPod net sales were expected to decrease

by approximately $1.44 billion.

The point-slope form of the tangent line is

y 2 y1 5 21.44 1 x 2 x1 2 . Using the point 1 4, 8.22 2 , we

determine

y 2 8.22 5 21.44 1 x 2 4 2

This is the tangent-line equation. At t 5 5, we have

y 2 8.22 5 21.44 1 5 2 4 2

y 5 8.22 2 1.44

time t reached 5, the value of the model fell below the

tangent-line estimate by about $0.6 billion. Although

tangent-line estimates of a functions value are not

exact, they are often good enough for their intended

purpose.

Numerical Derivatives

Often we encounter real-life data in tables or charts. Is

it possible to calculate a derivative from a table of data?

Well investigate this question by looking at a table of

data for f 1 x 2 5 x2 (see Table 3.7). For this function,

fr 1 2 2 5 4.

5 6.78

Using the tangent-line equation, we estimate that iPod

net sales are about $6.8 billion in 2010. According to

the model, the actual number of iPod net sales was

somewhat less.

P 1 5 2 5 20.58 1 5 2 2 1 3.2 1 5 2 1 4.7

5 6.2

The model indicates that iPod net sales were $6.2 billion in 2010.

Why was there a discrepancy between the two estimates in Example 2? Look at the graph of the model

and the tangent line (Figure 3.14).

Table 3.7

f(x)

16

secant line through points whose x-values are equidistant from x 5 2. That is,

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 62

9/29/10 1:52 PM

3.3

fr 1 2 2 <

f132 2 f112

321

fr 1 a 2 <

921

5

2

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a2

h

In both cases, h is the distance between a and the next

closest domain value.

54

In this case, our estimate was equal to the tangentline slope. Lets look at the situation graphically (see

Figure 3.15).

The derivative of a function f at a point (a, f(a))

may be approximated from a table by

fr 1 a 2 <

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a 2 h2

1a 1 h2 2 1a 2 h2

<

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a 2 h2

2h

Figure 3.15

f (x) = x 2

16

a and a 1 h.

m=4

14

12

10

f1a 1 h2 2 f1a2

1a 1 h2 2 1a2

<

8

5

2

63

f ' (2) = 4

(3, 9)

8

Function

Secant

Tangent

6

(2, 4)

4

2

1

(1, 1)

0

When estimating a derivative numerically, we typically select the two closest data points that are horizontally equidistant from our point of interest. Doing so

often yields a line that is parallel or near-parallel to the

tangent line. Picking two points that are equidistant from

the point of interest will tend to give the best estimate

of the derivative and can be used as long as the point of

interest is not an endpoint. (If the point of interest is an

endpoint, we find the slope of the secant line between the

endpoint and the next closest point.) If we assume that

each output in a table of data represents f 1 a 2 for a corresponding input a, then we can symbolically represent the

process of numerically estimating a derivative as follows.

If a is the largest domain value in the data set, then

fr 1 a 2 <

f1a2 2 f1a 2 h2

1a2 2 1a 2 h2

<

f1a2 2 f1a 2 h2

h

from a Table of Data

sales prices in the southern United States were

increasing at the end of 2006. (That is, estimate the

slope of the tangent line at (6, 208.2).)

Table 3.8

in the Southern United States

Years (since 2000)

Price (thousands of dollars)

(t)

(P)

0

148.0

163.4

181.1

208.2

203.7

SOLUTION

by calculating the slope of the secant line between

(4, 181.1) and (8, 203.7).

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 63

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64

fr 1 6 2 <

<

f 1 8 2 2 f 1 4 2 thousand dollars

8 2 4 years

203.7 2 181.1

4

We estimate that home prices in the southern United

States were increasing at a rate of about 5.7 thousand

dollars per year at the end of 2006. (Since the original

data were accurate to one decimal place, we rounded

our final result to one decimal place.)

2000 to 2008, the average number of square feet

in new one-family homes may be modeled by

H 1 t 2 5 20.0023t2 1 3447t 1 2265 square feet

where t is the number of years after 2000. (Source:

Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United

States, 2010, Table 936)

At what rate was home size changing in 2008?

What was the estimated size of a new home in

2009? (Use a tangent-line approximation.)

13. Student-to-Teacher Ratio Based on data from

1995 to 2007, the student-to-teacher ratio at

private elementary and secondary schools may

be modeled by

3.3 Exercises

In Exercises 110, determine the equation of the tangent

line of the function at the given point. Then graph the

tangent line and the function together.

1. f 1 x 2 5 x2 2 4x; 1 1, 23 2

2. f 1 x 2 5 2x2 1 6; 1 2, 2 2

3. g 1 x 2 5 x2 1 2x 1 1; 1 0, 1 2

4. g 1 x 2 5 x2 2 4; 1 3, 5 2

where t is the number of years since 1995. (Source:

Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United

States, 2010, Table 245)

According to the model, how quickly was the

student-to-teacher ratio changing in 2008? What

was the estimated student-to-teacher ratio for

2009? (Use a tangent-line approximation.)

6. h 1 x 2 5 x3; 1 2, 8 2

19902004, the value of music cassette tapes

shipped may be modeled by

7. h 1 x 2 5 x3; 1 0, 0 2

8. h 1 x 2 5 x ; 1 1, 1 2

tapes shipped (in millions). (Source: Modeled from

Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2006,

Table 1131)

According to the model, at what rate is the

value of the cassette tapes shipped changing when

the number of cassette tapes shipped is 250 million?

What was the estimated shipment value when 251

million cassette tapes were shipped? (Use a tangentline approximation.)

5. g 1 x 2 5 x2 2 4x 2 5; 1 4, 25 2

9. f 1 x 2 5 1 x 2 3 2 2; 1 3, 0 2

10. f 1 x 2 5 1 x 1 2 2 2; 1 21, 1 2

In Exercises 1115, answer the questions by calculating

the slope of the tangent line and the tangent-line

equation, as appropriate.

11. Median Price of a New Home Based on data from

2003 to 2008, the median price of a home in

the western region of the United States may be

modeled by

W 1 t 2 5 29.2t 1 55t 1 253 thousand dollars

2

Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United

States, 2010, Table 940)

How quickly was the median sales price

changing in 2009? What was the estimated

median sales price in 2010? (Use a tangent-line

approximation.)

and Census Bureau projections for 20032013,

private college enrollment may be modeled by

P 1 x 2 5 0.340x 2 457 thousand students

where x is the number of students (in thousands)

enrolled in public colleges. (Source: Modeled from

Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2006,

Table 204)

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3.3

college enrollment when 12,752 thousand public

college students are enrolled. Use a tangent-line

approximation to estimate the number of students

enrolled in private colleges when there are 12,753

thousand public college students.

In Exercises 1620, estimate the specified derivative by

using the data in the table. Then interpret the result.

of Pittsburgh

Annual Tuition and Fees

Years

(dollars)

(since 20042005)

f1t2

t

and Sound Recording Industries

Annual Salary (dollars)

Years (since 2000)

t

W1t2

0

55,355

54,776

54,877

55,991

60,424

62,051

65,764

67,055

3.69

3.90

4.08

4.28

10,736

11,368

12,106

12,832

13,344

Years (since 2004)

t

S1t2

6.09

5.93

5.79

5.91

6.07

3.85

10,130

about the rate of increase in tuition and fees at the

University of Pittsburgh?

Estimate Wr 1 6 2 .

of Ice Cream

I1t2

t

65

Estimate Sr 1 3 2 .

20. Bread Prices

Years (since 2004)

t

Estimate Ir 1 3 2 .

B1t2

1.30

1.29

1.62

1.81

1.95

Estimate Br 1 2 2 .

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66

3.4

The Derivative

as a Function:

Algebraic Method

cumulative number of homicides resulting

from a romantic triangle may be modeled

by R(t) 5 21.57t2 1 119t 1 125 homicides between the start of 2000 and the

end of year t, where t is the number of

years since 2000. (Source: Modeled

from Crime in the United States 2006,

Uniform Crime Report, FBI) At what rate

was the cumulative number of homicides

increasing at the end of 2004, 2005,

and 2006? Although we could calculate

the derivative at t5 4, t55, and t5 6,

we can save time by nding the derivative

function and then substituting in the various values of t.

In this section, we will introduce the derivative

function and show how to find it algebraically. Your

skill in finding the derivative at a point will prove to

be especially useful in this section. Well begin with a

simple example before returning to the romantic triangle problem.

Shutterstock

of a Function at Multiple Points

f 1 x 2 5 3x2 at 1 1, 3 2 , 1 3, 27 2 , and 1 10, 300 2 .

SOLUTION

individually, it will be more efcient to nd the

derivative function itself and then substitute in the

different values of x.

We begin with the derivative formula; however,

instead of substituting a specific value for a, we replace

a with the variable x.

fr 1 x 2 5 lim

hS0

f1x 1 h2 2 f1x2

h

1 3 1 x 1 h 2 2 2 2 1 3x2 2

hS0

h

5 lim

1 3 1 x2 1 2hx 1 h2 2 2 2 1 3x2 2

hS0

h

5 lim

hS0

h

5 lim

5 lim

6hx 1 3h2

h

5 lim

h 1 6x 1 3h 2

h

hS0

hS0

5 lim 1 6x 1 3h 2

hS0

5 6x 1 3 1 0 2

5 6x

The result fr 1 x 2 5 6x is the derivative function for

f 1 x 2 5 3x2. It can be used to calculate the instantaneous rate of change of f at any point (a, f(a)).

fr 1 1 2 5 6 1 1 2

56

The instantaneous rate of change of f at 1 1, 3 2 is 6.

fr 1 3 2 5 6 1 3 2

5 18

The instantaneous rate of change of f at 1 3, 27 2 is 18.

fr 1 10 2 5 6 1 10 2

5 60

The instantaneous rate of change of f at 1 10, 300 2 is 60.

As demonstrated in Example 1, the techniques used

to find the derivative function are virtually identical to

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3.4

However, knowing the derivative function allows us to

calculate the derivative at a number of different points

more quickly than calculating the derivative at each

point separately. The derivative function for a function

f is called the derivative of f.

The derivative function of a function f is

given by

fr 1 x 2 5 lim

hS0

f1x 1 h2 2 f1x2

h

67

formula yields

Rr 1 t 2 5 lim

hS0

R1t 1 h2 2 R1t2

h

hS0

h

5 lim

5 lim

hS0

h

hS0

Since

h

5 1 for h 2 0

h

5 23.14t 1 119

now compute the instantaneous rate of change in the

cumulative number of homicides in 2004, 2005, and 2006.

Rr 1 4 2 5 23.14 1 4 2 1 119

5 106.4

Instantaneous Rate of Change

of a Function at Multiple Points

Based on data from 2000 to 2006, the cumulative number of homicides resulting from a

romantic triangle between the start of 2000 and the end

of year t may be modeled by

Rr 1 5 2 5 23.14 1 5 2 1 119

Rr 1 6 2 5 23.14 1 6 2 1 119

Modeled from Crime in the United States 2006, Uniform Crime Report, FBI) At what rate was the cumulative number of homicides increasing at the end of 2004,

2005, and 2006?

SOLUTION

Rr 1 t 2 5 lim

hS0

R1t 1 h2 2 R1t2

h

Because of the complex nature of R 1 t 2 , we will first calculate R 1 t 1 h 2 and then substitute the result into the

derivative formula.

R(t 1 h) 5 21.57(t 1 h)2 1 119(t 1 h) 1 125

5 21.57t2 (t2 1 2ht 1 h2) 1 119t

1 119h 1 125

5

2 3.14ht 2

1 119h 1 125

21.57t2

1.57h2

1 119t

5 103.3

< 103 homicides per year

5 100.2

< 100 homicides per year

The cumulative number of homicides resulting

from a romantic triangle was increasing at a rate of 106

homicides per year in 2004, 103 homicides per year in

2005, and 100 homicides per year in 2006. According to the model, although the cumulative number of

homicides continued to increase, the rate at which these

homicides were increasing slowed between the end of

2004 and the end of 2006.

of a Function

SOLUTION

g1t 1 h2 2 g1t2

. Well rst

h

nd g 1 t 1 h 2 and then substitute the result into the

derivative formula.

We must nd gr 1 t 2 5 lim

hS0

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68

5 2 1 t3 1 3t2h 1 3th2 1 h3 2 2 4t 2 4h 1 3

5 2t3 1 6t2h 1 6th2 1 2h3 2 4t 2 4h 1 3

SOLUTION

W1t 1 h2 2 W1t2

Wr 1 t 2 5 hlim

S0

h

5 lim

g1t 1 h2 2 g1t2

gr 1 t 2 5 lim

hS0

h

1 6t h 1 6th 1 2h 2 4h 2

h

2

5 lim

hS0

hS0

5 lim

hS0

h

5 lim 1 6t2 1 6th 1 2h2 2 4 2

hS0

5 6t2 1 6t 1 0 2 1 2 1 0 2 2 2 4

5 6t2 2 4

The derivative of g 1 t 2 5 2t3 2 4t 1 3 is gr 1 t 2 5 6t2 2 4.

Estimating Derivatives

For polynomial functions, all terms in the numerator of

the derivative formula without an h will cancel out. This

allows us always to eliminate the h in the denominator.

However, with some other types of functions, the h in

the denominator cannot be eliminated algebraically. In

this case, we can estimate the derivative function by substituting in a small positive value (e.g., 0.001) for h. The

closer the value of h is to zero, the more accurate the

estimate of the derivative will be.

Instantaneous Rate of Change of

a Function at Multiple Points

h

hS0

h Since 11.1062 t1h 5 11.1062 t 11.1062 h

5 lim

hS0

h

5 lim

1 1 1.106 2 h 2 1 2

h

We can move the expression 2.593 1 1.106 2 t to the other

side of the limit because it does not contain an h. Since

5 2.593 1 1.106 2 t # lim

hS0

lim

hS0

1 1 1.106 2 0.001 2 1 2

1 1 1.106 2 h 2 1 2

<

h

0.001

< 0.1008

we have

1 1 1.106 2 h 2 1 2

hS0

h

< 0.2614 1 1.106 2 t

We will now evaluate the derivative function at

t 5 22, 24, and 26.

Wr 1 22 2 < 0.2614 1 1.106 2 22

< 2.398

According to the model, bottled water consumption was

increasing by 2.398 gallons per year at the end of 2002.

The per capita consumption of bottled water in the United States may

be modeled by

gallons per year at the end of 2004.

Shutterstock

the end of 1980. (Source: Modeled from Statistical Abstract

of the United States, 2001, Table

204)

Determine how quickly

bottled water consumption

was increasing at the end of

2002, 2004, and 2006.

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 68

< 2.934

< 3.589

Bottled water consumption was increasing at a rate of

3.589 gallons per year at the end of 2006.

9/24/10 10:15 AM

3.4

3.4 Exercises

In Exercises 15, find the derivative of the function.

1. f 1 x 2 5 x2 2 4x

2. g 1 x 2 5 x2 1 2x 1 1

3. g 1 x 2 5 x 2 4x 2 5

2

4. j 1 x 2 5 x3 1 2

5. f 1 t 2 5 1 t 2 3 2 2

In Exercises 610, find the slope of the tangent line of

the function at x 5 1, x 5 3, and x 5 5.

6. g 1 x 2 5 2x2 1 x 2 1

7. f 1 x 2 5 x2 2 2x

8. j 1 x 2 5 25

9. W 1 x 2 5 24x 1 9

10. S 1 x 2 5 3x2 2 2x 1 1

In Exercises 1113, estimate the derivative of the

function. When you are unable to eliminate the h in the

denominator of the derivative formula algebraically, use

h 5 0.001.

11. P 1 x 2 5 3x

12. C 1 x 2 5 23 # 4x

13. R 1 x 2 5 5.042 # 1 0.98 2 x

In Exercises 1418, use the derivative function to

answer the questions.

14. Median Price of a New Home Based on data from

2003 to 2008, the median price of a home in

the western region of the United States may be

modeled by

W 1 t 2 5 29.2t2 1 55t 1 253 thousand dollars

where t is the number of years since 2003. (Source:

Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United

States, 2010, Table 940)

According to the model, was the median sales

price changing more quickly at the end of 2006 or

the end of 2008?

15. Median Price of a New Home Based on data from

2003 to 2008, the median price of a home in the

United States may be modeled by

69

Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United

States, 2010, Table 940)

According to the model, was the median sales

price changing more quickly at the end of 2007 or

the end of 2009?

16. Walmart Net Sales Based on data from 19962006,

the net sales of Walmart may be modeled by

s 1 t 2 5 0.8636t2 1 14.39t 1 84.72 billion dollars

where t is the number of years since 1996.

(Source: Modeled from Walmart Annual Report,

2006, pp.1819)

According to the model, how much more

rapidly were net sales increasing in 2006

compared to 2005?

17. Prescription Drug Spending Based on data from

19902003, per capita prescription drug spending

may be modeled by

P 1 t 2 5 2.889t2 2 2.613t 1 158.7 dollars

where t is the number of years since 1990. (Source:

Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2006,

Table 121)

In what year was prescription drug spending

increasing twice as fast as it was increasing in

2000?

18. Oil Production Based on data from 19852004,

the difference between U.S. oil eld production

and net oil imports may be modeled by

b 1 t 2 5 4.29t2 2 278t 1 2250 million barrels

where t is the number of years since 1985. (Source:

Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United

States, 2007, Table 881)

At what rate was the difference in U.S. oil

eld production and net oil imports changing in

2000 and 2005, according to the model?

Exercises 19 and 20 are intended to challenge your

understanding.

19. Given fr 1 x 2 5 3x and g 1 x 2 5 x2 1 3 1 f 1 x 2 , nd

gr 1 x 2 .

20. Given f 1 x 2 5 x3 2 3x, determine where fr 1 x 2 5 0.

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 69

9/24/10 10:15 AM

70

3.5

about, approximately, or roughly must be used when

using the second interpretation of the derivative, since we

are using a tangent-line approximation to estimate the

increase over the next year. (For a graphical discussion of

tangent-line approximations, refer to Section 3.3.)

Interpreting the

Derivative

Many of us feel inundated by the advertisements we are sent through the mail.

Dont expect this to let up anytime soon:

Spending on direct-mail advertising has

risen every year since 1990. The amount

of money spent on direct-mail advertising

Let f(x) be a function. The meaning of fr 1 a 2 5 c may

be written in either of the following two ways:

may be modeled by

A(t) 5

70.54t2

increasing (decreasing) at a rate of c units of

output per unit of input.

1 1488t 1 22,828

million dollars

by about c units of output between a units of

input and a 1 1 units of input.

1990. (Source: Modeled from Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2001,

Table 1272) According to the model,

A(9) 5 41,934 and A9(9) 5 2,758. But

what does this mean? In this section, we

will discuss how to interpret the meaning of a derivative in the context of a

real-life problem.

of the Derivative

average monthly Social Security benet

for men may be modeled by

P 1 t 2 5 0.3486t2 2 5.505t 1 35.13 dollars

(Source: Modeled from Social Security

Administration data)

Interpret the meaning of P 1 60 2 5 959.79

and Pr 1 60 2 5 36.33.

Recall that the units of the derivative are the units of the output

divided by the units of the input.

tter

sto

ck

SOLUTION

Shu

millions of dollars

or millions of

year

dollars per year. Note that t 5 9 corresponds to the year 1999. We

conclude that in 1999, 41,934

million dollars were spent on

direct-mail advertising, and

spending was increasing by

2,758 million dollars per year.

In other words, according to the

model, 41,934 million dollars were

spent on direct-mail advertising in

1999 and spending increased by about

corresponds to 2000. P 1 60 2 5 959.79 means that

(according to the model) the average Social Security

benet for men in 2000 was $959.79.

dollars

The units of the derivative are

.

year

P9 s60d 5 36.33 means that in 2000, the average Social

Security benefit for men was increasing by $36.33 per

year. In other words, the average Social Security benefit for men was expected to increase by about $36.33

between 2000 and 2001.

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 70

9/24/10 10:15 AM

3.5

Approximation to Estimate

a Function Value

years of age may be modeled by

71

Tr 1 12 2 5 10.7 means that in 2004, the number of television sets in U.S. homes was increasing at a rate of

10.7 million sets per year. In other words, the number

of television sets in homes was expected to increase by

about 10.7 million sets between 2004 and 2005.

from www.babybag.com data)

Interpret the meaning of W 1 10 2 5 75.21 and

Wr 1 10 2 5 7.29. Then use a tangent-line approximation to estimate W 1 11 2 .

SOLUTION

a 10-year-old boy. W 1 10 2 5 75.21 means that the

average weight of a 10-year-old boy is 75.21 pounds.

pounds

.

The units of the derivative are

year of his age

Wr 1 10 2 5 7.29 means that the average weight of a

10-year-old boy is increasing by 7.29 pounds per year

of his age. In other words, the average weight of a boy

will increase by about 7.29 pounds between his 10th

and 11th years.

We use a tangent-line approximation to estimate

W 1 11 2 .

W 1 11 2 < W 1 10 2 1 Wr 1 10 2

< 75.21 1 7.29

< 82.5

We estimate that the average weight of an 11-year-old

boy is 82.5 pounds.

of the Derivative

television sets in U.S. homes may be modeled by

3

where x is the number of years since 1992. (Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2007, Table 1111)

Interpret the meaning of T 1 12 2 5 271.9 and

1

Tr 12 2 5 10.7.

SOLUTION

2004. T 1 12 2 5 271.9 means that in 2004, there were

271.9 million television sets in U.S. homes.

television sets

The units of the derivative are

.

year

3.5 Exercises

In Exercises 118, interpret the real-life meaning of

the indicated values. Answer additional questions as

appropriate.

1. Body Weight The weight of a girl between 2 and

13 years of age may be modeled by

W 1 a 2 5 0.289a2 1 2.464a 1 23.10 pounds

where a is the age of the girl. (Source: Modeled

from www.babybag.com data)

Interpret the meaning of W 1 10 2 5 76.64 and

Wr 1 10 2 5 8.24. Then estimate W 1 11 2 .

2. Body Weight Compare the results of Example 2

and Exercise 1. Were boys or girls expected to gain

more weight between their 10th and 11th years?

Explain.

3. Carbon Monoxide Pollution Based on data from

19902003, carbon monoxide pollution may be

modeled by

P 1 t 2 5 20.248t 1 5.99 parts per million

where t is the number of years since 1990. (Source:

Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2006,

Table 359)

Interpret the meaning of P 1 15 2 5 2.27 and

Pr 1 15 2 5 20.248.

4. Kazakhstan Population Based on data from

19952005, the population of Kazakhstan may be

modeled by

K 1 t 2 5 14,825 1 0.993 2 t thousand people

where t is the number of years since 2005. (Source:

World Health Statistics 2006, World Health

Organization)

Interpret the meaning of K 1 10 2 5 13,819 and

1

Pr 10 2 5 297.08.

5. India Population Based on data from 19952005,

the population of the India may be modeled by

I 1 t 2 5 1,103,371 1 1.015 2 t thousand people

65639_03_ch03_046-073.indd 71

9/24/10 10:15 AM

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