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Advanced Course – Part 1: Reading & Writing Unit 1: The Hawaiian Islands 1) The Hawaiian Islands Vocabulary: features ‫مظاهر / ملمح‬ a tropical climate ‫مناخ استوائي‬ volcanic ‫بركانــي‬ creatures ‫مخلوقـات‬ turtles ‫سلحف‬ Questions with model answers: While the Hawaiian Islands differ from one another in some ways, they share many of the same features. Discuss. a)They all have a tropical climate. It is usually hot and rainy. b)They are similar in natural beauty. They have volcanic mountains and waterfalls, rainforests and beautiful beaches. The warm, clear water around the islands is filled with many kinds of sea creatures such as giant sea turtles, whales and dolphins as well as lots of tropical fish. The forests are full of beautiful birds and flowers. c)They have an interesting natural history. Until modern times, birds and insects were the only kinds of animals living on the islands, with just a few exceptions. The exceptions were the seal and a kind of bat. When people arrived in about 500 A.D., they brought some animals such as pigs, for food. 2- Each of the Hawaiian Islands has features that are special. Discuss. a)The Big Island Hawaii is the only island with active volcanoes. b)The island of Oahu is the site of the modern capital of Hawaii, Honolulu. c)Honolulu is one of the world’s most famous beaches. d)The island of Maui is important for its role in the history of the islands. This island was the capital of Hawaii until early in the 20th century.
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seal ‫عجل البحر‬ bat ‫خفاش‬ elements ‫عناصـر‬ tourist attraction exception

‫منطقة جذب سياحي‬ ‫استثناء‬

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3- There are several elements that made Hawaii a major tourist attraction. Discuss. (2002) - There are many elements that made Hawaii a major tourist attraction: a) All the eight Hawaiian islands have a tropical climate. It is never uncomfortably hot in summer and there is generally little wind. Rain falls but usually not for long. b) All the islands have natural beauty. They have volcanic mountains and waterfalls, rainforests and beautiful beaches. c) The warm, clear water around the islands is filled with many kinds of sea creatures such as giant sea turtles, whales, dolphins and lots of tropical fish. d) The forests are full of beautiful birds and flowers that cannot be found anywhere else in the world. 4- Why do people come from all over the world to Hawaii? (2005) With its tropical climate and natural beauty, Hawaii is a major tourist attraction. Explain. (2008) a) People come from all over the world to view the volcanoes, the seacoast and the rainforests. b) People come to sunbathe or surf at the beaches. c) People come to relax in the warm sweet air. 5- The Hawaiian Islands have an interesting natural history. Explain. Until modern times, birds and insects were the only kinds of animals living on the islands, with just a few exceptions. The exceptions were the monk seal and a kind of bat. When people arrived in about 500 AD, they brought some animals such as pigs, for food.

2) Water Sports in Hawaii Vocabulary:

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Scuba diving ‫ الغوص تحت الماء باستخدام‬board snorkeling
‫ذاتي / مستقل‬ ‫جهاز خاص للتنفس‬ ‫الغوص تحت الماء‬ ‫باستخدام أنبوب هواء‬

self-contained apparatus ‫جهاز‬

balance ‫توازن‬ certificate tube
‫أنبـوب‬ ‫شهادة‬

‫لوح‬

flippers ‫زعانف‬ canoeing
‫التجديف بالقوارب‬

1- What is the difference between scuba diving and snorkeling? (2002) a) In scuba diving you can swim far under water, but in snorkeling you can’t dive deep into the water. b) In scuba diving you need special equipment but in snorkeling less equipment is needed. c) You need special courses to learn how to scuba dive, but you can learn how to snorkel in a few minutes. d) Scuba diving can be dangerous, but snorkeling is safer. 2- What are the water sports that a tourist can enjoy in Hawaii? (2004 / 2007) The sports that one can enjoy in The Hawaiian Islands are water sports, and you can go swimming all year round in the warm water. You can also go fishing from the shore or from a boat. You can go sailing, canoeing or windsurfing. You can also try some other water sports that are especially popular in Hawaii like surfing, snorkeling and scuba diving. 3- Surfing is an old water sport in Hawaii. Explain. Surfing is a sport which started in Hawaii many years ago. Long before the arrival of the Europeans, the Hawaiians would ride on the waves on long narrow wooden boards. Now surfing is a popular sport in many parts of the world. What qualities should you have to try surfing? (2005) You need to be a good swimmer. You have to have an excellent sense of balance. You must swim out from the beach with your surfboard under your arm. When you get to where the waves begin to break, you wait for a
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calm moment. You must try to stand up on the board. The wave will begin to rise under you. You must keep your balance and stay on top of the wave. 5What does “scuba diving” mean? What can you do to learn how to scuba dive in Hawaii? (2006) - It means “self-contained underwater breathing apparatus” that is equipment for breathing and swimming underwater. - In Hawaii, you can take special courses to learn how to scuba dive. - After the courses, you can get a certificate that will allow you to dive alone. 6-What makes diving in the water of Hawaii cheerful? The waters of the Hawaiian Islands are clean, clear and warm. They contain hundreds of kinds of colorful fish. The undersea world is made even more colorful by the coral reefs of red, gold, white and light purple. Among these reefs, there may be larger fish or sea turtles. 3) Hawaiian Traditions traditions lei funeral goddess
‫تقاليد‬ ‫إكليل من الزهور‬ ‫جنازة‬ ‫إلهة‬

necklace
peace conference

ceremony religious

‫عقد‬ ‫مؤتمر سلم‬ ‫احتفال‬ ‫ديني‬

What are the two important traditions that are still alive in Hawaii today? (2006) - Two important traditions are still alive in Hawaii today. The “lei” (a necklace made of flowers) and the “hula” (a Hawaii dance). Leis were worn by Hawaiian chiefs at peace conferences. They are symbolic of peace and friendship. They are worn at weddings, funerals and important ceremonies. The hula is a dance taught to the people by the goddess Laka. It was part of a religious ceremony, and was danced only by men, but later women began to dance the hula, too.
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2- According to Hawaiian traditions, how are “leis” made? (2007) Leis are handmade by older women. They are created from the many kinds of fresh flowers that are found on the islands. 3-How do Hawaiians receive non-Hawaiian visitors?
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They always give a lei to non-Hawaiian visitors. When the guest arrives, the lei is placed around his or her neck, with the traditional greeting “Aloha”. 4-Why did Europeans discourage the ”hula” when they came to Hawaii? They did so because they thought that such dancing went against proper religious beliefs. Therefore, they discouraged the “hula” and it almost disappeared. In the late 1800s, a Hawaiian king saved this important tradition.

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Unit 2: Maria Montessori
1) Childhood educator optimism ideals average strong-willed performance conservative middle class
‫معلم‬ ‫التفاؤل‬ ‫مثل عليا‬ ‫متوسط‬ ‫ذات إرادة قوية‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫محافظ / تقليدي‬ ‫الطبقة المتوسطة‬

grade
sewing

needlework self-confident attitude complex thought approve of method

‫صف دراسي‬ ‫الحياكة‬ ‫أشغال البرة‬ ‫لديه ثقة بالنفس‬ ‫موقف‬ ‫التفكير المعقد‬ ‫يوافق علي‬ ‫طريقة‬

1-How was Maria Montessori’s mother a great help to her daughter? (June, 2002) When Maria Montessori was born in Italy, her future seemed to be like her mother’s and most women of her time; she would become a mother and a housewife. But, later she proved that women could indeed think and work as well as men and she became a doctor and a famous educator. - Thanks to her mother who supported all Maria’s decisions, Maria overcame many difficult times. She gave her the optimism and ideals necessary for her success. She also taught her how to work hard. She gave her a sense of responsibility towards others. 2-What was Maria’s performance in primary school like?(August, 2002) Maria started primary school education in Rome when she was five years old. She was considered an average student at that time. She didn’t seem to be as ambitious as her classmates. In the first grade she won a prize for good behaviour. In the second grade, she won a prize for sewing and needlework. So far, her interests and achievements were the same as those of any other girl of her age. 3-How was Maria Montessori different from other children? (2005) Her character stood out among the other children. She was often the leader in their games. She was self-confident and strong-willed.

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4-What was the attitude of the Italian society towards women at Maria Montessori’s time? (How were women denied their rights in Italy at Maria Montessori’s time?) Women did not have careers in those days. They did not attend college. People generally believed that women were not very intelligent and not capable of complex thought. Most women became mothers and housewives. 5-How did Maria Montessori’s life take a very different course from other women at her time? (How did Maria Montessori prove that she had the same potentials as men?) (2008) She became the first woman doctor in Italy. With her brilliant medical studies and research, she proved that women could think and work as well as men. She became intentionally famous as the inventor of the Montessori method of teaching. To this day, Montessori schools around the world follow her method. 6-How did the attitude of Maria Montessori’s father change later? Although her father was well-educated and wanted the best for his daughter, he was conservative and did not approve of her unusual choices. When Maria became famous, he changed his mind and became proud of her. 7-In what way was Maria Montessori different from the other women of her day? (2007) She decided to continue her education while most girls from middleclass families chose to stay at home after primary school. She became the first woman doctor in Italy. She proved that women could think and work as well as men. 2) Going Her Own Way High school Classical Technical Traditional Literature Commercial
‫المدرسة الثانوية‬ ‫كلسيكي‬ ‫تقني / فني‬ ‫تقليدي‬ ‫الدب‬ ‫تجاري‬

Memorizing
Strict discipline

Severe punishment companions attend

‫الحفظ عن ظهر قلب‬ ‫نظام صارم‬ ‫عقاب شديد‬ ‫رفاق / زملء‬ ‫يحضر / ينتظم في‬

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What were the two types of high schools at Maria’s time? And which one did Maria choose? (2004) The two main schools at Maria’s time were “classical schools” and “technical schools”. In the classical schools, the students followed a very traditional program of studies. The courses included Latin and Greek language and literature, and Italian literature and history. The girls usually choose these schools. The technical schools were a little more modern than the classical schools. The courses they offered included modern languages, mathematics, some science and commercial subjects. - Maria chose the technical school.
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2- Why did everyone predict that Maria Montessori would fail? (2003)
Maria chose to attend a technical school where the courses included modern languages, mathematics, science and commercial subjects. When she joined a school in Rome, the courses included modern subjects, but the teaching methods were very traditional. Everyone including Maria’s father believed that she would never be able to understand all these subjects. Besides he believed that these subjects were not proper for a girl to study. However, Maria was very successful. 3-Why did Maria Montessori prefer the technical school to the classical school? (2007) ..because the technical schools were a little more modern than classical schools. The courses they offered included modern languages, mathematics, some science and commercial subjects. 4-How was Maria Montessori’s experience at the technical school difficult? Though the courses included modern subjects, the teaching methods were very traditional. Learning consisted of memorizing long lists of facts and repeating them back to the teacher. Teachers believed in strict discipline in the classroom and they sometimes used severe punishments. 5-How did Maria Montessori succeed brilliantly at the technical school? She had a strong character. Although everyone predicted that she would fail, she got high marks in math and science. She proved that girls could think about complex subjects.
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6-What did Maria want to be first? Why did she change her mind? First she wanted to be an engineer like many of her male school companions. She changed her mind because she had become very interested in biology and she wanted to study medicine. 3) The Young Doctor Challenge Delegate Congress speech Respond to
‫ تحدي‬Enthusiasm ‫ مندوب / ممثل‬idiot ‫ مؤتمر‬Developmental ‫الحماسة‬ ‫أبله / معتوه‬ ‫مشكلت في النمو‬ ‫يقوم بوظيفته‬ ‫ل يمكن تعليمه‬

problems ‫ كلمة / خطاب‬Function ‫ يستجيب لـ‬unteachable

1-Give an example that shows that Maria was no ordinary doctor. (2006) Maria arrived at the home of a young mother of very sick baby twins. She sent the tired mother to bed. Then she bathed the babies, prepared their food and stayed with them all day. 2-Only two months after graduating, Maria was faced with a new and different kind of challenge. Explain. She was invited to be a delegate to the International Women’s Congress in Berlin. She was a great success. She gave two speeches which were received with great enthusiasm. Newspaper reporters interviewed her and described her as intelligent and charming. 3-What kind of research was Maria interested in? What was her attitude towards idiot children? She was interested in research that concerned children with serious developmental problems or “idiot children”. These children could not function at home or at school. Maria believed that these children could respond to something and that their minds were not completely closed off. She refused to accept that they were unteachable as other doctors said. She believed that she could help them become human again with the right kind of teaching.

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4-What did Maria Montessori refuse to accept concerning idiot children? (2008) She refused to accept that they were unteachable as other doctors said. She felt it must be possible to reach these children. She believed that she could help them become human again with the right kind of teaching. 4) The Children’s House Violent Sociable Enthusiastic
‫ عنيف‬Communicate (‫ اجتماعي )للشخص‬Co-operative ‫ متحمس‬role ‫يتواصل‬ ‫متعاون‬ ‫دور‬

1-Why was Maria chosen as director of “Children’s House”? What should be given to those children to be ordinary according to Maria? (2006) She was chosen because she was well-known for her work with children and knew a lot about teaching children. Children should be given much freedom. They should be free to choose their activities, to start and stop as they liked. The teacher’s role was to provide materials and show the children how to use them. He should stand aside and let the learning happen. 2-How was Maria able to change children’s behaviour in her school? At first children were frightened. Some children were violent, while others refused to talk. As Maria introduced her activities, their behaviour changed. The violent children calmed down and the silent ones began to communicate. They all became more sociable, co-operative and enthusiastic about the school. Unit 3 : Global Issues 1-Global Thinking in the 21st Century Dumping Marine Tons Garbage
‫رمي / إلقاء‬ ‫بحري‬ ‫أطنان‬ ‫القمامة‬

Destruction
Ozone layer

Harbor Local laws

‫تدمير‬ ‫طبقة الوزون‬ ‫ميناء‬ ‫قوانين محلية‬
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Substances Rapidly shrinking 1-

‫ مواد‬regulations ‫ تتناقص بسرعة‬refrigerator

‫قواعد / لوائح‬ ‫ثلجة‬

Dumping waste and chemicals in oceans and sea has a great effect on marine environment. Discuss. (2002) Dumping waste and chemicals in oceans and seas has a great effect on marine environment. For centuries, people have used the oceans as a dumping place where they dump tons of garbage, chemicals and many other dangerous substances. They believe that they will disappear in the large oceans. However, these substances stay in the water. They float to shores and are eaten by tiny creatures. Then the larger animals which eat the tiny creatures are poisoned and die. The coasts and shores around the world have become unsafe for both humans and animals. The world’s fish population is rapidly shrinking. 2-What does “global thinking” mean? (2004) Global thinking means working together for solutions to global problems such as pollution and environmental destruction. 3- To what extent is the ozone layer important for all forms of life? (2004) The ozone layer is important in protecting the earth from the sun’s rays. Without this layer, most forms of life on earth would not be able to live. 4-Pollution does not stay where it is. Explain. (2005) Pollution does not stay where it begins. It spreads out from every river and every harbor and affects bodies of water everywhere. 5-Why does the problem of environmental destruction require global thinking? (2006) As the world’s population has grown and technology has developed, the environment has suffered and the rate of pollution has increased. So, global thinking is required because the environment is global. The atmosphere, the oceans and many forms of life are all connected. These problems cannot be solved by local laws and regulations. 6-What has connected people all over the world? (2007) Communications technology has connected people all over the world. 7-Which problem do chloro-fluorocarbons (CFCs) cause? What should be done to solve this problem?
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Scientists discovered that these CFCs were destroying the ozone layer in the atmosphere. The ozone layer helps protect the earth from the sun’s rays. Without this layer, most forms of life on earth would not be able to live. Many countries such as India and China still use CFCs in industry. These countries need help from the industrialized countries so that they can change their refrigerator factories to non-CFC processes. 2Industrialized Birth rate Percentage The Population Explosion
‫ صناعي‬Annual income ‫ معدل المواليد‬Inversely proportiona l to ‫ نسبة مئوية‬Life expectancy ‫دخل سنوي‬ ‫يتناسب تناسبا عكسيا مع‬ ‫متوسط عمر الشخص‬

1-What is the reason for the difference in population growth in industrialized countries and less developed countries? The reason for this difference lies in the birth rate. In industrialized countries, a very low birth rate has caused population growth to slow down or stop. Moreover, life expectancy in these countries has been increasing. This means that the percentage of older people is increasing. In less developed countries, the birth rate in many places is extremely high and life expectancy is very low. This means that the population is very young. 2-What is meant by the birth rate? The birth rate is the average number of children per woman of childbearing age. 3-What is meant by life expectancy? Life expectancy is the average length of a person’s life. 4-What problems does population explosion cause in less developed countries? Less developed countries are much poorer than industrialized countries. The annual income is very low. Crowding on the land means that water, food and firewood become more difficult to find. Hunger and disease kill millions, especially children.

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5-How is life expectancy inversely proportional to birth rate in industrial countries? (2008) While birth rates have been declining in the industrial countries, life expectancy has been increasing. In almost all the industrialized countries, life expectancy is now over 70 years of age. This means that the percentage of older people in the population is increasing 3- The Green Revolution Approach Involve Cultivation grains Fertilizers Landowners Maximum
‫طريقة‬ ‫يتضمن‬ ‫زراعة‬ ‫غلل / حبوب‬ ‫أسمدة‬ ‫ملك الراضي‬ ‫أقصي‬

Extensive use
Erosion

Productivity Expenses Large scale Investments destructive

‫استخدام مكثف‬ ‫تآكل‬ ‫النتاجية‬ ‫نفقات / تكاليف‬ ‫نطاق واسع‬ ‫استثمارات‬ ‫مدمر‬

1-What is meant by the “Green Revolution”? (2007) The “Green Revolution” is a new approach to agriculture. It involved the large-scale cultivation of new types of grain and the extensive use of chemicals and farm machinery. 2-Erosion is a reason for the lower grain production. Discuss. (2006) Erosion is another reason for the lower grain production. Large-scale farming of a single crop creates the perfect conditions for erosion. In dry areas, the loss of top soil has lowered the productivity of the land. 3-Mention three reasons for the failure of the “Green Revolution”. (2005) / Why do the green revolution methods of farming no longer appear to be successful? (2003) The expenses of the new farming methods. Farmers must use large amounts of expensive chemical fertilizers. Farmers use expensive chemical insecticides. Watering systems are expensive. The large-scale farming of a single crop creates the perfect conditions for erosion.

a) b) c) d) e)

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4-In what way did the new farming methods increase the differences between rich and poor landowners? (2003) Many farmers cannot afford to buy all the expensive chemicals and equipment and so production decreases. Only the large landowners can afford to make the necessary investments for maximum production. They buy land from the smaller farmers and become richer. Small landowners become landless and poor. As a result, the differences between rich and poor landowners increase. 5-How do modern farming methods affect society? (2002) (2008) Only the larger landowners can afford to make the necessary investments for maximum production of the new grains. With their profits, they buy land from the smaller farmers and become richer. Small landowners become landless and poor. Social tensions naturally increase in this situation. 6-As the “Green revolution” methods no longer appear to be successful, what should governments and farmers do? Governments and farmers need to look at the overall picture and longterm effects. They need to find new methods that will better meet the needs of the world’s hungry people and will also be less destructive.

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