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Basicsofseismicinterpretation

Whatisseismicinterpretation
Whatisseismicinterpretation
Basicprinciples

WhatisSeismicInterpretation?
Objectives:
lRecognizehydrocarbonanomaly
Recognizehydrocarbonanomaly
lValidateanomalys
Validateanomalys
geologicframework
geologicframeworkstructuralinterpretation
composition amplitudeinterpretation
amplitudeinterpretation

Jakosky,1960

ManagementsRiskRequirement
Identifywhereartdominatesandsciencedeviatesinthe
structuralandamplitudeinterpretations.
structuralandamplitudeinterpretations.

SuggestionsfromthePast
AnomalieswithNewPetrophysicalProperties
AnomalieswithNewPetrophysical
PetrophysicalProperties
l Oilandgasemitcorpuscularradiation.
l Desirablemineralsradiateobservablevibrations.
l Hydrocarbonrockshaveagravityforcethatisproportional
to1/rratherthan1/r2.
l Oilandgassendoutelectromagneticwaves.
l Organicsubstances,suchasoilandgas,exhibitsexualcharacteristics.

(Blau,Geophysics,v.1,no.1.pg.1)or(TLE,1983,v.2,#3,p.28
(Blau,Geophysics,v.1,no.1.pg.1)or(TLE,1983,v.2,#3,p.2831)

SlightProblem:
Thoughdesirablebymost,noneoftheabovecanbevalidated.
Thoughdesirablebymost,noneoftheabovecanbevalidated.

TheArtandScienceof
Interpretation
Art...Systematicapplicationof
...Systematicapplicationof rules basedonpast
experiencetoassignthegeologicframeworkand
composition(theearthmodel).

Science... Applicationofphysicalsciencesto
Applicationofphysicalsciencestovalidate
theearthmodel.

Riskisbasedontheuniquenessofthe
Riskisbasedontheuniquenessofthevalidation.

ComponentsoftheHydrocarbon
ComponentsoftheHydrocarbon
System

Greve,1997

TheArtandScienceof
Interpretation
ACCH

Corollary:Geophysicaldatacantbeinterpretedwithout
Geophysicaldatacantbeinterpretedwithout
knowingtheanswer.[Artsetofrules]
knowingtheanswer.[Artsetofrules]

Interpretation=>ACCHtime
Interpretation=>
interpretation

IsTimePullUpaPaleoHigh?
UpaPaleoHigh?

Interpretation=>ACCHamplitude
Interpretation=>
interpretation
VerificationSeismicreflectionamplitudecaninmanycasesdistinguish
betweengasrelatedamplitudeandotheranomalies

TraveltimeInterpretationEras
TraveltimeInterpretationEras
1950s

1960s

1970s

TheGoodOldDays
Onlyoneperson
(onecomputer)is
neededtoperform
dataacquisiton,
processingand
interpretateitinthe
field

1980s

TheOnsetofInteractive
Interpretation

Interpretation(indoor)

Interpretationhavetheability
ofsimplepoststackprecessing

1990s

The21stcentury

Theonsetofprocessing
intergration
ProcessingandInterpretation
areintegratedintoasame
platform

Theeraofbitchprocessing
Processing(ComputerPrecessingCenter)

Theonsetofdigital
processingera
Recordingofseismic
reflectionisdivided
intothreestage

Acquisition(Field)

TheOnsetofInteractive
Processing
Realtimeprestackandpoststack
processingonworkstation

AcquisitonIntergration
Seismiccrewwithmultitaskof
design,acquisition,precessing,
interpretation

AftertheinventionofCMPmethod
vibratordigitalprocessing,theuseof
thesenewtechniqueincreasedthenumberandvarietyofgeological
datawhichcanbeabstractedfromseismicdata.Theapplicationof
seismicexplorationismuchmoreprosperousthaneverbefore.

The1980s
Rapiddevelopmentofprocessingand
interpretationtechnologiesinthe1980s:
1Seismicattributesanalysis
Seismicattributesanalysis
1Amplitudeattributes(e.g.AVO
Amplitudeattributes(e.g.AVO
2Velocityrelatedattributes
relatedattributes
3Instantaneousattributes

2Boreholeseismictechnology
Boreholeseismictechnology
1Verticalseismicprofile(VSP
Verticalseismicprofile(VSP
2crosswellseismic

33Dseismic
4Multicomponentseismic
Multicomponentseismic

AmplitudeInterpretationEras
FirstEra BrightSpot(1970
BrightSpot(1970 1982)
1899 KnottTheory Amplitudevsincidentangle
Amplitudevsincidentangle
1919 ZoeppritzTheory Amplitudevsincidentangle
Amplitudevsincidentangle
1951 GassmannTheory Petrophysicallinktoseismic
Petrophysicallinktoseismic
1955 KoefoedApplication
PoissonsRatiofromRC()
1961 BortfeldTheory Linearapproximationequation
Linearapproximationequation
1976 RosaApplication
RC()elasticinversion

SecondEraAVO(1982
AVO(1982 Present)
1982 OstranderVerificationofAVO
OstranderVerificationofAVO
1985 ShueyApplication Rockpropertyemphasisatdifferentincidentangles.
propertyemphasisatdifferentincidentangles.

Basicprinciples
Seismicandgeologicalinterfaces
Horizontrackingandcorrelation
Wellties
Faultpatternsandidentification
2Dmapping
3Dmapping
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)

Therelationshipbetweenseismicreflectioninterface
andgeologicalinterface

a.Well1andwell5
a.Well1andwell5

b.AddWell24tofigurea
4tofigurea

c.Seismicsectionacrosswell15
c.Seismicsectionacrosswell1

Notes
1. The seismic reflection is from a velocity
contrast not a lithological contrast it
approximately corresponds to a geological
unconformity
2.Theseismicinterfaces
interfacesisoften paralleltothe
geological interface, but there is no
correspondencebetween
betweenthem.
3. Parasequences may affect the wave forms
butdonotproducereflections
reflections.

Geologicalmodelvs.seismic
imaging
Marmousimodel.A2Dseismic
modeldevisedbytheInstitut
FrancaisduPetroletotest2D
migrationalgorithms.Thereisa
hydrocarbonaccumulation(and
flatspot)intheanticlineunder
thedecollement.(a)Themodel
at1:1scaleratio(fromVersteeg,
1994)(b)modelwithdifferent
greydensityindicatingdifferent
velocities:(c)CMPstackofthe
seismicdata.(d)Time
migrationoftheCMPstack(e)
Prestackdepthmigrationof1%
ofthedata.(FromYounand
Zhou,2001).

Basicprinciples
Seismicandgeologicalinterfaces
Horizontrackingandcorrelation
Wellties
Faultpatternsandidentification
2Dmapping
3Dmapping
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)

Horizontaltrackingbasics
a. Eventcontinuityandsimilarities
b. Similarwavetrainandcharacteristics:
amplitude,frequencyandphase.
amplitude,frequencyandphase.

Basicprinciples
Seismicandgeologicalinterfaces
Horizontrackingandcorrelation
Wellties
Faultpatternsandidentification
2Dmapping
3Dmapping
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)

2.3.2

Calibrationofhorizon
Calibrationofhorizon
99SN10

T0
(s)

Fu5

depth
(m)

2000

249 0

80

Layers

RT

G R
40

VSP
VSP
synthetise
synthetise seismic data

120 1

10

100

Syste sequ
mtract ence

2535 m

TST

J3S6-7

2690

2700 m

LST

J3S6

HST

2200
2890

TST

J2S5

J2S5
3090

3160 m

HST

2400

J2S4

3290

J2S3

3466m

TST
LST
HST
TST
LST
HST
TST

3 70 4 m

LST

33 57m

349 0

J1S2

2600
369 0

J2S4
J2S3
J1S2

HST

J1S1T+H
3890

J1S1LST

LST

2800
4090

4290
3000
4 49 0

3894 m

TST

4050 m

LST

J1S1

Tieattheintersectingpoints
Tieattheintersectingpoints

Lateralcorrelation

Legend
well
2Darea
3Darea
Basinborder
welltiesection1
welltiesection2

Basicprinciples
Seismicandgeologicalinterfaces
Horizontrackingandcorrelation
Wellties
Faultpatternsandidentification
2Dmapping
3Dmapping
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)

Faultnomenclatures
Faultnomenclatures
.

Faultnomenclatures
Faultnomenclatures
.

Fault
types

Faultidentification
(1)Brokeneventsandwavetrain
(2)Numberofeventsincreaseordecreaseor
disappear(unconformity)
conformity)
3)Rapidchangesinseismicevents
(4)Eventsbranchoff,merge,distort,andthephase
changes
(smallfaults)
(5)Faultplanereflection,diffractedwave
(5)Faultplanereflection,diffractedwave

(1)Brokeneventsorwavetrains (mediumandsmallfaults)
(1)Brokeneventsorwavetrains

(2)Numberofeventsincreaseordecreaseordisappear
(2)Numberofeventsincreaseordecreaseordisappear

(3)Rapidchangesinseismicevents
(3)Rapidchangesinseismicevents

(4)Eventsbranchoff,merge,distort,andthephasechanges
(smallfaults
smallfaults)

Modelofsmallfaultandverticalresolution
Modelofsmallfaultandverticalresolution

(4)Eventsbranchoff,merge,distort,andthephasechanges
(smallfaults
smallfaults)

Eventsdistortandbreak
Eventsdistort

(5)Faultplanereflectionanddiffractedwave
(5)Faultplanereflectionanddiffractedwave

Basicprinciples
Seismicandgeologicalinterfaces
Horizontrackingandcorrelation
Wellties
Faultpatternsandidentification
2Dmapping
3Dmapping
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)

Fencediagrams
compositedfromagridof
seismicrecordsections.
(CourtesyChevronOilCo.)
(b)Computerdrawn
isometricfencediagramof
sixseismiclines.(Courtesy
GrantNorpac.)
(c)Sameas(b)exceptwith
dataabovesomepicked
horizonremoved.
(d)Fencediagramtoshow
spatialrelationshipofdata
fromaseriesofeightwells.
(FromBrownandFisher,
1977,222.)

Basicprinciples
Seismicandgeologicalinterfaces
Horizontrackingandcorrelation
Wellties
Faultpatternsandidentification
2Dmapping
3Dmapping
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)

Contourmapsfrom3Ddata
Timeslices.Theareais
3.68.0km
(a)through(g)timeslices
fort 1.580to1.604sat4
msintervals
(h)timecontourmap
madebytracingone
contourfromeachofthe
precedingtimeslices,
startingwiththeoutsideof
thecentralareaonmap(a).
(CourtesyHaliburton
Geosciences.)

FIG.A16.Arbitraryline.
(a)Atimeslicethrougha
migrated3Dseismicvolumeusing
differentcolorstoindicatepositive
andnegativereflectivitiesand
colorintensitytoindicate
magnitude.
(b)Verticalsectionsconnecting
welllocationsisanarbitraryline.
Arbitrarylinesoftenconsistof
severalconnectedstraightline
segments.(CourtesyPrakla
SeismosAG.)

3Ddatadisplay
3Ddatadisplay

3Ddatadisplay
3Ddatadisplay

Basicprinciples
Seismicandgeologicalinterfaces
Horizontrackingandcorrelation
Wellties
Faultpatternsandidentification
2Dmapping
3Dmapping
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)
DHIs(DirectHydrocarbonsIndicators)

Directhydrocarbonindicators
Directhydrocarbonindicators

Flatspot
Brightspot

Artifacts:Fakedownwardstructurecausedbylowvelocityofmud
Artifacts:Fakedownwardstructurecausedbylowvelocityofmud