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King Saud University

College of Engineering
Electrical Engineering Dept.
Question#1 (20%)

EE449 Power System Protection

Final Exam 2nd Semester 1425-1426
Time Allowed: 3 Hours

Select the correct answer (only ONE) for the following questions

The low voltage side of the step-up transformer in a power plant is usually connected into DELTA to
prevent the generator from
a) the zero sequence current for all faults.
b) the negative sequence current for all faults.
c) the zero sequence current for faults occurring on the generator side.
d) the zero sequence current for faults occurring on the line side.
e) the negative sequence current for faults occurring on the line side.
The maximum value of the fault current corresponds to
a) the line to ground fault
b) the line to line fault
c) the double line to ground fault

d) the three-phase fault

e) any fault type depending on the system

The contacts of a relay are always connected in series with

a) the CB contacts and the DC supply
b) the relay contacts and the CT
c) the CB trip coil and the CT supply

d) the CB trip coil and the DC supply

e) the CB contacts, the CT and the DC supply

The abbreviation CCVT stands for

a) Continuous Current Voltage Transformer
b) Continuous Capacitor Voltage Transformer
c) Coupling Capacitor Voltage Transformer

d) Capacitor to Capacitor Voltage Transformer

e) Continuous Capacitor Voltage Transformer

A digital relay means

a) A microprocessor-based relay
b) A relay made from electronic components
c) An induction type relay

d) the relay has a digital display

e) the relay status will be ON or OFF

Consider a CT having a ratio of 300:5. The primary current is 6000A. If we consider the saturation in
the CT, the current passing into the relay coil (Ir) will be
a) Ir = 5A
b) Ir = 100A
c) Ir > 100A

d) Ir < 100 A
e) Ir < 5 A

The fuse is responsible for

a) Recognizing faults and sending a trip
signal to the circuit breaker
b) Sensing voltage and/or current

c) Interrupting the circuit under fault condition

d) Interrupting the circuit under load condition

To overcome the problem of inrush current for differential protection of transformers, we use
a) A harmonic filter
b) Different relay tap settings

c) CT's connected in Delta/Wye

d) A percentage differential relay


1.2 The circuit breaker is responsible for

a) Breaking (OFF) and making (ON) under no load condition
b) Breaking (OFF) under fault condition and making (ON) under loading condition
c) Breaking (OFF) and making (ON) under loading condition
d) Breaking (OFF) and making (ON) under fault condition
1.3 The partitioning of the system into zones will
a) Improve dependability

b) Increase speed

c) Improve security

d) Improve selectivity

1.4 Backup protection will

a) Improve dependability

b) Increase speed

c) Improve security

d) Improve selectivity

1.5 The standard rating for CT secondary is

a) 1A for American standard and 5 A for European standard
b) 1A for European standard and 5 A for American standard
c) 1 A for all standards
d) 5 A for all standards
1.6 The bus arrangement shown is
a) Single bus, single breaker
b) Breaker and a half
c) Two bus, two breakers
d) Two bus, one breaker

The 132 kV power system shown in Fig.1 is subjected to a LLG fault at the mid point of line23. Calculate the three-phase voltages (kV) and currents seen by breaker B23 during fault.
Consider the transformers phase shift in your calculation.

2 B23



X1= 0.15 X1= 0.1

X2= 0.12
X0= 0.04
Xn= 0.08

X1 = 0.6
X2 = 0.6
X0 = 2.0

X1= 0.08

X1= 0.2
X2= 0.15
X0= 0.05

All reactances are

given in pu referred
to 200 MVA base

A) The burden of an 200:5, 10C400 CT is 2 Ohms. What will be the percentage error of the CT
if the primary current is 4000 A.
B) Fig.2 shows a radial distribution system protected by fuses, recloser and overcurrent relays.
There are two types of fuses 65T and 100T. The recloser is set at 560A trip rating for phase
and 280A for ground with two operations: fast and delayed. The overcurrent relay settings
are 9A current tap setting (CTS) for phase relay with TDS=2 and 4A CTS for ground relay
with TDS=1. The time current curves for these components are described in the attached

controlled by
Ground OC Relays
and Phase OC Relays




Load 3


Load 2

Load 1

Describe the operating sequence of the protective devices for the following faults:
i- Line-Line permanent fault at Load#2, IF=1125A.
ii- Line-Ground self-clearing fault at bus#3, IF=1700A.
iii- Three-phase permanent at Load#1, IF=1000A.

A) Discuss briefly the function of pilot protection and its main components. Discuss in detail
the directional comparison blocking scheme.
B) The busbar shown in Fig-3 is protected using a percentage differential relay with k=0.1. A
three-phase fault occurred at F1, the fault currents passing during fault are as indicated in
figure. Due to the saturation effect, the errors in CT1, CT2 and CT3 at this condition are
10%, 2% and 4% respectively.

Calculate I1', I2' and I3' (seen by the relay).

Apply the trip conditions of percentage relay (replace I2' by I2'+I3' in the
formulas obtained in class). Shall the differential relay trip or block. Why?



CT2 400:5


R1 I1=5000A F1
CT1 400:5

Fig -3

CT3 400:5