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School Leadership

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From educational research journals, to find three research articles, which are related
to each other in their research questions, for example
They studied the same research area or even same concept in education, such as
students discipline problems in school, or self-esteem of students.
They proposed the same or similar research question(s), such as the relationship
between self-esteem and achievement of the students and the relationship between
self-esteem and family support.
It is better (not compulsory) to find the studies were conducted by using different
research methods
(Note: Please do NOT include article(s) by using the method of meta analysis. For
kind of article it will be very difficult to answer the questions below. However, it will
be a good idea from this kind of article to find several original research articles.)
You are required to provide where did you find the articles and how did you find
them. Provide the sources of them. (2%)

Articles about educational leadership are common in graduate school library. You
can select the best researches with relevant findings to help you understand the
subject matter. On this behalf three of the most innovative and latest issues on
educational leadership are the selected. These are the following; Study about
program for School Leadership Improvement, it was retrieve at online library archive
of Educational studies in United States done to improve the leadership in US schools
(www.questia.com).
School Leadership Study: Developing Successful Principals was a research study
conducted to develop leaders to manage educational institution conducted at several
institutions in United States. This research study employed the necessary elements of
research in order to develop and improve the leadership characteristics of principals

in a educational settings and institutions. This research was published at Education


Magazine in Instructional Leadership for Systemic Change in 2005.
The third research study was Conceptualizing principal leadership of school renewal
conducted by students from Curtin University of Technology in 2003; this research
was retrieve through Educational Leadership Gazette 2004 online submitted to
annual conference for the Australian Association for Research in Education in
Melbourne. These researches are performed to elevate the standards of leadership
especially in secondary and tertiary levels. There is common ground in all of these
researches; this is based on the foundation of effective leadership and governance in
any educational institutions. Providing relevant data and new found knowledge,
method of teaching, leadership and techniques are highly stated in the objectives of
each research studies.
Briefly describe the studies reported by each of the articles
How was each of these studies conducted?
What type of research method(s) were used in these studies?
What results have been reported in these articles?
After read your description, the reader should be able to know studies roughly (6%).
Program for School Leadership Improvement
The program engages in continuing self-assessment and improvement of its
performance. Throughout this report, terms such as model, strong, and
inadequate programs and variations thereof are used. This study employed case
study method. A model or exemplary program is one that substantially meets all nine
criteria. A strong program is one that substantially satisfies most of the criteria. An
inadequate program is defined as one that fails to achieve most of the criteria or has
a fatal flaw such as an incompetent faculty. The findings of this study were very
disappointing.
Collectively, educational administration programs are the weakest of all the
programs at the nations education schools. This is distressing not only because of
the magnitude of the jobs that principals and superintendents must perform, but also
because of the large number of school leaders who will need to be hired in the next
decade. In the course of the study, we managed to locate only a small umber of strong

programs in the United States. None was considered exemplary. The most promising
model that we found was located in England at the National College for School
Leadership (NCSL), which operates in a very different fashion than school leadership
programs in the United States. The development of the nations school leadership
and management programs, offer a profile of the numbers and types of leadership
programs in universities today, describe the growing number of non-universitybased school leadership programs, examine the most promising model of school
leadership education encountered, and offer recommendations about how to
strengthen university educational administration programs
School Leadership Study: Developing Successful Principals
Principals play a vital and multifaceted role in setting the direction for schools that
are positive and productive workplaces for teachers and vibrant learning
environments for children, but existing knowledge on the best ways to develop these
effective leaders is insufficient. The need to identify and replicate effective pre- and
in-service programs and program structures that produce the most highly qualified
school leaders has motivated a major research study commissioned by The Wallace
Foundation and undertaken by the Stanford Educational Leadership Institute in
conjunction with The Finance Project. This study School Leadership Study:
Developing Successful Principals conducts a series of in-depth case analyses of
eight highly developed pre- and in-service program models in five states, and tracks
the graduates into the schools they lead.
The study not only examines the conduct of the programs and the perceptions of
Participants, but it also interviews and surveys graduates along with a comparison
sample of principals about their preparedness and practices. The study also
follows a sub-sample of program participants into their schools, examining school
operations, teachers views of the school leadership, and trends in student
performance. Cost analysis of case studies is conducted by The Finance Project, a
Washington, DC- based, nonprofit research organization. The Finance Project also
explores the state policy and finance structures that foster effective programs.
Research on principal preparation and development programs suggests that certain
program features are essential in the development of effective school leaders.
There is also little discrepancy between guidelines for pre- and in-service programs.
Evidence indicates that effective programs are research-based, have curricular
coherence, provide experience in authentic contexts, use cohort groupings and
mentors, and are structured to enable collaborative activity between the program and

area schools. Despite existing consensus, empirical evidence for the impact of these
features is currently minimal.

Conceptualizing principal leadership of school renewal


This paper reports the findings of an investigation into school renewal and
leadership that was conducted in 2003. School renewal is a type of whole-school
change that engages and excites the school community to promote, accept and
embed the change leading to improved student learning. In respect to the research
objectives presented data were collected through interviews with a purposive sample
of principals in situ and identified through the quantitative phase of the study
(Silcox, Cavanagh and Dellar, 2003).
The design of the interview schedule was based upon the preliminary conceptual
framework presented in the research output and was developed taking cognizance of
the findings of quantitative data. The paper concentrates on the study of leadership
of school renewal with specific reference to some of the key influences in
implementing a renewal agenda in schools. It provides an invaluable and reflective
insight into renewal and change processes in schools.
This research study , based on a mixed methodology research format conducted in
Western Australia, shows the critical role the principal plays in bringing about
school-renewal. The paper concludes by presenting a conceptual framework of
principal leadership and school renewal for consideration. In so doing it both
challenges and confirms literature and research in the area of leadership and school
change. The research has important implications for all school communities.
Make comments on each of the articles (20%)
Is the research problem clearly stated? Be specific.
Is the significance of the problem established? Be specific.
Identify the hypothesis (if there is any). Is the hypothesis clearly stated? Be specific.
How could you identify the type of research method used in each study? Explain your
answer.
How were the variables measured in the study? Are the measurements reliable and
valid?

How were the participants in these studies selected? What type of sampling method
was used? Explain your answer.
Make comments on the research design of each of these studies. List the strength and
weakness of each study, provide possible improvements.
What type of data analysis was used in each study report? Specify the details.
Do you think the data analysis conducted correctly and effectively? Any suggestions
for improvement?
Is the study ethically sound?
Is the report written well? Explain your answer.
Program for School Leadership Improvement
The studys problem was clearly stated in the research report. The research work try
to explain the and identify what kind of program to be implemented in order to
achieved the improvement in schools leadership and administration. There is no
stated hypothesis in the study because the purpose of the study is not probing certain
speculations but to develop new concepts of leadership through program
implementation. The significance of the study was concentrated on the educational
institutions and other learning community. The result of this study according to the
desired result of researchers is focused on achieving the possible highest standard of
leadership in education.
The study employ case study, this method typically examine the interplay of all
variables in order to provide as complete an understanding of an event or situation as
possible. This type of comprehensive method understand the arrived phenomenon at
through a process known as thick description, which involves an in-depth description
of the entity being evaluated, the events and circumstances under which it is used,
the characteristics and identity of the people involved in it, and the nature of the
community in which it is located. Thick description in this study also involves
interpreting the meaning of all demographic and descriptive data collected such as
cultural norms and mores, community values, ingrained attitudes, and motives.
Unlike quantitative methods of research, this study chooses participants or
respondents through selection process because the target population is only the
supervisory level which is limited in number. Like the survey, which focus on the

questions of who, how much, and how many, what, where and archival analysis,
which often situates the participant in some form of historical context, this method
which is case studies are the preferred strategy when how or why questions are
asked. Likewise, they are the preferred method when the researcher has little control
over the events, and when there is a contemporary focus within a real life context. In
addition, unlike more specifically directed experiments, case studies require a
problem that seeks a holistic understanding of the event or situation in question
using inductive logic--reasoning from specific to more general terms.
Data analysis performed through application of certain methods drawn from the in
formations and data gathered.
School Leadership Study: Developing Successful Principals
The studys problem was also stated in the research report. The research study try to
develop and improved the leadership skills of principals in educational settings, the
study will lead and aim the improvement in schools leadership and administration
through developing of effective and successful principals. There is stated hypothesis
in the study; the purpose of the study is to develop skills and supervisory method and
leadership techniques in leading schools through empowerment of principals. The
significance of the study was also concentrated on the educational institutions and
other learning community specially principals. The result of this study according to
the desired result of researchers is focused on achieving the possible highest
standard of leadership character and skills in education.
Recognizing that some of the variables in this study do not have problems as such.
The educational organization may be doing quite well. Leadership in educational
setting are real-world situations, it not necessarily examples of bad leadership or
management. The situations in this study are approaching with a point of view. I can
say that the researchers may be alert for the danger that some of the data and
information in some circumstances is coming from biased participants and therefore
must be taken with a grain of salt.
Recommendations in this study must be logically follow from the analysis and they
should be feasible. Finally, the study report must be well-written, clearly organized,
and sequential and has a logical flow. Poor writing will affect the readers
apprehension. It usually helps to provide a brief summary statement and roadmap
at the beginning of the analysis to orient and guide the reader. Also make sure that
making any recommendations to be provided follows directly from the analysis of the

problem, and that your overall conclusions are consistent with your analysis. Those
are the strengths and weaknesses of this study.

3. Conceptualizing principal leadership of school renewal


The studys problem was clearly stated in the research study. The research work try
to explain the and conceptualize what kind of leadership styles to be adapted by
school principal in order to achieved the improvement in schools leadership and
administration. Renewal is also one of the subjects in this research, transformation
of technique and method will probably lead to more advancing and productive
leadership. There is no stated hypothesis in the study because the purpose of the
study is not probing certain speculations but to develop new concepts of leadership
through adaptation of new leadership concepts and program implementation. The
significance of the study was concentrated on the educational institutions and other
learning community. The result of this study according to the desired result of
researchers is focused on achieving the possible highest standard of leadership in
education.
The research study is related to the investigation of the relationship between the
leadership behavior of school principals and school renewal, and, in particular, tried
to investigate and explain the type of leadership behaviors showed or displayed by
these principals engaged in school renewal activities. Practical aspects of the study
necessitated the use of a mixed method paradigm. As the study sought to examine
attributes of school leadership and their influence on school renewal in a local
education district data, therefore, needed to be collected from a sample of principals
sufficiently large to be representative of the general population. In the first instance,
this required application of quantitative data collection methods.
On the other hand, investigating the influence of leadership on renewal was
anticipated to require careful attention to the context of the individual school and of
the interaction between the leader and other members of the school community. This
necessitated qualitative data collection methods in a small number of schools to
provide highly detailed and contextualized information. Thus, both quantitative and
qualitative research methods were originally applied in a mixed-method
investigation format. The two methods were invoked sequentially at different points
in the study, hence maximizing the strengths of both methods.
In respect to the research objectives presented data were collected through
interviews with a purposive sample of principals in situ and identified through the
quantitative phase of the study (Silcox, Cavanagh and Dellar, 2003). The design of

the interview schedule was based upon the preliminary conceptual framework
presented as Figure 1, and was developed taking cognisance of the findings of
quantitative data (Silcox, 2003). A set of survey questions was developed and
adapted within parameters of study area established by the research objectives. The
qualitative phase of the research sought to obtain information from a particular
cohort of principals on their perception of a specific concept, school renewal, and
specific leadership behavioral characteristics employed in bringing about renewal as
a change paradigm in schools. Therefore, it was appropriate to use an interview
survey technique.
There is no indicative of major weakness in this study; all data and analysis are
drawn properly. There are justifications in the elements present in every variable.

Summary:
In general all these studies presents the concrete narrative information and details of
actual, or at least realistic events, it has a plot, exposition, characters, and sometimes
even dialogue" Generally, these three educational leadership study reports are
extensively descriptive and narrative in presenting their data and analysis, with the
issues concerned are being the determinant of the right combination of identity,
description and analysis.. Typically, all the authors of different studies addressed
each step of the research methodology and process, and they attempted to give the
reader as much enough data and in context as possible for the decisions and analysis
they made in the research studies and for the conclusions being drawn from the
study.
This contextualization was included a detailed presentation and explanation of the
theoretical positions of all the researchers, how those data and theories drove the
inquiry or led to the guiding conceptualization of research questions, of the processes
of data collection, of the participants' backgrounds, of the training and limitations of
the coders, with a firm or strong attempt to make all connections between the
information and data and the conclusions was clearly evident.
Although the educational leadership researches study is completed, it does not
reports which include the reactions of all the respondents to the research study or to
the conclusions of the researchers. Because theses studies tend to be more
exploratory, most ends will be with implications for further study. Here in this study,
researchers identified the significant factors or variables that come up or emerged
during the research process and suggested studies related to these, the authors also
suggested further general questions that their research study generated.

The second study concludes with a section dedicated solely to the topic of
implications for further study and research, in which they suggested several means
by which this particular study could have been improved, as well as questions and
ideas raised by this study which other researchers and leadership institutions might
like to address, such as: is there a correlation between a certain personality in
leadership styles and a certain composing process of populations profile.
Also included in these studies is a section dedicated to implications for teaching,
because the topic is about leadership in educational institutions which outlines the
pedagogical ramifications of the study's findings for teachers and managers who are
currently involved in school programs.
The sample is defined as the representative of the population, but in this study
selection bias is a possible. A statistic used in the third study have the possibility of
being biased if the value of the statistic tends to be wrong or more precisely, if the
expected value--the average value from many samples drawn using the same
sampling method--is not the same as the population value. A typical source of bias in
population studies is socioeconomic or age status: people with extreme values for
these variables tend not to take part in these studies Thus a high compliance (the
proportion of people contacted who end up as subjects) is important in avoiding bias.
Journal editors of the publications where these researches published happy with
compliance rates of at least 70% in the study done.
In these researches the most important variable the researchers have to balance is
the implementation of pre-test ion the dependent variable itself. The researchers
balanced randomization for this study or another by numeric factors.
When selecting subjects and designing protocols for studies, researchers often strive
to eliminate all variation in subject characteristics and behaviors. Their aim is to get
greater precision in the estimate of the effect of the specific protocols. The problem
with this approach is that the effect generalizes only to subjects with the same narrow
range of characteristics and behaviors as in the sample. Depending on the nature of
the study, the researchers may have to strike a balance between precision and
applicability. If they lean towards applicability, their subjects will vary substantially
on some characteristic or behavior that you should measure and include in your
analysis.
Compare and the contrast the research methods used in the three studies (12%)

From methodology point of view, what are the similarities and what are the
differences of these studies
Which study do you think was conducted better? Why?
Which study you dislike? Why?
These three researches have different characteristics in terms of methodological
designs. But all of them used the proper and best methodological designs and draw
important conclusion and outcome that benefited and improve the educational
leadership. In the study about Program for School Leadership Improvement, a case
study was utilized and was discussed within the context of qualitative research and
naturalistic inquiry. This study was done with some method with field study,
ethnography, and participant observation to draw conclusions properly. The
philosophical assumptions underlined in this research are similar to these types of
qualitative research design because each takes place in a natural setting such as a
classroom, and other educational institutions .The study also arrives for a more
relevant and holistic interpretation of the specific event or situation being observed
in the study under study. This kind of research design is different from statisticallybased research studies which search for quantifiable data. The main objective of this
study is to find and give new variables and questions for future studies.
The second study was entitled School Leadership Study: Developing Successful
Principals. The researchers used case analysis method in conducting the study. A
major characteristic of conducting this kind of research is that you never have all the
access for the information that you need and oftentimes considerable data and
information which is nor important, irrelevant, obscure, trivial or even obfuscating.
The lack or absence of important information may force the researchers to make one
or more assumptions. Assumptions drawn u from this research is clearly labeled,
they are appropriate and they realistic.
The last research study entitled Conceptualizing principal leadership of school
renewal used quantitative research design. This research profile a target specific
population by determining the proportion of the populations has certain attitudes ,
behaviors, behavioral, intentions, skills and knowledge related to the leadership
concern, and whether specific determinants predict effectiveness at a statistically
significant level. The researchers used a structured type of questionnaire that
contains predominantly closed-ended, or forced-choice, questions. The research

design and research conduct in the research quantitative survey implemented by this
study consider getting information and data from a survey result.
The major concerns need to consider issues and circumstances is mostly related to
designed appropriate sample, this stuffy used reliable and valid measures, and
conducted a pilot or pretest before the actual survey study was launched. This study
is a custom type designed to seek specific knowledge or answers from a specific set of
research questionnaire. This study is also somewhat omnibus in nature because it
added questions about the topic with regards to an existing survey. The findings were
generalized beyond the participant group which is the supervisory level in
educational institutions.
At the conclusion of each research analysis, the researchers offer recommendations
for change or application of knowledge drawn from the study. These
recommendations are also for situation to be handled better like interventions,
programs and behavioral modifications. Some of theses recommendations have both
positive prospects and negative consequences when applied to certain cases. A
solution may eventually work for certain cases but be very costly, some changes are
difficult to achieve or implement and take a long time and effort to have a significant
impact in any area of target. Researchers must develop the recommendations that
impact is for maximum positive products and minimum negative consequences.
Any other comments or points related to these research reports.
These educational leadership research study must advocates and point out that
research can produce much contain and more detailed data and information that is
readily available Many analysis can also use as an alternative to discover the
relationships between variables, some of these can be obtain through a statistical
analysis. Research advocates on educational reform will also implement different
kind of methods suitable for the study while statistical methods might also be used
and be able to deal with situations where attitude and behavior is homogeneous and
routine.
Methodological designs are also needed to deal with creativity, change, innovation,
and overall context that they can apply to improve the study more. Many research
detractors argue that some educational studies are difficult to generalize or apply to
all concepts because of inherent subjectivity and because most of the research is
based on qualitative subjective data and the generalizability are applied only to a
particular context.

Suggestions:
In doing researches overcoming many challenges including the accessibility and
brevity of the study is necessary for any educational or social institutions doing the
research study. I have the following suggestions to make the impact of this study and
research stronger.
First, the presentation of your research must be as user-friendly as possible provided
with a clearly marked sections, marks and sidebars with some of the additional and
supplementary information. Second, defining the important terminologies and
provide some examples for every items made. Third is the anticipation of questions
from the researchers must answer them in the publication. Fourth is illustrating your
findings through the use of graphs or charts. Fifth is you have to break all the
information into short sentences, paragraphs or lists. Using of different colors, lines,
images and sizes of fonts are good to improve the interests of reader to browse the
researches. Adding references and footnotes with further information for readers is
also vital. And lastly you have to mention who prepared the research, and audience
or for whom it was prepared, and contact information for each author. This is
necessary for the readers to clarify or to verify some information and data indicated
in the research paper.
Research papers and other studies must have the connection between theory and
empirical data -empirical data is the evidence we obtain from the social world. Makes
the connection between theory and empirical data. This empirical data is the
evidence we obtain from the social world. By starting with a theory and then testing
it with data, this is also referred to as deductive research. By developing a connection
between social theory and data the researchers must first collect data and then
develop a theory supported by the findings or inductive research.
For the researcher to come up with a good research, they must manage bias by
testing ideas without becoming too personally invested in a particular outcome
unlike what they did in certain methodology in these researches. Being systematic in
carrying out investigations is also important to have good research.
Documentation of all procedures and making it available to public and other
researchers are also limits the bias. Clarifying of underlying assumption that the
research is based on and all the underlying assumptions in the research in must be
clarified as well as the definitions of terms used in the research which is not applied
in these researches. Another way to manage bias is by testing the ideas without

becoming too personally invested in a particular outcome. The researchers must be


systematic in carrying out investigations
Maintaining a skeptical stance toward current knowledge can also be a factor to
produce good research work. This improves upon the validity of their results.
Critiquing current research by addressing the problems in the research can generate
additional research. Ethical issues must also address in any research studies, honesty
and openness is vital in conducting research.
Researchers need to be honest about their procedures in order for other researchers
to be able to duplicate the research. Duplication of the research lends validity to
results. Additionally, openness is needed in order for researcher to learn from the
work of others. The lack of openness sometimes happens because researchers want
credit for their discoveries. Good research should also be ethical and should cause no
harm to subjects or respondents. All subjects should be voluntary participation;
subjects must give informed consent. Researchers should fully disclose their identity.
Unless voluntarily waived, anonymity or confidentiality must be maintained for all
individuals participating in research. Benefits of the research must outweigh
foreseeable risks.
Good research also conceptualizes terms conceptualization is defined as the process
of specifying what we mean by a term. In deductive research, conceptualization helps
to translate portions of an abstract theory into testable hypotheses involving specific
variables. In inductive research, conceptualization is an important part of the process
used to make sense of related observations. And lastly, good research devise
operations that measure the concepts under investigation.
Length of the assignment: 3000 words.

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educational
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