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You are on page 1of 26

Lecture 9: EM radiation

Amol Dighe

Outline

Coming up...

~ and B

~ from A

~ and

E

Now that we know

Z

1

(~x0 , t ) 3 0

d x ,

(~x, t) =

40

|~x ~x0 |

Z ~ 0

J(~x , t ) 3 0

d x

|~x ~x0 |

(1)

~ = A/t

~

~ =A

~ to obtain

We can calculate E

and B

~

~

E(~x, t) and B(~x, t). However note the subtle point:

=x

=

,

,

(2)

x i

t

t

t

~ ~x, t) = 0

A(

4

~x

retarded time t .

~0

(~x0 , t )

x i

t

0

~

J(~x , t )

x i

t

=

=

(~x0 , t ) t

t

x i t

~J(~x0 , t ) t

t

x i

(3)

Defining ~r ~x ~x0 = (r1 , r2 , r3 ) and r |~r|, we have

1

1

(~x0 , t )

0

0

~

~

=

(

x

,

t

)

+

(

x

,

t

)

(4)

i

i

i

x

r

x

r t

r x

t

t

Further using

1

x i r t

0

(~x , t )

i

x

=

=

ri

,

r3

t r

(~x0 , t ) 1 ri

=

,

t r dx i t

t

cr

(5)

we get

=

=

=

1

1 i

+ x

(~x, t ) d 3 x 0

(x , t )x

i

i

x

r t

r

x

t

Z

0

0

~

~

1

(x , t )

r (x , t ) 3 0

r

d x

40

r2

cr

t

Z

1

[(~x0 )]

[(

~x0 )] 3 0

2 r

d x

(6)

40

r

cr

1

40

Z

~0

~

Intermediate derivatives: curl of A

Similar to the case of derivatives of , we have

~J t r

~ 0

~J(~x0 , t ) 1 ri

~x , t ) =

,

J(

=

x i

t r dx i

t

cr

t

(7)

And then

~

A

=

=

1

1 i

i

0

~

~

~

~

x

J(x , t ) + x

J(x, t ) d 3 x 0

x i r

r dx i

t

#

Z "~ 0

0

~

0

J(~x , t )

1 J(~x , t )

r +

r d 3 x 0

4

r2

cr

t

#

Z "~ 0

0

[J(~x )] r [~J(~x0 )] r

+

d 3x 0

(8)

4

r2

cr

0

4

Z

~ ~x, t)

E(

~ ~x, t)

E(

=

=

1

40

~

A

t

[(~x0 )]

[(

~x0 )]

r

r +

2

r

cr

0 !

[~J(~

x )]

d 3 x 0 (9)

c2r

~ ~x, t)

B(

~ ~x, t)

B(

~

= A

!

Z

0

0

[~J(~x0 )]

[~J(~

x )]

=

r +

r d 3 x 0

4

r2

cr

(10)

~ ~x, t) and B(

~ ~x, t): behaviour at large |~x|

E(

~ ~x, t) and B(

~ ~x, t), there are terms that behave as 1/r 2

In both, E(

and there are terms that behave as 1/r . The former are

proportional to the sources, the latter are proportional to the rate

of change of sources.

When the sources are confined to a small region |~x0 | < d, then

for |~x| >> d, the 1/r terms dominate over the others. These are

the radiative components of the fields.

~ and B

~ fields are then

The radiative E

~ rad (~x, t)

E

~ rad (~x, t)

B

1

40

0

4

[(

~x0 )]

[~J(~x0 )]

r

d 3x 0

cr

c2r

!

[~J(~x0 )] r

d 3x 0

cr

(11)

(12)

Monochromatic sources correspond to

(~x0 , t) = 0 (~x0 )eit and ~J(~x0 , t) = ~J0 (~x0 )eit .

(Real part always implicit)

This dependence implies

0

(~x ) = (~x0 , t ) = 0 (~x0 )ei(kr t) ,

h

i

~J(~x0 ) = ~J(~x0 , t ) = ~J0 (~x0 )ei(kr t) .

(13)

(14)

And hence

(~x, t)

~ ~x, t)

A(

Z

1

ei(kr t) 3 0

0 (~x0 )

d x ,

40

r

Z

i(kr t)

0

~J0 (~x0 ) e

d 3x 0

4

r

(15)

~ rad and B

~ rad in terms of ~J only

E

Given the continuity equation

0 ~J(~x0 , t) + (

~x0 , t) = 0 ,

(16)

~x0 )], and

~ and B

~ fields can be written in terms of ~J only.

the radiative E

For monochromatic sources, Some algebraic manipulation using

the above result yields (See Panofsky-Phillips)

~ rad (~x, t)

B

~ rad (~x, t)

E

Z ~ 0

[J(~x )] r 3 0

d x

r

Z ~ 0

1

([J(~x )] r) r 3 0

d x

2

40 c

r

1

40 c 3

(17)

(18)

~ rad (~x, t) and E

~ rad (~x, t) give the radiation

Fourier components of B

fields in terms of their frequency components:

Brad (~x)

Erad (~x)

Z

ikr

i

~J (~x0 ) ~k e d 3 x 0

4c 2

r

Z

eikr

i

(~J (~x0 ) ~k) r

d 3x 0

40 c

r

(19)

(20)

~ and B

~ fields. We shall use this in calculating

corresponding E

the power radiated by periodically time-varying charges and

currents.

Coming up...

~ =E

~ H,

~ which gives the power

The Poynting vector is N

radiated per unit area along it.

~ is

Total energy radiated per unit area normal to N

Z

Z

~ ~x, t)dt =

~ ~x, t) H(

~ ~x, t)dt

N(

E(

(21)

Z

~ rad eit d H

~ rad0 ei0 t d 0 dt

E

=

, 0 ,t=

Z

~ rad

E

2

~ rad d + 2

H

~ rad H

~ rad d

E

(22)

~ ~x, t) and H(

~ ~x, t) are real, E

~ = E

~ and H

~ = H

~.

But since E(

Then

Z

~ ~x, t)dt = 2

N(

Z

0

~ rad (H

~ rad ) d + c.c.

E

(23)

~ rad and H

~ rad = B

~ rad /0 obtained

Substituting the expressions for E

~ rad (H

~ rad ) =

E

1

(4)2

Z

2

eikr

0 ~

3 0

0

~

~

d

x

J

(

x

)

r

0

r

~ = r 2 r is

Total radiated energy across a surface d S

Z

~ rad (H

~ rad ) d r 2 d r + c.c.

U = 2 E

(24)

(25)

2

r Z Z

ikr

0

1

~J (~x0 ) ~k e d 3 x 0 dr 2 d (26)

4 0

r

In other words,

dU

1

=

d

4

Z

2

0 ~

0

ikr 3 0

~

~

J

(

x

)

k

e

d

x

0

(27)

Here we calculate the average radiated power /area over a cycle:

1

T

Z

0

~ ~x, t)dt = 1

N(

T

~ ~x, t) H(

~ ~x, t)dt

E(

(28)

~ rad (~x, t) = E

~ rad eit and H

~ rad (~x, t) = H

~ rad eit , the

Since E

0

0

averaging gives

hNi =

=

1 rad

E H0rad

2 0

r

1 1

0

2 (4)2 0

Z

2

ikr

~J0 (~x0 ) ~k e d 3 x 0 r

r

(29)

dhPi

1 1

=

d

2 (4)2

Z

2

0 ~ 0

ikr

3

0

~

J0 (~x ) k e d x

0

(30)

Long-distance approximation

When |~x| >> |~x0 |, then we have

kr = k |~x ~x0 | k |~x| ~k ~x0

(31)

dU

1

=

d

4

Z

2

0 ~

0

i~k~x0 3 0

~

~

J (x ) k e

d x

0

2

r Z

dhPi

1 1

0

0

i~k~x0 3 0

~

~

~

=

J0 (x ) k e

d x

d

2 (4)2 0

(32)

(33)

from antennas, as will be seen in later chapters.

Coming up...

Feeding through a coaxial cable:

current with frequency :

I0

L

~J0 (~x0 ) =

z

(x 0 )(y 0 ) sin k

|z 0 |

(34)

sin(kL/2)

2

(Note: direction of current is the same for z > 0 and z < 0)

We have ~x0 = (0, 0, z 0 ). Using azimuthal symmetry, we choose

r = (sin , 0, cos ), so that ~k = k (sin , 0, cos ), so that

~J0 (~x0 ) ~k = I0 k sin (x 0 )(y 0 ) sin k L |z 0 |

y

sin(kL/2)

2

~k ~x0 = kz 0 cos

(35)

Then we get

Z

(~J0 (~x0 ) ~k)ei~k~x0 d 3 x 0

2I0

kL cos

kL

=

cos

cos

(36)

sin sin(kL/2)

2

2

This can be used to calculate the radiation pattern.

In the large wavelength limit, kL 1

Z

(~J(~x0 ) ~k)ei~k~x0 d 3 x 0 = I0 kL sin

2

(37)

dhPi

d

=

=

2

r Z

1 1

0

~J0 (~x0 ) ~k ei~k~x0 d 3 x 0

2 (4)2 0

r

1 1

0

(I0 kL)2 sin2

(38)

8 (4)2 0

As kL increases, stronger angular dependences appear.

Check CDF demo at

http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/DipoleAntennaRadiationPattern/

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/wireless/

ps7183/ps469/prod_white_paper0900aecd806a1a3e.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/wireless/

ps7183/ps469/prod_white_paper0900aecd806a1a3e.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/wireless/

ps7183/ps469/prod_white_paper0900aecd806a1a3e.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/wireless/

ps7183/ps469/prod_white_paper0900aecd806a1a3e.html

http://www.antenna-theory.com/antennas/main.php

~ and B

~ fields in the presence of moving sources

E

~ and B:

~ the 1/r behaviour that

Radiative components of E

dominates at large distances

Poynting vector and power radiated by EM waves

Long distance approximation for radiated power

Radiation patterns in antennas

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