ship propulsion notes

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ship propulsion notes

© All Rights Reserved

- Chapter 3
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- Stability
- Design of an Inland Cargo Vessel With 950 DWT Cargo Capacity.
- Scantling Calc 2007
- Calculation of Marine Propellers
- Propeller Handbook

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bd/mmkarim/

PROPELLER DESIGN

PROFESSOR

DEPT. OF NAME, BUET

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http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

PROPELLER SPECIFICATIONS

PROPELLER DIAMETER

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Dmax = DB = aT

a < 0.65 for Bulk carriers and Tankers

a < 0.74 for Containers ships

a < 2/3 for single screw

X = 5~10% D

Y = 15~25% D

Z = Up to 5% D

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Torque Formula, Q = (5252 x HP)/RPM

Lower the shaft RPM and higher the HP, the greater the Torque

recieiving more torque for the same HP

Low speed engine is heavy and bulky wasting valuable interior hull

space whereas high sped engine is light, compact and economical

A reduction gear is fitted between the crankshaft and the propeller shaft

to reduce shaft RPM so that a larger diameter and more efficient

propeller may be used.

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PROPELLER DIAMETER

Where,

DB = Propeller dia at behind condition

D0 = Propeller dia at open water condition

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NUMBER OF BLADES

One blade: Ideal, it does not have other blades disturbing the water flow ahead of it.

Unfortunately, it will be unbalanced.

Two blades: It requires very large diameter to get the blade area required for effective

thrust

Three blades: it has been proven to be the best compromise between balance,

blade area and efficiency.

Four / Five blades: extra blades create more total blade area with the same or less

Diameter. Accordingly, more thrust is produced. However, efficiency decreases due

to additional turbulence

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PITCH

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EFFECT OF PITCH

Pitch converts the torque of the propeller shaft to thrust by deflecting or accelerating

water astern.

The fundamental task in selecting a propeller is to choose a pitch and diameter that

will generate the maximum thrust possible at normal operating speed without

overloading the engine

Large diameter, without pitch or angle of attack would not accelerate any water

astern

Similarly ordinary blades with too much pitch would attempt to force more water

astern more quickly than the engine can accommodate.

Increasing pitch increases thrust but increasing pitch too much reduces the

efficiency of the engine and propeller combination by slowing the engine

On the other hand, while too little pitch will not overload or slow the engine, it will

not accelerate as much water astern and thus will not generate maximum possible

thrust or speed

PROPELLER POWER

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http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

HAND OF PROPELLER

said to be left-handed. In a twin screw ship, the starboard propeller is normally right

handed and the port propeller left-handed

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http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

COEFFICIENTS OF KT & KQ

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http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

VALUES OF V1

VALUES OF V2

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

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http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

HULL EFFICIENCY

T (1 t ) R

TV (1 t ) R.V

VA

T

.(1 t ) R.V

(1 Wt )

(1 t )

THP

EHP

(1 Wt )

(1 t )

EHP

Hull efficiency H

(1 Wt ) THP

T= Thrust of the propeller

Txt = Thrust deduction

t = thrust deduction fraction

1-t = thrust deduction fraction

T.VA = Thrust power (THP)

R.V = Effective power (EHP)

VA = Speed of Advance VS (1-wt)

V =VA/(1-wt)

Wt = Taylor wake fraction

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

SHAFT POWER, PS

D o R H

QPC D S

R.VS

PE

PS

QPC QPC

VA

J

nD

CAVITATION CHECK:

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following expression, AD is calculated

And finally minimum expanded blade area ratio (EAR) required is calculated

assuming AD~AE

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http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

EAR

AP

AE

( 1.067 0.229 P D )

Expanded blade area ratio, EAR

AE

AE

2

A0

D / 4

Assuming AE=AD

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

ASSUME Pressure Loading of 80kN/m.m

T = R/(1-t)

VA = VS(1-w)

AREA OF BLADES

AD= T/80

BAR =4.AD/(D.D)

2

A

D =?

KT

T

V

T

2 4/ 2 2

2

J

n D n D

D 2VA2

KT

J2

Use

Chart and determine

P/D, J and

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

P/D=?

P=?

Speed of

Advance,

Number of blade = 3

VA

nD

VA

J

nD

n =?

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http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

Obtain values of

KT

J2

J

KT

J2

2

J

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

intersection points with KT curve. Draw perpendicular at

these points and obtain eta for different j values and finally

plot it.

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http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmkarim/

optimum operating condition. From Jopt, find the

optimum rpm of propeller.

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