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Posterior funiculus

-a longitudinal division on each side of the spinal cord comprising white matter
between the dorsal root and the posteriormedian sulcus

-The portion of the medulla spinalis which lies between the posterolateral sulcus and
the posterior median sulcus is named the posterior funiculus. This area includes the
dorsal columns (also called the posterior columns) which contains the fasciculus gracilis and,
higher in the body, the fasciculus cuneatus, which are separated by a partition of glial cells.
Histologically, these two fasciculi are on other sides of the dorsal intermediate sulcus.

Spinocerebellar tract

-is a set of axonal fibers originating in the spinal cord and terminating in the
ipsilateral cerebellum. This tract conveys information to the cerebellum about limb and joint
position (proprioception).

Subdivisions of the tract


The tract is divided into:
Division Information Limbs
dorsal (posterior) spinocerebellar lower
from muscle spindles
tract limb
ventral (anterior) spinocerebellar from golgi tendon lower
tract organs limb
upper
spinocuneocerebellar tract from muscle spindles
limb
from golgi tendon upper
rostral spinocerebellar tract
organs limb

Spinothalamic tract
- is a sensory pathway originating in the spinal cord. It transmits information to the
thalamus about pain, temperature, itch and crude touch. The pathway decussates at the
level of the spinal cord, rather than in the brainstem like the posterior column-medial
lemniscus pathway and corticospinal tract.
The cell bodies of neurons that make up the spinothalamic tract are located principally
within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. These neurons receive input from sensory fibers
that innervate the skin and internal organs.

two main parts of the spinothalamic tract (STT):


• The lateral spinothalamic tract transmits pain and temperature.
• The anterior spinothalamic tract (or ventral spinothalamic tract) transmits crude
touch.
Corticospinal or pyramidal tract
- is a collection of axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain and the
spinal cord.
- mostly contains motor axons. It actually consists of two separate tracts in the spinal
cord: the lateral corticospinal tract and the medial corticospinal tract. An understanding of
these tracts leads to an understanding of why for the most part, one side of the body is
controlled by the opposite side of the brain.
Also the corticobulbar tract is considered to be a pyramidal tract. The corticobulbar tract
carries signals that control motor neurons located in cranial nerve brain nuclei rather than
motor neurons located in the spinal cord.[1]
The neurons of the pyramidal tracts are pyramidal neurons, but that is not how the
pyramidal tract got its name, as most of the pyramidal neurons send their axons elsewhere.
[2]
Instead, it got its name from the shape of the corticospinal axon tracts: when the
pyramidal tract passes the medulla, it forms a dense bundle of nerve fibres that is shaped
somewhat like a pyramid.[3]
The corticospinal tract is concerned specifically with discrete voluntary skilled movements,
especially of the distal parts of the limbs. (Sometimes called "fractionated" movements)

PART OF BRAIN
BRAIN-The brain is made of three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The
forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus (part of the limbic system).
The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the
cerebellum, pons and medulla. Often the midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to
together as the brainstem.
The Cerebrum: The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated
with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into
four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.
Here is a visual representation of the cortex:

 Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions,
and problem solving
 Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli
 Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing
 Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory,
and speech.

The Cerebellum: The cerebellum, or "little brain", is similar to the cerebrum in that it has two
hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. This structure is associated with
regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance.
The cerebellum is assumed to be much older than the cerebrum, evolutionarily. What do I
mean by this? In other words, animals which scientists assume to have evolved prior to
humans, for example reptiles, do have developed cerebellums. However, reptiles do not
have neocortex. Go here for more discussion of the neocortex or go to the following web site
for a more detailed look at evolution of brain structures and intelligence: "Ask the Experts":
Evolution and Intelligence
Limbic System: The limbic system, often referred to as the "emotional brain", is found buried
within the cerebrum. Like the cerebellum, evolutionarily the structure is rather old.
This system contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Here is a
visual representation of this system, from a midsagittal view of the human brain:
• Thalamus
• Hypothalamus
• Amygdala
• Hippocampus
Brain Stem: Underneath the limbic system is the brain stem. This structure is responsible for
basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Scientists say that
this is the "simplest" part of human brains because animals' entire brains, such as reptiles
(who appear early on the evolutionary scale) resemble our brain stem. Look at a good
example of this here.
The brain stem is made of the midbrain, pons, and medulla:
• Midbrain
• Pons
• Medulla

Cranial nerves
- are nerves that emerge directly from the brain stem, in contrast to spinal nerves
which emerge from segments of the spinal cord.

- are composed of twelve pairs of nerves that emanate from the nervous tissue of the
brain. In order reach their targets they must ultimately exit/enter the cranium through
openings in the skull. Hence, their name is derived from their association with the cranium.
The function of the cranial nerves is for the most part similar to the spinal nerves, the
nerves that are associated with the spinal cord. The motor components of the cranial
nerves are derived from cells that are located in the brain. These cells send their axons
(bundles of axons outside the brain = a nerve) out of the cranium where they will ultimately
control muscle (e.g., eye movements) , glandular tissue (e.g., salivary glands) or specialized
muscle (e.g., heart or stomach). The sensory components of cranial nerves originate from
collections of cells that are located outside the brain. These collections of nerve cells bodies
are called sensory ganglia. They are essentially the same functionally and anatomically as
the dorsal root ganglia which are associated with the spinal cord. In general, sensory
ganglia of the cranial nerves send out a branch that divides into two branches: a branch that
enters the brain and one that is connected to a sensory organ. Examples of sensory organs
are pressure or pain sensors in the skin and more specialized ones such as taste receptors
of the tongue. Electrical impulses are transmitted from the sensory organ through the
ganglia and into the brain via the sensory branch that enter the brain. There are two
exceptions to this rule that should be noted when the special senses of smell and vision are
discussed. In summary, the motor components of cranial nerves transmit nerve
impulses from the brain to target tissue outside of the brain. Sensory components transmit
nerve impulses from sensory organs to the brain. -

List of cranial nerves


Sensor
y,
# Name Origin Nuclei Function
Motor
or Both

olfactory Still controversial


Cranial nerve
trigone, medial New research indicates CN0
zero (CN0 is not
0 Sensory olfactory gyrus, may play a role in the
traditionally
and lamina detection of pheromones [2]
recognized.)[1]
terminalis [3]

Anterior Transmits the sense of


Purely
I Olfactory nerve olfactory smell; Located in olfactory
Sensory
nucleus foramina of ethmoid
Transmits visual information
Purely Ganglion cells of
II Optic nerve to the brain; Located in
Sensory retina [4]
optic canal
Innervates levator
palpebrae superioris,
Oculomotor
superior rectus, medial
nucleus,
Oculomotor Mainly rectus, inferior rectus, and
III Midbrain Edinger-
nerve Motor inferior oblique, which
Westphal
collectively perform most
nucleus
eye movements; Located in
superior orbital fissure
Innervates the superior
oblique muscle, which
Mainly Trochlear depresses, rotates laterally
IV Trochlear nerve Midbrain
Motor nucleus (around the optic axis), and
intorts the eyeball; Located
in superior orbital fissure
Principal
sensory Receives sensation from the
trigeminal face and innervates the
nucleus, Spinal muscles of mastication;
Both
trigeminal Located in superior orbital
Sensory
V Trigeminal nerve Pons nucleus, fissure (ophthalmic nerve -
and
Mesencephalic V1), foramen rotundum
Motor
trigeminal (maxillary nerve - V2), and
nucleus, foramen ovale (mandibular
Trigeminal nerve - V3)
motor nucleus
Innervates the lateral
Mainly Posterior Abducens rectus, which abducts the
VI Abducens nerve
Motor margin of Pons nucleus eye; Located in superior
orbital fissure
VII Facial nerve Both Pons Facial nucleus, Provides motor innervation
Sensory (cerebellopontin Solitary nucleus, to the muscles of facial
and e angle) above Superior expression, posterior belly
Motor olive salivary nucleus of the digastric muscle, and
stapedius muscle, receives
the special sense of taste
from the anterior 2/3 of the
tongue, and provides
secretomotor innervation to
the salivary glands (except
parotid) and the lacrimal
gland; Located and runs
through internal acoustic
canal to facial canal and
exits at stylomastoid
foramen
Senses sound, rotation and
gravity (essential for
Vestibulocochlear
balance & movement). More
nerve (or
Lateral to CN VII Vestibular specifically. the vestibular
auditory- Mostly
VIII (cerebellopontin nuclei, Cochlear branch carries impulses for
vestibular nerve sensory
e angle) nuclei equilibrium and the cochlear
or statoacoustic
branch carries impulses for
nerve)
hearing.; Located in internal
acoustic canal
Receives taste from the
posterior 1/3 of the tongue,
provides secretomotor
innervation to the parotid
gland, and provides motor
Nucleus innervation to the
Both
ambiguus, stylopharyngeus (essential
Glossopharyngeal Sensory
IX Medulla Inferior salivary for tactile, pain, and thermal
nerve and
nucleus, Solitary sensation)[citation needed]. Some
Motor
nucleus sensation is also relayed to
the brain from the palatine
tonsils. Sensation is relayed
to opposite thalamus and
some hypothalamic nuclei.
Located in jugular foramen
Supplies branchiomotor
innervation to most
laryngeal and all pharyngeal
muscles (except the
stylopharyngeus, which is
innervated by the
glossopharyngeal); provides
parasympathetic fibers to
nearly all thoracic and
Nucleus
Both abdominal viscera down to
Posterolateral ambiguus,
Sensory the splenic flexure; and
X Vagus nerve sulcus of Dorsal motor
and receives the special sense
Medulla vagal nucleus,
Motor of taste from the epiglottis.
Solitary nucleus
A major function: controls
muscles for voice and
resonance and the soft
palate. Symptoms of
damage: dysphagia
(swallowing problems),
velopharyngeal
insufficiency. Located in
jugular foramen
XI Accessory nerve Mainly Cranial and Nucleus Controls
sternocleidomastoid and
trapezius muscles, overlaps
(or cranial
ambiguus, with functions of the vagus.
accessory nerve
Motor Spinal Roots Spinal accessory Examples of symptoms of
or spinal
nucleus damage: inability to shrug,
accessory nerve)
weak head movement;
Located in jugular foramen
Provides motor innervation
to the muscles of the
tongue (except for the
palatoglossus, which is
Hypoglossal Mainly Hypoglossal innervated by the vagus)
XII Medulla
nerve Motor nucleus and other glossal muscles.
Important for swallowing
(bolus formation) and
speech articulation. Located
in hypoglossal canal

List of cranial nerves


Sensor
y,
# Name Origin Nuclei Function
Motor
or Both

olfactory Still controversial


Cranial nerve
trigone, medial New research indicates CN0
zero (CN0 is not
0 Sensory olfactory gyrus, may play a role in the
traditionally
and lamina detection of pheromones [2]
recognized.)[1]
terminalis [3]

Anterior Transmits the sense of


Purely
I Olfactory nerve olfactory smell; Located in olfactory
Sensory
nucleus foramina of ethmoid
Transmits visual information
Purely Ganglion cells of
II Optic nerve to the brain; Located in
Sensory retina [4]
optic canal
Innervates levator
palpebrae superioris,
Oculomotor
superior rectus, medial
nucleus,
Oculomotor Mainly rectus, inferior rectus, and
III Midbrain Edinger-
nerve Motor inferior oblique, which
Westphal
collectively perform most
nucleus
eye movements; Located in
superior orbital fissure
IV Trochlear nerve Mainly Midbrain Trochlear Innervates the superior
Motor nucleus oblique muscle, which
depresses, rotates laterally
(around the optic axis), and
intorts the eyeball; Located
in superior orbital fissure
Principal
sensory Receives sensation from the
trigeminal face and innervates the
nucleus, Spinal muscles of mastication;
Both
trigeminal Located in superior orbital
Sensory
V Trigeminal nerve Pons nucleus, fissure (ophthalmic nerve -
and
Mesencephalic V1), foramen rotundum
Motor
trigeminal (maxillary nerve - V2), and
nucleus, foramen ovale (mandibular
Trigeminal nerve - V3)
motor nucleus
Innervates the lateral
Mainly Posterior Abducens rectus, which abducts the
VI Abducens nerve
Motor margin of Pons nucleus eye; Located in superior
orbital fissure
Provides motor innervation
to the muscles of facial
expression, posterior belly
of the digastric muscle, and
stapedius muscle, receives
the special sense of taste
Both Pons Facial nucleus, from the anterior 2/3 of the
Sensory (cerebellopontin Solitary nucleus, tongue, and provides
VII Facial nerve
and e angle) above Superior secretomotor innervation to
Motor olive salivary nucleus the salivary glands (except
parotid) and the lacrimal
gland; Located and runs
through internal acoustic
canal to facial canal and
exits at stylomastoid
foramen
Senses sound, rotation and
gravity (essential for
Vestibulocochlear
balance & movement). More
nerve (or
Lateral to CN VII Vestibular specifically. the vestibular
auditory- Mostly
VIII (cerebellopontin nuclei, Cochlear branch carries impulses for
vestibular nerve sensory
e angle) nuclei equilibrium and the cochlear
or statoacoustic
branch carries impulses for
nerve)
hearing.; Located in internal
acoustic canal
IX Glossopharyngeal Both Medulla Nucleus Receives taste from the
nerve Sensory ambiguus, posterior 1/3 of the tongue,
and Inferior salivary provides secretomotor
Motor nucleus, Solitary innervation to the parotid
nucleus gland, and provides motor
innervation to the
stylopharyngeus (essential
for tactile, pain, and thermal
sensation)[citation needed]. Some
sensation is also relayed to
the brain from the palatine
tonsils. Sensation is relayed
to opposite thalamus and
some hypothalamic nuclei.
Located in jugular foramen
Supplies branchiomotor
innervation to most
laryngeal and all pharyngeal
muscles (except the
stylopharyngeus, which is
innervated by the
glossopharyngeal); provides
parasympathetic fibers to
nearly all thoracic and
Nucleus
Both abdominal viscera down to
Posterolateral ambiguus,
Sensory the splenic flexure; and
X Vagus nerve sulcus of Dorsal motor
and receives the special sense
Medulla vagal nucleus,
Motor of taste from the epiglottis.
Solitary nucleus
A major function: controls
muscles for voice and
resonance and the soft
palate. Symptoms of
damage: dysphagia
(swallowing problems),
velopharyngeal
insufficiency. Located in
jugular foramen
Controls
sternocleidomastoid and
Accessory nerve
Nucleus trapezius muscles, overlaps
(or cranial
Mainly Cranial and ambiguus, with functions of the vagus.
XI accessory nerve
Motor Spinal Roots Spinal accessory Examples of symptoms of
or spinal
nucleus damage: inability to shrug,
accessory nerve)
weak head movement;
Located in jugular foramen
Provides motor innervation
to the muscles of the
tongue (except for the
palatoglossus, which is
Hypoglossal Mainly Hypoglossal innervated by the vagus)
XII Medulla
nerve Motor nucleus and other glossal muscles.
Important for swallowing
(bolus formation) and
speech articulation. Located
in hypoglossal canal
DORSAL POSITION
The patient is placed in the dorsal
position, and the abdomen is opened
through a lower midline incision.
PRONE POSITION