You are on page 1of 37

1

Broadband access: Briefing paper

This paper presents an executive summary of the various forms of broadband access which the e-NC Authority has evaluated in order to recommend the appropriate mix of solutions that best suits the specific needs of North Carolina‟s rural service areas. The paper also addresses the principles of the e-NC Authority broadband initiatives, rationale for broadband access and cost models of the access alternatives. (If reproducing, please credit the e-NC Authority 2001-2011.)

Author:

e-NC Authority

Technical Committee

Date:

October, 2011

2

Broadband Principles

PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE DEPLOYMENT (Position of the e-NC Authority Board)

The following principles have emerged as best practices in an effort to ensure that all North Carolina citizens and businesses have access and the capacity to utilize broadband Internet to secure a better future. These principles should continue to guide the policies, programs and practices of the e-NC Authority and the State of North Carolina as they act to sustain progress already made.

Ubiquitous Broadband: The state of North Carolina must commit to ubiquitous broadband to enable the technology-based economic development that will create the sort of jobs and business opportunities necessary for North Carolina to be competitive in the global economy.

Inclusiveness: All populations, regardless of age or income, must have equal access to opportunities brought about by broadband Internet and ICT (information and communication technologies).

Commitment to Competitive Infrastructure: Currently-deployed infrastructure will only suffice for a short term. The state of North Carolina must support high-capacity deployment while understanding the need to utilize what is currently available. The need for provisioning of competitive broadband service should be met by the private sector. However, local governments should have the right to offer broadband services when the service available does not meet the needs of the local community. The State of North Carolina should make no restriction to the provision of broadband by any nonprofit or local governments.

Expansive Use of Broadband and Adaptability: Broadband demand can be driven by many different requirements. The market will accept and support innovative deployment options that are flexible in using various technologies. The technology that best equips the community to compete in a global marketplace, in a sustainable manner, will be given preference.

Cross-Sector Collaboration: Public, private and non-profit organizations can work together with communities to bring about faster deployment of broadband infrastructure and adoption of high-value applications.

Digital Literacy: In order for broadband adoption to be a success in North Carolina‟s economy, our citizen workforce, children, seniors and business owners must benefit from a strong educational effort about the use of new technologies and applications.

Leverage the Power of Youth: Young people are particularly potent change agents that should be enlisted to assist their local communities in moving toward adoption of computer technology and the Internet.

Grassroots Empowerment: Communities can and should organize themselves to ensure that broadband infrastructure is deployed for their citizens.

Constant Improvement through Accountability: A special focus should be made on rigorous metrics so that we can determine the most effective policies that will drive broadband deployment and adoption of services by citizens and businesses.

3

Data Collection: Complete, accurate, verifiable and timely coverage data from all telecommunications providers-based on the FCC broadband tier definitions-is essential for determining North Carolina‟s communities that need special attention to achieve broadband infrastructure goals.

The principles above are part of North Carolina‟s strategic Internet plan. The full report can be found at

High-Speed vs. Broadband In 2008, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) revised their definition and usage of “broadband” to include these speed tiers. By legislative mandate, the e-NC Authority must follow the FCC definition of Internet connectivity speeds.

  • 1 st Generation Data

Basic Broadband Tier 1

Broadband Tier 2 Broadband Tier 3 Broadband Tier 4 Broadband Tier 5 Broadband Tier 6 Broadband Tier 7

200 kbps to 768 kbps 768 kbps to 1.5 Mbps 1.5 to 3 Mbps 3 to 6 Mbps 6 to 10 Mbps 10 to 25 Mbps 25 to 100 Mbps Greater than 100 Mbps

* As of October 2011, the FCC’s official definition of Broadband requires 4Mbps downstream and 1Mbps upstream. The tiers above are still used for data collection purposes.

Broadband Access

Converged network‟s of integrating telephony, data and cable TV with a single method of broadband

access capabilities opens up the market for the transmission and exchange of multimedia, entertainment, and information to the home. There are many competing visions of what future architecture telecommunications will look like. It is, however, very clear that future networks will be „broadband‟ in their access capabilities.

There are several competing broadband access technologies for the last mile. In most instances, each was specifically developed to address a specific market segment. The Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) provides the following information about Broadband Access. Following this section are diagrams of these and other Broadband technologies.

What Is Broadband?

Broadband or high-speed Internet access allows users to access the Internet and Internet-related services at significantly higher speeds than those available through “dial-up” Internet access services. Broadband speeds vary significantly depending on the particular type and level of service and may range from as low as 768 kilobits per second (kbps), or 768,000 bits per second, to six megabits per second (Mbps), or 6,000,000 bits per second. Some recent offerings even include 50Mbps to 1 Gbps (1Gbps = 1000 Mbps). Broadband services for residential consumers typically provide faster downstream speeds (from the Internet to your computer) than upstream speeds (from your computer to the Internet).

How Does Broadband Work?

4

Broadband allows users to access information via the Internet using one of several high-speed transmission technologies. Transmission is digital, meaning that text, images, and sound are all

transmitted as “bits” of data. The transmission technologies that make broadband possible move these bits

much more quickly than traditional telephone or wireless connections, including traditional dial-up Internet access connections.

Once you have a broadband connection to your home or business, devices such as computers can be attached to this broadband connection by existing electrical or telephone wiring, coaxial cable, or wireless devices.

What Are The Advantages of Broadband?

Broadband allows you to take advantage of new services not available or not convenient to use with a dial-up Internet connection. One such service is Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), an alternative to traditional voice telephone service, which may be less costly for you depending on your calling patterns.

Some VoIP services only allow you to call other people using the same service, but others allow you to call anyone who has a telephone number including local, long distance, mobile, and international numbers.

Broadband makes “telemedicine” possible: patients in rural areas can confer online with medical

specialists in more urban areas and share information and test results very quickly.

Broadband helps you to efficiently access and use many reference and cultural resources, such as library and museum databases and online collections. You also need broadband to best take advantage of many distance learning opportunities, like online college or university courses, and continuing or senior education programs. Broadband is an important tool for expanding educational and economic opportunities for consumers in remote locations.

In addition to these services, broadband allows you to shop on-line and Web surf more quickly and efficiently. Downloading and viewing videos and photos on your computer are much faster and easier. With broadband you can access the Internet without needing to dial up your Internet Service Provider (ISP) over a telephone line, which permits you to use the Internet without tying up your telephone line. As of December 2008, more than 100 million broadband connections were deployed in the United States.

What are some of the lesser known uses for and advantages of Broadband?

Broadband offers cost savings and increased productivity in a number of unique ways:

Telecommuting - Saves time, money, and increases productivity. Full-time telecommuters can have a lower carbon footprint. Rural telecommuters can help bring urban dollars into rural communities.

Cell Phone - Though we may take cell service for granted, there are still many areas with insufficient cellular coverage. Major carriers are now offering microcells, picocells, and femtocells; all of which allow the use of a broadband connection to provide a small radius of cellular signal.

5

Hardware and data consolidation Using Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), Terminal Services,

and other remote access technologies can allow businesses to utilize a single set of servers and databases from multiple locations, lowering hardware and software costs. Remote video surveillance The availability of Internet accessible cameras and DVRs allows for

inexpensive remote surveillance and in most cases historical playback. Computer based manufacturing and monitoring The ability to transfer electronic designs to

remote manufacturing facilities, remote monitoring, and remote diagnostics allow for lower cost manufacturing. Fund raising New trends like crowd-sourcing and micro-lending can help entrepreneurs start a new business with nothing more than a computer and a broadband connection.

What Types of Broadband Are Available?

Broadband can be provided over different platforms, including:

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL);

Cable Modem;

Fiber-Optic Cable (Fiber);

Mobile Wireless;

Fixed Wireless;

Satellite; and

Broadband over Powerline (BPL).*

*Note that technical issues have hindered BPL deployments, and this technology is currently available only in very limited areas. The new BPL standard IEEE 1901-2010 may drive an increase in availability.The broadband technology you choose will depend on a number of factors. These factors include how broadband Internet access is packaged with other services (e.g. voice telephone and home entertainment), price, and service availability.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

DSL is a wireline transmission technology that transmits data faster over traditional copper telephone lines already installed to homes and businesses. DSL-based broadband provides transmission speeds ranging from several hundred Kbps to millions of bits per second. The availability and speed of your DSL service may depend on the distance from your home or business to the closest telephone company facility. The following are types of DSL transmission technologies:

Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) used primarily by residential customers, such

as Internet surfers, who receive a lot of data but do not send much. ADSL typically provides faster speed in the downstream direction than the upstream direction. ADSL allows faster downstream data transmission over the same line used to provide voice service, without disrupting regular telephone calls on that line. Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) used typically by businesses for services such as video conferencing. Downstream and upstream traffic speeds are equal. Very-high-data-rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) used by customers within 4,000 feet of a VDSL-capable DSLAM (DSL Access Multiplexer). VDSL provides the very high speed and robust connectivity

6

needed for the provisioning of “triple-play” services that include voice, video, and Internet over a single connection.

Cable Modem

Cable modem service enables cable operators to provide broadband using the same coaxial cables that deliver pictures and sound to your TV set. Most cable modems are external devices that have two connections, one to the cable wall outlet and the other to a computer. They provide transmission speeds of 1.5 Mbps or more. You can still watch cable TV while using a cable modem service. Transmission speeds vary depending on the type of cable modem, cable network, and traffic load. Speeds are generally faster than DSL. The advent of the DOCSIS 3.0 protocol has allowed cable operators to begin providing service with download speeds of up to 160Mbps and upload speeds of up to 120Mbps.

Fiber-Optic Cable (Fiber)

Fiber optic technology converts electrical signals to light and sends that light through transparent glass fibers about the diameter of a human hair. Fiber transmits data at speeds far exceeding current DSL or cable modem speeds, typically by tens or even hundreds of Mbps. The actual speed you experience, however, will vary depending upon a variety of factors, such as how close to your computer the service provider brings the fiber and how the service provider configures the service, including the amount of bandwidth used. The same fiber providing your broadband can also simultaneously deliver voice (VoIP) and video services, including video-on-demand. Most large network operators are offering fiber-based broadband in limited areas, expanding their fiber networks, and, in many cases, providing bundled voice, Internet access, and video services.

Wireless

Wireless broadband can be mobile or fixed. Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) is a fixed, short-range technology that is often used in conjunction with DSL or cable modem service to connect devices within a home or

business to the Internet. Wi-Fi connects a home or business to the Internet using a radio link between the

customer‟s location and the service provider‟s facility. This fixed wireless broadband service is becoming

more and more widely available at airports, city parks, bookstores, and other public locations called

“hotspots.”

Fixed wireless technologies using longer range directional equipment can provide broadband service in remote or sparsely populated areas where other types of broadband would be too costly to provide. Speeds are generally comparable to DSL and cable modem service speeds. An external antenna is usually required. With newer services (such as WiMax) now being deployed, a small antenna located inside a home near a window is usually adequate, and higher speeds are possible. Depending on the technology deployed, fixed wireless Internet requires line-of-site (LoS) or near-line-of-site (NLoS). LoS means that there must be an unobstructed view between the transmitter and the receiver, where the transmitter is generally on a tower or tall structure and the receiver is on the private residence or business. Trees, structures, and topography can all obstruct LoS and prevent service from being available. When LoS is available, residences can connect to transmitters as far as 24 miles away. NLoS allows for some obstructions between the transmitter and the receiver, but the more obstructions are present, the closer one must be to the transmitter in order to get service. Those with moderate obstructions, such as trees or

7

buildings, can generally connect to a tower as far as 5 miles away. NLoS equipment enjoys greater range when an unobstructed view is present. Mobile wireless broadband services, such as 3G, 4G* and LTE, are also becoming available from mobile telephone service providers, such as cell phone companies, and others. These services generally require a special card with a built in antenna that plugs into a user‟s laptop computer. Smartphones, mobile broadband personal hotspots and MiFi devices can also be used to gain access to mobile broadband. Generally, 3G mobile broadband provides lower speeds, in the range of several hundred Kbps. Though most post-3G offerings do not meet the speed requirements of the official 4G specification, network providers may advertise their networks as 4G, as long as those networks provide a significant speed improvement over 3G offerings. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is an example of post-3G technology that is not yet capable of the speeds officially defined for the 4G specification but can be advertised as 4G. Some providers are also deploying WiMax for mobile broadband. These new technologies offer download speeds as high as 30Mbps and can, in some cases, serve as a viable replacement for residential broadband. A large number of mobile broadband users connecting through a single cell tower may create capacity issues and result in degraded performance.

Satellite

Just as satellites orbiting the earth provide necessary links for telephone and television service, they can also provide links for broadband services. Satellite broadband is another form of wireless broadband and is particularly useful for serving remote or sparsely populated areas. Downstream and upstream speeds for satellite broadband depend on several factors, including the provider and service package purchased, the consumer‟s line of sight to the orbiting satellite, and the weather. Satellite service can be disrupted in severe weather conditions or heavy cloud cover. Typically a consumer can expect to receive (download) at a speed of about 1 Mbps and send (upload) at a speed of about 200 kbps. These speeds may be slower than DSL and cable modem, but the download speed is still much faster than the download speed of dial-up Internet access for most applications. While satellite- based broadband can provide fast download speeds, there are limitations that should be considered before investing in a new satellite Internet installation. Latency This is a measure of the time it takes for a request to reach its destination and then for a response to be received. Latency is measured is milliseconds (ms). Satellite-based Internet access generally suffers from high latency (greater than 200 ms on average). In contrast, dial-up is narrow band but low latency (less than 100ms on average). Fiber optic, cable, and DSL are all broadband and very low latency (less than 50ms on average). The result is that applications that require a single request for a large amount of data, such as watching a video, may perform reasonably well via satellite, whereas applications that involve many requests that require rapid responses, such as video games, will perform poorly or not function at all. Rain fade Internet via satellite suffers from a similar limitation as satellite television, which is rain fade, or reduced performance or availability during times of heavy precipitation or thick cloud cover. Outages under these types of weather conditions are unavoidable but are also temporary in nature. Data limits There is only so much room for equipment onboard satellites, and adding capacity can be very costly, therefore satellite Internet providers must conserve their available capacity in order to serve the most possible customers. Many satellite providers implement daily transfer limits. While the amount of data allowed for a single 24-hour period varies, a limit of 250MB per day is not unusual. These limits mean that while watching streaming video or other bandwidth intensive activities may be technically possible via satellite, there are limits to how much of these types of media users will be able to consume in a single day. This limitation often precludes

8

satellite Internet users from participating in distance learning and other Internet-based activities that non-satellite users often take for granted. When limits are reached, some providers cut off service for the remainder of the 24-hour period, while others throttle the available bandwidth back to speeds similar to dial-up. Cost

Obtaining satellite broadband can be more costly and involved than obtaining DSL or cable modem. A

user must have:

A two or three foot dish or base station the most costly item;

A satellite Internet modem; and

A clear line of sight to the provider‟s satellite.

Broadband over Powerline (BPL)

BPL delivers broadband over the existing low and medium voltage electric power distribution network. BPL speeds are comparable to DSL and cable modem speeds. BPL can be provided to homes using existing electrical connections and outlets. BPL has suffered as a result of technical challenges, such as the introduction of radio interference, and is currently available only in very limited areas. It has significant potential because power lines are installed virtually everywhere, alleviating the need to build new broadband facilities to every customer.

To find out if BPL is available to your home, contact your electric utility or your state‟s public service

commission. You can also visit the following Web site to obtain a list of BPL providers:

www.bpldatabase.org. BPL is not the only option that electric companies and cooperatives have to provide broadband access. Many electric companies are deploying fiber optics alongside their power lines for managing the grid, and, in a number of cases, to provide last mile broadband access to residences and community anchor institutions.

References:

Some material in this section was taken directly from the website for the Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau of the Federal Communications Commission; other information was obtained from technology providers. To find out if any of these services are avaiable in your area, consult the North Carolina Broadband Map located at http://e-ncbroadband.org. For areas outside of North Carolina, consult the National Broadband Map at http://broadbandmap.gov

9

ITU along with Merrill Lynch evaluated the most popular broadband access technologies as shown in the table below:

Table 1

Technology

Definition

Bandwidth

Advantages

Disadvantages

e-NC Authority

Comments

ADSL

Transmission of voice and

  • Up to 8 Mbit/s

  • Makes full use of existing

  • Limited video capability

  • Best suited for clients who are

Asymmetric Digital

data over copper

downstream

copper

  • Distance limitation

ADSL capable and in proximity to

Subscriber Line

  • Up to 1.5 Mbit/s

  • Ideal for web-browsing

  • Limited upstream bandwidth

carrier DSL equipment

upstream

  • Good platform for voice

  • Cost friendly

VDSL

Transmission of video,

  • Up to 52 Mbit/s

  • Supports broadcast video,

  • Requires short distance

  • Limited but expanding availability

Very High Rate Digital Subscriber Line

voice and data over copper

downstream & 6.4 Mbps upstream

Video-on-demand, Internet TV, and interactive TV

  • Non-standard products and technology

  • Offers always-on network for voice, video, and data

  • Limited scalability

Microwave multipoint

Microwave transmission

  • Typical speed of up

  • Fast time-to-market

  • Needs line of sight to

  • LMDS with reach of 5 mile radius

fixed services

of video and data Point-to-point or point-to-

to 1.5 Mbps downstream and

  • Point-to-multipoint cells have limited geographical

complete transmission

  • MMDS reach is 35 mile radius

multipoint

256

Kbps upstream

area

  • Unlicensed technologies with

  • For MMDS, State owned ITFS license

reach of up to 25 miles with clear Line of Sight or 3 to 5 miles with Near Line of Sight

HFC Hybrid Fiber/Coax

Transmission of video, voice, and data over

  • Up to 160Mbps downstream

  • Supports broadcast video, Video-on-demand, Internet

  • Voice requires special engineering

  • Ideal for clients with reach of

DOCSIS 3.0 protocol

coaxial and fiber cable

  • Up to 120 Mbps

TV, and interactive TV,

  • Difficult to guarantee speed,

HFC access

Cable modem

upstream

HDTV

but can with monitoring

  • Cost friendly

  • Offers always-on network for voice, video, and data

  • High cost of upgrades and build-outs

   
  • For residents, using

  • Ubiquitous

  • Dial up only

  • A solution for clients who cannot

ISDN

Transmission of voice and data over copper

BRI of 128 Kbps symmetrical and PRI up to 1.5 Mbps for businesses

  • Support voice and high speed Internet data

  • Not scalable

acquire contemporary broadband access, especially those in rural areas. This is an aging technology that is being phased out.

IDSL

Transmission of data over

  • Kbps

144

  • Ubiquitous

  • Not scalable

  • Good solution for clients who

copper

symmetrical for

  • Support high speed

cannot acquire contemporary

resident

Internet data

broadband access. Very limited

  • “Always On”

availability.

 

Transmission of video,

  • 155/622 Mbps

  • Supports broadcast, voice

  • Not available

  • Should be considered for next

APON

voice and data over

downstream

video, Video-on-demand,

  • Ongoing standardization

generation broadband access

fiber

155

Mbps upstream

  • cable TV, HDTV, and quality interactive TV

  • Require extended fiber to rural regions

  • Always-on

GPON

Transmission of video, voice and data over

  • 2.5 Gbps downstream

  • Was the first passive optical network standard

  • Uses ATM protocol, which is generally not preferred to

  • High-speed solution for those with access to GPON

fiber

  • 1.25 Gbps Upstream

Ethernet

infrastructure

  • Not widely deployed

10

GEPON (also known as EPON)

Transmission of video, voice and data over

  • 1Gbps symmetrical

  • Based on Ethernet rather than ATM, which lowers

  • Not widely available in rural areas

  • This technology has been superseded by 10GEPON

fiber

the cost and complexity

  • Costly to deploy to sparsely

  • Widely deployed

populated areas

10GEPON

Transmission of video,

  • 10Gbpbs

  • Massive throughput

  • Not widely available in

  • Extremely high-speed / high-

voice and data over

downstream

  • Based on Ethernet

rural areas

reliability access for those with

fiber

2.5Gbps Upstream

access to 10GEPON infrastructure

DPON (RFoG Radio Frequency over

DOCSIS cable modem services delivered over

  • Up to 160Mbps downstream

  • Allows standard cable modem protocols to be

  • Lower speeds than other fiber-based protocols

  • A good solution for extending cable modem systems in areas

Glass)

fiber

  • Up to 120 Mbps upstream

used where fiber is present and copper and coax are not.

where copper and coax are not present or allowed

Satellites

 
  • Typical speed of 512 Kbps downstream

  • Supports broadcast video, Video-on-demand,

  • Not suitable for voice or broadband Interactive

  • Very good solution for clients who are in remote regions of NC.

GEO

and 128Kbps

cable TV, HDTV.

applications

upstream

  • Offers always-on for high-speed Internet

  • Costly to deploy to sparsely populated areas

 

Transmission of data

  • Planned for 2 Mbps

  • Offers always-on network

  • High entry costs.

  • Excellent technical solution for

Satellites

and voice over ku band

downstream & .5

for voice, video, and data

  • LEO projects are on hold

clients who are in remote regions

LEO

Mbps upstream

of NC, but high costs may make it impractical for residential use

Source: ITU, Merrill Lynch. Items added/ modified by e-NC Authority (in Italic)

11

Broadband Access Categories

The following is a discussion highlighting broadband access technologies that are existing or under development.

ADSL

The most important feature of Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Loop (ADSL) is that it can provide high- speed digital services on the existing twisted pair copper network, in overlay without interfering with the traditional analog telephone service -- Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS). ADSL allows subscribers to retain the analog services to which they have already subscribed. Due to its highly efficient line coding technique, ADSL supports new broadband services on a single twisted pair. New services such as high- speed Internet and on-line access, telecommuting, telemedicine, e-education, Video On Demand (VOD), etc., can be offered to most residential telephone subscribers who qualify. Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs) fully support ADSL because it takes advantage of their installed copper base. ADSL connectivity to an ISP, Figure 1

Central Office Voice Switch PSTN ADSL Modem Data Switch < 18,000‟ copper ISP 1 Splitter Splitter
Central Office
Voice Switch
PSTN
ADSL Modem
Data
Switch
< 18,000‟ copper
ISP 1
Splitter
Splitter
DSLAM
Pedestal
ISP n
Remote
Remote
SLC (slick)
< 18,000‟ copper
Splitter
Splitter
DSLAM

Pedestal

Figure 1. ADSL architecture

Figure 1 shows a typical ADSL modem connection to a designated Internet Service Provider (ISP):

The splitter at the subscriber side isolates the voice frequency from the digital modem data.

The DSLAM concentrates all the connected ADSL lines (typically ATM packets mapped into a

The copper wire terminates at the network side to a DSL Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) via a

splitter. The voice line from the splitter terminates at the voice switch.

T1 line) to an ATM switch or router. The data is distributed to various routers via T1/T3s to the designated ISPs.

12

ADSL-lite was recently released. This incorporates the splitter into the modem hardware. For ADSL to be feasible, the maximum distance between the subscriber and the network must be no longer than 18,000 ft. At that distance, downstream speed is about 768 Kbps and upstream speed is about 384 Kbps. For short distances (< 9000 ft) the speed can reach up to 8 Mbps for downstream and up to 1.5 Mbps in the upstream.

VDSL (Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line)

From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

VDSL is so hardy that it is capable of providing services like HDTV and Video-on-Demand along with Internet access, and will be bundled with HDTV packages as it establishes a presence in the marketplace. It is the first high-speed technology that can provide an entire home-entertainment package, making it entirely unique. As demand grows the price of VDSL packages will likely fall.

VDSL is able to deliver incredible bandwidth over standard telephone lines because voice communications through the telephone require only a fraction of the wire's capability. For a rough analogy, consider a multilane freeway where only the slow lane is being utilized for traffic traveling at very slow speeds. By opening the other lanes to faster hybrid traffic, the entire freeway can be utilized, or in this case, the entire wire pair. A telephone or fax can also be used simultaneous to VDSL Internet access or other VDSL services.

VDSL, based on DMT (Discrete MultiTone), creates 247 virtual channels within the available bandwidth. Each channel's integrity is monitored and data is switched to an alternate channel when signals become degraded. In this way, data is constantly shifted to the best route for transmitting or receiving data, making DMT a robust, albeit complex technology.

As with other broadband technologies, end-user speeds will depend upon the distance of the feed or loop to the local telephone company office or remote. Shorter distances afford faster rates, while longer loops degrade signal and speed. One drawback of VDSL is that it requires a very short loop of about 4000 feet (1219 meters), or three-quarters of a mile. However, another complication can inadvertently create a solution for the distance problem: the complication of fiber optic lines.

Many telcos are installing fiber optic lines in place of copper lines. If a stretch of line between the customer and telco is fitted with fiber optic, VDSL signals get "lost in translation" converting from analog (copper), to fiber optic (digital), and back to analog. A VDSL gateway device installed at the junction box will translate the VDSL signals to pulses of light able to traverse the fiber optic cable. Through this process, the distance barrier associated with copper wire and VDSL is "bridged" or bypassed. When the telco receives the light impulses, it sends data back to the junction box gateway, which converts the signal to forward along the copper wires a short distance to the VDSL modem. In this scenario, distance is not a limiting factor.

VDSL is available worldwide in specific regions and growing all the time, and it is increasingly becoming available in the United States. A second-generation version known as VDSL2 provides speeds up to 100 Mbps. To see if it is available in your area, check with local DSL providers, or consult the North Carolina Broadband Map. (http://e-ncbroadband.org) For addresses outside of North Carolina, consult the National Broadband Map. http://broadbandmap.gov

13

Figure 2 below shows the network VDSL connectivity to an ISP. The link from an ONU (Optical Network Unit) to the central office is fiber based.

PSTN Voice Switch VDSL Modem Copper ONU ISP 1 Fiber Data Splitter Switch ILEC Central Office
PSTN
Voice Switch
VDSL Modem
Copper
ONU
ISP 1
Fiber
Data
Splitter
Switch
ILEC Central Office
ISP n
1 – 4.5 K ft

Figure 2. VDSL architecture

Some important considerations The ONU is located in the copper access network. Like ADSL, a service splitter accommodates shared use of the physical transmission line for both VDSL and POTS. The maximum distance between the subscriber and the network must be no longer than 4,500 ft. At that distance, the downstream is about 13 Mbps while the upstream will be about 1 Mbps. For short distances of 1,000 ft, the speed can reach up to 52 Mbps for downstream and 6.4 Mbps upstream.

ISDN

From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the1980s, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) was standardized as a high-speed

interface. ISDN was developed to enhance the users‟ application by integrating voice, data and

video applications. There are two interfaces: Basic Rate Interface (BRI) and Primary Rate Interface (PRI).

BRI is an interface that contains 2B+D digital channels. The B channels are digitally encoded (2B1Q) and deliver 64 Kbps slot compatible with the class-5 circuit switch fabric. The signaling D channel is 16 Kbps. It is mainly used to set up a call and to allocate the 2B channels per user‟s request. The D channel is also used to provide CLASSfeatures such as caller ID, call forwarding, etc. The total payload of 2B+D connection is 144 Kbps.

PRI is an interface that contains 23B+D digital channels. Like BRI, the D channel (64 Kbps) is used for signaling and controlling the services of the B channels. Its total payload is identical to a T1 rate (1.5 Mbps) The PRI interface is generally used by large corporations and is not commonly used for providing last-mile Internet service.

ISDN connectivity to an ISP

14

Figure 3 below illustrates a typical ISDN user connectivity to an ISP. ISDN Switch PSTN ISDN
Figure 3 below illustrates a typical ISDN user connectivity to an ISP.
ISDN Switch
PSTN
ISDN Switch
Copper - BRI
ISP 1
NT
TA
ILEC Central Office
ISP n

TA = Terminal Adapter NT = Network Terminator

Figure 3. ISDN architecture

Connecting to the Internet at 128 Kbps requires the following:

The Terminal Adapter (TA) via the D channel assigns the 2 B-channels and binds them

to deliver 128 Kbps. In this mode of operation this access is considered dial-up.

Based on the dialup information, the connection is then nailed up via the ISDN switch to the designated ISP. Most ISPs do not guarantee a nailed up connection.

The ISDN line can be used for either voice or data.

There has been a slow rollout of the ISDN service (it took more than 20 years from the definition of the standard to reach even a modest penetration level). Critics of ISDN see it as a 1970s technology that was stymied by slow standard development and user-unfriendly pricing.

Cable Modem

The CATV systems deployed today have an enormous bandwidth capacity, thus playing a major role in providing broadband access. Cable TV networks were originally optimized to do a very simple task, i.e., one-way video broadcasting. Reception of TV signals was poor, especially in suburban areas where upscale consumers and homeowners began moving in the 1960‟s. Upgrading the legacy cable network to Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) addresses two major features: providing two-way communication channels (bi- directional), and increased channel capacity (more TV channels) to consumers.

Modernization from CATV to HFC requires the following:

Upgrading the headend

Replacing the trunk from Coax to fiber / fiber nodes

Replacing the amplifiers (from one-way to bi-directional)

Modernization from CATV to HFC hardware and cabling infrastructure has allowed cable companies to deploy broadband cable modems with shared downstream and upstream rates robust enough to deliver most broadband services, including e-medicine, e-education, e-government, etc. This new hardware and cabling infrastructure is made even more robust with the advent of DOCSIS 3.0 protocol, which takes full

15

advantage of the upgraded hardware and provides download speeds of up to 160 Mbps and upload speeds of up to 120Mbps.

Cable modem connectivity to an ISP. Figure 4

15 advantage of the upgraded hardware and provides download speeds of up to 160 Mbps andpoint-to-multipoint, fiber to the premises, network architecture in which unpowered optical splitters utilizing Brewster's angle principles are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple premises, typically 32-128. A PON consists of an optical line terminal (OLT) at the " id="pdf-obj-14-9" src="pdf-obj-14-9.jpg">
ISP - 1 Fiber Fiber Head Node End Trunk Internet
ISP - 1
Fiber
Fiber
Head
Node
End
Trunk
Internet

Cable Modem

2-way Amp.

Drop
Drop

Figure 4. HFC architecture

Once a cable modem is registered in the network then it is declared operational:

The cable modem vies for access to send data to an ISP/Internet via the shared upstream link. Once granted by the headend, the cable modem uses the allocated slots in the upstream link delivering the data to the ISP/Internet via the headend.

In the downstream, a cable modem receives data that is addressed to that IP address.

If congestion occurs, the headend instructs the cable modem to tune to another TV channel

Cable modem access speed

HFC is a shared medium and up to 2000 cable modems can share a set of upstream and downstream TV channels. Each TV channel is modulated using Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) encoding techniques for the downstream that can deliver up to 42 Mbps digital stream per channel. For the upstream, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) is used for modulation delivering up to 2 Mbps per channel. QPSK encoding is used because of its immunity to noise, but at the cost of inefficiency. The upstream-allocated frequency band is polluted with environmental (electromagnetic) noise. DOCSIS 3.0 features channel bonding, which allows faster speeds by using multiple channels simultaneously.

PON (Passive Optical Network)

From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A passive optical network (PON) is a point-to-multipoint, fiber to the premises, network architecture in which unpowered optical splitters utilizing Brewster's angle principles are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple premises, typically 32-128. A PON consists of an optical line terminal (OLT) at the

16

service provider's central office and a number of optical network units (ONUs) near end-users. A PON configuration reduces the amount of fiber and central office equipment required compared with point to point architectures. A passive optical network is a form of fiber-optic access network.

Downstream signals are broadcast to each premise sharing a single fiber. Encryption is used to prevent eavesdropping.

Upstream signals are combined using a multiple access protocol, usually time division multiple access (TDMA). The OLTs "range" the ONUs in order to provide time slot assignments for upstream communication.

PON Standards

o

o

o

o

o

o

APON (ATM Passive Optical Network). This was the first Passive optical network

standard. It was used primarily for business applications, and was based on ATM. BPON (Broadband PON) is a standard based on APON. It adds support for WDM,

dynamic and higher upstream bandwidth allocation, and survivability. It also created a standard management interface, called OMCI, between the OLT and ONU/ONT, enabling mixed-vendor networks. IEEE 802.3ah

EPON or GEPON (Ethernet PON) is an IEEE/EFM standard for using Ethernet for packet

data. 802.3ah is now part of the IEEE 802.3 standard. There are currently over 25 million installed EPON subscribers. Commercial upgrade capability to 10G EPON is still in the early stages of availability in 2011 (see IEEE 802.3av, 10G-EPON). ITU-T G.984

GPON (Gigabit PON) is an evolution of the BPON standard. It supports higher rates,

enhanced security, and uses the Ethernet protocol. IEEE 802.3av

10G-EPON (10 Gigabit Ethernet PON) is an IEEE Task Force for 10Gbit/s, backward

compatible with 802.3ah EPON. 10GEPON will use separate wavelengths for 10G and 1G downstream. 802.3av will continue to use a single wavelength for both 10G and 1G upstream with TDMA separation. The 802.3av task force has concluded with the .3av inclusion in the IEEE 802.3 standard. Commercial 10G EPON equipment is now available. SCTE IPS910

RFoG (RFoverGlass) is an SCTE Interface Practices Subcomittee standard in development for Point to Multipoint (P2MP) operations that has a proposed wavelength plan compatible with data PON solutions including EPON, GEPON and 10G-EPON. RFoG offers an FTTH PON like architecture for MSOs without having to select or deploy a PON technology.

PON History

Early work on efficient fiber to the home architectures was done in the 1990s by the Full Service Access Network (FSAN) working group, formed by major telecommunications service providers and system vendors. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) did further work, and has since standardized on two generations of PON. The older ITU-T G.983 standard is based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and has therefore been referred to as APON (ATM PON). Further improvements to the original APON standard as well as the gradual falling out of favor of ATM as a protocol led to the full, final version of ITU-T G.983 being referred to more often as broadband PON, or BPON. A typical

17

APON/BPON provides 622 megabits per second (Mbit/s) (OC-12) of downstream bandwidth and 155 Mbit/s (OC-3) of upstream traffic, although the standard accommodates higher rates.

The ITU-T G.984 (GPON) standard represents a boost, compared to BPON, in both the total bandwidth and bandwidth efficiency through the use of larger, variable-length packets. Again, the standards permit several choices of bit rate, but the industry has converged on 2.488 gigabits per second (Gbit/s) of downstream bandwidth, and 1.244 Gbit/s of upstream bandwidth. GPON Encapsulation Method (GEM) allows very efficient packaging of user traffic with frame segmentation.

The IEEE 802.3 Ethernet PON (EPON or GEPON) standard was completed in 2004 (http://www.ieee802.org/3/), as part of the Ethernet First Mile project. EPON uses standard 802.3 Ethernet frames with symmetric 1 gigabit per second upstream and downstream rates. EPON is applicable for data-centric networks, as well as full-service voice, data and video networks. 10Gbit/s EPON or 10G- EPON was ratified as an amendment IEEE 802.3av to IEEE 802.3. 10G-EPON supports 10Gbps/1Gbps. The downstream wavelength plan support simultaneous operation of 10Gbps on one wavelength and 1Gbps on a separate wavelength for operation of IEEE 802.3av and IEEE 802.3ah on the same PON concurrently. The upstream channel can support simultaneous operation of IEEE 802.3av and 1Gbps 802.3ah simultaneously on a single shared (1310nm) channel.

  • 2011 PON Status

Both APON/BPON and EPON/GEPON have been deployed widely, but most networks designed after

  • 2007 use GPON or GEPON. GPON has less than 2 million installed ports. GEPON has approximately 30

million deployed ports. For TDM-PON, a passive power splitter is used as the remote terminal. Each

ONUs (Optical network units) signals are multiplexed in the time domain. ONUs see their own data through the address labels embedded in the signal.

References:

Lam, Cedric F., (2007) "Passive Optical Networks: Principles and Practice." San Diego,

California.: Elsevier. Kramer, Glen, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks, McGraw-Hill Communications Engineering,

2005.

Monnard, R., Zirngibl, M.m Doerr, C.R., Joyner, C.H. & Stulz, L.W. (1997).Demonstration of a

12 155 Mb/s WDM PON Under Outside Plant Temperature Conditions. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 9(12), 1655-1657.

McGarry, M., Reisslein, M., Maier M. (2006). WDM Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. IEEE Optical Communications. (February 2006), S18-S25.

Fiber to the Home (FTTH)

From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

18

Fiber to the x (FTTx) is a generic term for any broadband network architecture that uses optical fiber to replace all or part of the usual metal local loop used for last mile telecommunications. The generic term originated as a generalization of several configurations of fiber deployment (FTTN, FTTC, FTTB,

FTTH

),

all starting by FTT but differentiated by the last letter, which is substituted by an x in the

generalization.

The telecommunications industry differentiates between several distinct configurations. The terms in most widespread use today are:

FTTN - Fiber-to-the-node - fiber is terminated in a street cabinet up to several kilometers away

from the customer premises, with the final connection being copper. FTTC - Fiber-to-the-cabinet or fiber-to-the-curb - this is very similar to FTTN, but the street

cabinet is closer to the user's premises; typically within 300m. FTTB - Fiber-to-the-building or Fiber-to-the-basement - fiber reaches the boundary of the

building, such as the basement in a multi-dwelling unit, with the final connection to the individual living space being made via alternative means. FTTH - Fiber-to-the-home - fiber reaches the boundary of the living space, such as a box on the

outside wall of a home. FTTP - Fiber-to-the premises - this term is used in several contexts: as a blanket term for both FTTH and FTTB, or where the fiber network includes both homes and small businesses.

To promote consistency, especially when comparing FTTH penetration rates between countries, the three FTTH Councils of Europe, North America and Asia-Pacific have agreed upon definitions for FTTH and FTTB [1] . The FTTH Councils do not have formal definitions for FTTC and FTTN.

Benefits of Fiber in the Access Network

The speeds of fiber optic and copper cables are both limited by length, but copper is much more sharply limited in this respect. For example, gigabit Ethernet runs over relatively economical category 5e, category 6, or category 6e unshielded twisted pair copper cabling but only to 100 meters. However, over the right kind of fiber, gigabit ethernet can easily reach distances of tens of kilometers.

Fiber configurations that bring fiber right into the building can offer the highest speeds since the remaining segments can use standard Ethernet or coaxial cable. Fiber configurations that transition to copper in a street cabinet are generally too far from the users for standard Ethernet configurations over existing copper cabling.

Fiber is often said to be 'future proof' because the speed of the broadband connection is usually limited by the terminal equipment rather than the fiber itself, permitting at least some speed improvements by equipment upgrades before the fiber itself must be upgraded. Wave Division Multiplexing, for example, utilizes colored light to create as many as 160 unique communication channels on a single fiber pair. Such technologies have already increased the capacity of fiber optics from 1Gbps to as high as 8Tbps, which is 8,000 times faster.

Fiber to the Node

Fiber to the node (FTTN), also called fiber to the neighborhood or fiber to the cabinet (FTTCab), [3] is a telecommunication architecture based on fiber-optic cables run to a cabinet serving a neighborhood. Customers typically connect to this cabinet using traditional coaxial cable or twisted pair wiring. The area served by the cabinet is usually less than 1,500 m in radius and can contain several hundred

19

customers. (If the cabinet serves an area of less than 300 m in radius then the architecture is typically called fiber to the curb.) [4]

Fiber to the node allows delivery of broadband services such as high speed Internet. High speed communications protocols such as broadband cable access (typically DOCSIS) or some form of DSL are used between the cabinet and the customers. The data rates vary according to the exact protocol used and according to how close the customer is to the cabinet.

Unlike the competing fiber to the premises technology, fiber to the node often uses the existing coaxial or twisted pair infrastructure to provide last mile service. For this reason, fiber to the node is less costly to deploy. In the long-term, however, its bandwidth potential is limited relative to implementations that bring the fiber still closer to the subscriber.

Fiber to the Last Amplifier

FTTLA is the acronym of the English term Fiber To The Last Amplifier. The network cables being able to use several amplifiers, the FTTLA aims at replacing the coaxial cable to the last amplifier (towards the subscriber) by optical fiber. It acts as a new technology aiming at re-using the network cables existing in particular on the final part while installing of optical fiber more closely to the subscriber while using the coaxial cable of the networks cables for the "last mile" or "last meters" connected with the subscriber.

Fiber to the last amplifier (FTTLA) node is an efficient tool to deploy fiber deeper into the CATV network architecture and add most desirable aspects of scalability (performance and reliability) which are necessary when new services (i.e. triple play, video on demand, gaming) are introduced.

FTTLA is a technology which assists hybrid fiber-coaxial CATV networks to provide to their customers more bandwidth. Using a replacement of all coaxial active equipments by nodes (optical receiver) with high power output (up to 117 dBuV). The coaxial is maintained from the node to the customer without any active equipment in between.

From the optical sender to the node, it uses fiber which is split by 4 or by 8 depending on the distance and on the output power of the optical sender (from 6 to 16 dBm).

Fiber to the Curb

Fiber to the curb allows delivery of broadband services such as high speed internet. High speed communications protocols such as broadband cable access (typically DOCSIS) or some form of DSL are used between the cabinet and the customers. The data rates vary according to the exact protocol used and according to how close the customer is to the cabinet.

FTTC is subtly distinct from FTTN or FTTP (all are versions of Fiber in the Loop). The chief difference is the placement of the cabinet. FTTC will be placed near the "curb", whereas FTTN is placed far from the customer and FTTP which is placed right at the serving location.

Unlike the competing fiber to the premises (FTTP) technology, fiber to the curb can use the existing coaxial or twisted pair infrastructure to provide last mile service. For this reason, fiber to the curb costs less to deploy. However, it also has lower bandwidth potential than fiber to the premises.

In the United States of America and Canada, the largest deployment of FTTC was carried out by BellSouth Telecommunications. With the acquisition of BellSouth by AT&T, deployment of FTTC may end. Future deployments will be based on either FTTN or FTTP. Existing FTTC plant may be

removed and replaced with FTTP. [5]

20

Fiber to the Premises

Fiber to the premises is a form of fiber-optic communication delivery in which an optical fiber is run from the central office all the way to the premises occupied by the subscriber. Fiber to the premises is often abbreviated with the acronym FTTP. However, this acronym has become ambiguous and may instead refer to a form of fiber to the curb where the fiber does not in fact reach the premises but instead terminates at a utility pole.

References:
References:

10.

Retrieved on 2007-03-25.

deployments", Lightwave 22 (8). Retrieved on 2010-01-27.

19.

19.

U-Verse

From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

AT&T U-verse is a VDSL service offered by AT&T in various parts of the United States. It provides broadband internet access, TV, and phone through a fiber-to-the-node communications network.

AT&T provides their U-verse services primarily through fiber to the node technology (FTTN) [1] but began offering the service through fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP). [2] Only FTTN employs a video ready access device (VRAD) in the neighborhood, while FTTP provides service directly from the Central Office usually located in the central part of the city. In FTTN, it is a digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM). FTTP uses a fiber multiplexer with the conversion to copper taking place at the termination point on the customer property. FTTN is more common, with FTTP only in new housing developments or areas not otherwise served by copper POTS. VDSL2 is used in FTTN systems with speeds up to 32Mbps down and 5Mbps up for customers in the closest range and speeds up to 19Mbps down and 2Mbps up for those at the farthest allowable range. Currently up to 7Mbps is reserved for Cable television, and up to 24Mbit/s is reserved for internet service and VOIP. Once inside the customer's property, service is carried over ethernet or the existing coax network using HomePNA.

U-Verse Television

U-verse TV is delivered via IPTV from the head-end to the consumer's Total Home DVR or standard set- top box. [2] U-verse uses H.264 (MPEG-4 AVC) encoding which compresses video more efficiently than the traditional MPEG-2 codec. Broadcast channels are distributed via IP multicast, allowing a single

21

stream (channel) to be sent to any number of recipients. The system is also designed for individual unicasts for video on demand, central time shifting, start-over services and other programs desired by only one home at that particular time. The set-top box does not have a conventional tuner, but is an IP multicast client which requests the stream desired. In the IP multicast model, only the streams the customer uses are sent. The customer's connection need not have the capacity to carry all available channels simultaneously.

U-Verse Internet

Internet service is provided to computers connected to the on-premises ethernet cabling or a HomePNA residential gateway. U-verse Internet is available either bundled with AT&T's home phone service or as dry loop DSL.

U-Verse Voice

AT&T U-verse Voice is a voice communication service delivered over AT&T's IP network. Customers subscribing to both AT&T U-verse TV and Voice are provided features such as call history and Click to Call, which displays missed and answered calls on the customer's TV if subscribed to U-verse TV.

References:

Fios

From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Verizon FiOS is a bundled home communications (Internet, telephone, and television) service, operating over a fiber-optic communications network, that is offered in some areas of the United States by Verizon Communications. Verizon has attracted consumer and media attention in the area of broadband Internet access as the first major U.S. carrier to offer fiber to the home/premises, and has received top ratings from Consumer Reports among cable television and internet service providers. [1] Other service providers currently only use fiber optics deployment to the network backbone and use existing copper or coax infrastructure for the end user.

Verizon FiOS services are delivered over a fiber-to-the-premises network using passive optical network technology. Voice, video, and data travel over three wavelengths in the infrared spectrum. To serve a home, a single-mode optical fiber extends from an optical line terminal at a FiOS central office or head end out to the neighborhoods where an optical splitter fans out the same signal on up to 32 fibers, thus serving up to 32 subscribers. At the subscriber's home, an optical network terminal transfers data onto the corresponding copper wiring for phone, video and Internet access. [2]

One of the three wavelength bands is devoted to carrying television channels using standard QAM cable television technology. The other two wavelengths are devoted to all other data, one for outbound and the other for inbound data. This includes video on demand, telephone and Internet data.

This allocation of wavelengths adheres to the ITU-T G.983 standard, also known as an ATM passive optical network (APON). Verizon initially installed slower BPONs but now only installs GPONs specified in the ITU-T G.984 standard. These bands and speeds are:

22

1310 nm wavelength for upstream data at 155 Mbit/s (1.2 Gbit/s with GPON)

1490 nm wavelength for downstream data at 622 Mbit/s (2.4 Gbit/s with GPON)

1550 nm wavelength for QAM cable television with 870 MHz of bandwidth

FiOS Television

Unlike AT&T's U-verse product, Verizon's broadcast video service is not IPTV. However, video on demand content and interactive features, such as "widgets" and programing guide data, are delivered over an IPTV-based format. The vast majority of content is provided over a standard broadcast video signal which carries digital QAM content up to 870 MHz. This broadcast content originates from a Super Head- End (SHE), which then sends the signal to a Video Hub Office (VHO) for distribution to FiOS TV customers. [3]

At the Optical Network Terminal (ONT) located at the subscriber's home, the RF video is sent over a coaxial connection, typically to a FiOS set-top box that handles both RF and IPTV video. Interactive services such as VOD and widgets are delivered by IP and are only accessible through use of a FiOS set- top box and a Verizon-supplied router. The router supports MoCA and provides the set-top boxes with programming guides and on-demand video content. Verizon utilizes an IP return path from the set-top box so that subscribers can order pay-per-view events. The FiOS set-top boxes play IPTV only through FiOS delivered via MoCA and not from video sources on the Internet. FiOS's IPTV implementation does not follow cable television formats and conventions for two way television and instead follows the DVB standard. [4]

MoCA is also used by FiOS for streaming video from the ONT for the home, a role currently filled by Motorola's hybrid QAM/IPTV DVR. There are several limitations to video connectivity in the home via FiOS. Standard definition video may be viewed on any television with a built-in clear QAM tuner (limited to legally unencrypted broadcast and local access channels) or a FiOS SD set-top box or FiOS digital television adapter (all SD channels), but high definition content (beyond local HD channels which are in clear QAM) requires HD equipment like a FiOS HD set-top box/DVR or a CableCARD-supporting device, such as TiVo. As of June 2008, Verizon ceased carrying analog television signals in parallel with digital channels, meaning televisions without a QAM tuner or a set-top box/digital adapter receive no signal. [5]

FiOS Internet

Internet throughput speeds are highly variable depending upon service area and are affected by such factors as customer location, cost, and services of the competing broadband providers. Available speeds in various areas have been changed with little notice, generally to raise throughput (but also prices in some cases). End customers usually have three or more choices for Internet bandwidth:

The lowest bandwidth tier was originally 5 Mbit/s down and 2 Mbit/s up and is now 15 Mbit/s

down and 5 Mbit/s up in most areas. A second tier is available with 25 Mbit/s download speed and 25 Mbit/s upload speed.

A third (or higher) service tier, when available for residential service, provides higher still bandwidth, in some areas reaching 30/15, 35/35 or 50/20 Mbit/s download and upload.

FiOS Voice

Verizon offers analog POTS over FiOS. The common model optical network terminals have 2 or 4 analog phone jacks.

23

There have been reports in various markets that Verizon has physically disconnected the copper lines (or the network interface device, necessary for copper-line phone service) at the time that FiOS was installed. [6]

Power outages may affect service availability. Since fiber-optic service does not carry power from the exchange as copper service does, the customer's power is used instead. This means that if there is no electricity at the premises, telephone service will be interrupted. This may be an issue for sites that experience extended power outages that depend on analog phone lines for remote monitoring, alarm systems, and/or emergency calls. Verizon provides a rechargeable battery backup unit free with installation of the service, which powers the ONT for a limited time to provide telephone service in the event of a power outage.

References:

Marsan, C. D. (2008). Verizon FiOS tech heading to enterprises; Claims new high-speed optical

networks slash floor space, electricity needs. Network World, (1). Retrieved March 8, 2009. Searcey, D. (2006). Telecommunications; Beyond Cable; Beyond DSL: Fiber-optic lines offer connection speeds up to 50 times faster than traditional services; Here's what early users have to say. Wall Street Journal, (R9). Retrieved March 7, 2009.

Mobile Wireless 3G, 4G and LTE

3G- From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT--2000), better known as 3G or 3rd Generation, is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunications services fulfilling specifications by the International Telecommunication Union, [1] . Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment. Compared to the older 2G and 2.5G standards, a 3G system must allow simultaneous use of speech and data services, and provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s according to the IMT-2000 specification. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to laptop computers and smartphones.

24

The following standards are typically branded 3G:

the UMTS system, first offered in 2001, standardized by 3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan,

China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by GSM 2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. The original and most widespread radio interface is called W-CDMA. The latest release, HSPA+, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink. the CDMA2000 system, first offered in 2002, standardized by 3GPP2, used especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest release EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstreams.

The above systems and radio interfaces are based on kindred spread spectrum radio transmission technology. While the GSM EDGE standard ("2.9G"), DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G, and are based on completely different technologies.

References:

^ Clint Smith, Daniel Collins. "3G Wireless Networks", page 136. 2000.

4G- From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to 3G and 2G families of standards. The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards compatible transmission technology and new frequency bands. The first was the move from 1981 analog (1G) to digital (2G) transmission in 1992. This was followed, in 2002, by 3G multi-media support, spread spectrum transmission and at least 200 kbit/s, soon expected to be followed by 4G, which refers to all-IP packet-switched networks, mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access and multi-carrier transmission. Pre-4G technologies such as mobile WiMAX and first-release 3G Long term evolution (LTE) have been available on the market since 2006 [1] and 2009 [2][3][4] respectively. While these technologies do not meet the ITU minimum speed requirements for 4G, they have been marketed as 4G by carriers.

A true 4G system is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure all-IP based solution where facilities such as IP telephony, ultra-broadband Internet access, gaming services and streamed multimedia may be provided to users.

This article uses 4G to refer to IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced), as defined by ITU-R.

An IMT-Advanced cellular system must have target peak data rates of up to approximately 100 Mbit/s for high mobility such as mobile access and up to approximately 1 Gbit/s for low mobility such as nomadic/local wireless access, according to the ITU requirements. Scalable bandwidths up to at least 40 MHz should be provided. [5][6]

25

References:

LTE- From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE), is the latest standard in the mobile network technology tree that previously realized the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSxPA network technologies [1] . It is a project of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), operating under a name trademarked by one of the associations within the partnership, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute.

The current generation of mobile telecommunication networks are collectively known as 3G (for "third generation"). Although LTE is often marketed as 4G, first-release LTE is actually a 3.9G technology since it does not fully comply with the IMT Advanced 4G requirements. The pre-4G standard is a step towards LTE Advanced, a 4th generation standard (4G) [2] of radio technologies designed to increase the capacity and speed of mobile telephone networks. LTE Advanced is backwards compatible with LTE and uses the same frequency bands, while LTE is not backwards compatible with 3G systems.

Verizon Wireless and AT&T Mobility in the United States and several worldwide carriers announced plans, beginning in 2009, to convert their networks to LTE. The world's first publicly available LTE- service was opened by TeliaSonera in the two Scandinavian capitals Stockholm and Oslo on the 14th of December 2009. LTE is a set of enhancements to the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) which was introduced in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 8. Much of 3GPP Release 8 focuses on adopting 4G mobile communication's technology, including an all-IP flat networking architecture. On August 18, 2009, the European Commission announced it will invest a total of €18 million into researching the deployment of LTE and 4G candidate systems LTE Advanced. [3]

While it is commonly seen as a mobile telephone or common carrier development, LTE is also endorsed by public safety agencies in the US [4] as the preferred technology for the new 700 MHz public-safety radio band. Agencies in some areas have filed for waivers [5] hoping to use the 700 MHz [6] spectrum with other technologies in advance of the adoption of a nationwide standard.

The LTE specification provides downlink peak rates of at least 100 Mbps, an uplink of at least 50 Mbps and RAN round-trip times of less than 10 ms. LTE supports scalable carrier bandwidths, from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz and supports both frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time division duplexing (TDD).

Part of the LTE standard is the System Architecture Evolution, a flat IP-based network architecture designed to replace the GPRS Core Network and ensure support for, and mobility between, some legacy or non-3GPP systems, for example GPRS and WiMax respectively. [7]

26

References:

Fixed Wireless LMDS and MMDS

Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) and Multichannel Multipoint Distributed Service (MMDS) are fixed wireless, two-way broadband access technologies designed to integrate video, voice, and high-speed data. LMDS should play an important role in broadband deployment especially in rural areas. Recently the FCC auctioned off one GHz of bandwidth around 28 GHz to be used for LMDS. This offers alternatives to Telco and cable last mile facilities. These technologies are most likely to be used for business and rural customers. Early experimental licenses demonstrated the feasibility of such a system. However, because foliage and rain attenuation is so high at this frequency and because terminals operating at this frequency are relatively expensive, current holders of LMDS licenses are now focusing on business access services.

Conceptually, LMDS is similar to the cellular telephony in that a service area would be divided into cells, with a transmitter serving each cell. It is not, however, targeted for mobile applications due to its line of sight requirements. It differs from conventional microwave transmission systems due to its point-to- multipoint operation. Its characteristics are similar to that of a fiber-fed cable system, but operate in a Line of Sight (LoS) access approach.

27

27 Headend/ master site Cell Site Internet Two-way wireless transmission links connect small transceiver units located

Headend/ master site

27 Headend/ master site Cell Site Internet Two-way wireless transmission links connect small transceiver units located
27 Headend/ master site Cell Site Internet Two-way wireless transmission links connect small transceiver units located

Cell Site

27 Headend/ master site Cell Site Internet Two-way wireless transmission links connect small transceiver units located
27 Headend/ master site Cell Site Internet Two-way wireless transmission links connect small transceiver units located
Internet
Internet
27 Headend/ master site Cell Site Internet Two-way wireless transmission links connect small transceiver units located

Two-way wireless transmission links connect small transceiver units located on the customer's rooftop to node sites. Depending on antenna height, terrain, weather, and desired reliability, LMDS can provide service to 3-5 miles.

MMDS

MMDS shares similar topology and is similar in many respects to LMDS architecture. MMDS uses the 2.1-to-2.69 GHz frequency, and was originally licensed for one-way video transmission to provide an alternative to cable television. Like LMDS, MMDS is licensed by the Federal Communications Commission, which means an expensive cost of entry. In 1998, the FCC ruled that the frequencies could be used for bi-directional transmission; hence it became an access alternative for broadband data services.

Carriers also have another alternative when it comes to lower-throughput, which is a longer-reach radio technology. The wireless spectrum blocks in the 2.1 to 2.7 GHz band that can be used for cable television and Internet services, including multipoint distribution service (MDS), and unlicensed bands Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS). The allocated frequencies are:

Frequency Range

Service Type

Number of Channels

Channel Width

2.150

- 2.162 GHz

MDS

2

6 MHz

2.500

- 2.596 GHz

ITFS

16

6 MHz

2.596

- 2.644 GHz

MMDS

8

6 MHz

2.644

- 2.686 GHz

ITFS

4

6 MHz

2.686

- 2.689 GHz

MMDS

31

125 KHz

Table 6

Like broadcast television, MDS/MMDS/ITFS transmission is based on LoS technology. The signals are transmitted from a broadcast tower, usually located on a hill or tall building, to special antennas affixed to residences or businesses throughout a local market. They can use unlicensed bands as shown in table 6.

Like cable modems, a 6 MHz channel with QAM modulation can deliver about 30 Mbps and hence support 500 to 1500 subscribers. In general, MMDS provides service for up to 35 miles radius. This is quite an advantage over LMDS that can provide services for up to a maximum of 5 miles. MMDS reach makes it ideal for residents in rural areas that are technologically undeveloped.

Physically, a system consists of two primary functional layers -- transport and services.

28

  • 1. The transport layer is comprised of the customer premises Roof-Top-Unit (RTU) and the node electronics. The RTU solid-state transceiver is approximately 12 inches in diameter. The node includes solid-state transmitters, receivers and other related elements, located at the transmit site.

  • 2. The services layer is comprised of a Network Interface Unit (NIU) at the customer premises and the base electronics. The NIU provides industry standard interfaces to the customer, and the base provides control and transport functions remoted from the hub-site or central office/traffic aggregation site.

Unlicensed frequencies

The FCC has allocated 300 MHz of spectrum for unlicensed operation in the 5-GHz & 2-GHz block. IEEE 802.11 developed specification standards for using these unlicensed frequencies.

IEEE 802.11 is a standard for Wireless LAN that are designed for inside buildings, such as offices, malls, hospitals, etc., as well as outdoor areas, such campuses, building complexes, and outdoor plants. These protocols and frequencies can also be used for fixed wireless point-to-multi-point last-mile broadband infrastructure with a line-of-sight range of up to 25 miles. The capability of 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n are as shown in the table below.

Table 7

 

802.11a

802.11b

Standard Approved

September 1999

September 1999

Available Bandwidth

300MHz

83.5MHz

Unlicensed Frequencies of Operation

5.15-5.35GHz, 5.725-5.825GHz

2.4-2.4835GHz

Data Rate per Channel

6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48,54 Mbps

1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbps 1, 2 Mbps

Modulation Type

OFDM

DSSS

 

802.11a

802.11b

802.11g

802.11n

Approved

1999

1999

2003

2009

Max Speed

54Mbps

11Mbps

54Mbps

200Mbps

Frequencies

5Ghz

2.4Ghz

2.4Ghz

2.4Ghz / 5Ghz

Modulation Type

OFDM

DSSS

OFDM/DSSS

OFDM

Advantages/ Disadvantages

Fast and inexpensive deployments are two fundamental advantages when using the unlicensed spectrum.

The cost of a single license would be a significant part of a system‟s overall deployment cost. Another

advantage is that it is shared and relatively mobile. Such sharing is essential for wireless systems that are moved from place to place. It would not be practical to require the owners of a portable device to acquire a license that covers every place they may ever wish the system to operate.

The fixed applications that transmit sporadically or at fluctuating rates can also make more efficient use of unlicensed spectrum; when one is not transmitting, another can. It has been shown that cellular systems could carry significantly more traffic if they shared spectrum dynamically, provided that competing firms are willing to adopt cooperative strategies that serve their common interest. Metropolitan area networks carrying bursty data traffic could expect even greater efficiency gains, if competing networks can be motivated to adopt such techniques.

The unlicensed spectrum has tremendous advantages over licensed spectrum, such as dramatically lower cost of entry for the construction of new networks, no need to wait for a license, and reduced reporting

29

requirements. Unfortunately, adequate protection from interference is not one of those advantages; there is always a risk that too many systems will be deployed in close proximity, and systems will have degraded signals. As a result, a company is taking a significant risk when it develops products or services using unlicensed spectrum, and the FCC is also taking a risk when it allocates a new block of unlicensed spectrum

White Spaces (Super Wi-Fi) The use of frequencies previously reserved as buffers between television channels for last-mile broadband access was approved by the FCC in September, 2010. The FCC will maintain a database of unprotected channels that can be used for white space broadband transmission. As of early 2011, trials are under way, but this technology has, thus far, proven controversial, as broadcasters and even the makers of wireless microphones have raised concerns about interference. Because of the longer wave lengths used by these frequencies, it should be possible for white space transmission to penetrate foliage and provide non-line-of-sight service. As this technology matures, it may help fill the gaps that line-of-sight requiring technologies are unable to serve. Since the white spaces can be seen as possibly infringing on spectrum already in use, the greatest challenges for this technology may be political and logistical.

Satellite

Satellites are radio relay stations in orbit above the earth that receive, amplify and redirect analogue and digital signals. There are two categories of satellites:

  • 1. Geostationary Earth Orbiting (GEO) satellites that are in orbit 22,300 miles above the earth and rotate with the earth, thus appearing stationary. A fleet of 3 GEOs would provide complete global coverage.

  • 2. Low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites generally track somewhere between 500-1500 miles above the earth and revolve around the globe every couple of hours. Each LEO is only in view for a few minutes, and hence multiple LEOs are required to maintain continuous coverage by having one in sight at all times. LEO constellations have the advantage of shorter transmission delays and may carry out call routing via the LEO satellite networks or terrestrial networks. Depending on coverage, a constellation of 66 288 satellites can be deployed.

PSTN Gateway Internet
PSTN
Gateway
Internet

Figure 8. GEO/LEO architecture

30

Figure 8 above illustrates typical connectivity from a subscriber to the network (Internet).

GEO

Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) falls under the GEO category. DBS was originally designed as a one-way transmission medium for the broadcast (or download) of information. However, interactive services, such as web browsing are slowly being introduced. Where the traffic flow is highly asymmetric, the return leg can be provided by a telephone line or most recently via an uplink channel. EarthLink launched an interactive satellite service, using satellite uplinks as well as downlinks, in the United States in May 2001. This broadband service is being offered nationwide.

The reception dish size dish antenna is about one meter (39") or less in diameter. The reception dish may have to be mounted on a post to establish LoS. The delay for DBS is quite noticeable (0.5 sec). Such delay can be detrimental or at best annoying for broadband application requiring conversational or highly interactive services.

LEO

The Iridium satellite constellation is a large group of satellites used to provide voice and data coverage to satellite phones, pagers and integrated transceivers over Earth's entire surface. Iridium Communications Inc. owns and operates the constellation and sells equipment and access to its services.

The constellation requires 66 active satellites in orbit to complete its constellation and additional spare satellites are kept in-orbit to serve in case of failure. [1] Satellites are in low Earth orbit at a height of approximately 485 mi (781 km) and inclination of 86.4°. Orbital velocity of the satellites is approximately 17,000 mph (27,000 km/h). Satellites communicate with neighboring satellites via K a band inter-satellite links. Each satellite can have four inter-satellite links: two to neighbors fore and aft in the same orbital plane, and two to satellites in neighboring planes to either side. The satellites orbit from pole to pole with an orbit of roughly 100 minutes. This design means that there is excellent satellite visibility and service coverage at the North and South poles, where there are few customers. The over-the-pole orbital design produces "seams" where satellites in counter-rotating planes next to one another are traveling in opposite directions. Cross-seam inter-satellite link hand-offs would have to happen very rapidly and cope with large Doppler shifts; therefore, Iridium supports inter-satellite links only between satellites orbiting in the same direction.

Iridium is currently developing, and has plans to launch beginning in 2015, Iridium NEXT a second- generation worldwide network of telecommunications satellites, consisting of 66 satellites and six spares. These satellites will incorporate features such as data transmission which were not emphasized in the original design. [2] The original plan was to begin launching new satellites in 2014. [3] Satellites will incorporate additional payload such as cameras and sensors in collaboration with some customers and partners. Iridium can also be used to provide a data link to other satellites in space enabling command and control of other space assets regardless of the position of ground stations and gateways. [2]

References:

31

^ Max Jarman (February 1, 2009). "Iridium Satellite Phones Second Life". The Arizona Republic.

Power Line Communication (PLC) technology

PLC research began in the early 1990s by Dr. J Brown at Lancaster University (England) and funded by the Electric Power Research Institute. The principle of providing access via power lines is illustrated in Figure 9. Radio Frequency (RF) signals are injected and stripped from the power line at power substations. A HE (Headend like) node mediates access to all connected homes.

Power line Modem x-former substation HE Internet
Power line Modem
x-former substation
HE
Internet

Figure 9. PLC architecture

RF interference was the major problem witnessed by the field trial. The electric poles acted as a huge antenna and disrupted major wireless communication in that neighborhood. Unlike telephone lines, the power lines are not twisted and lengths of single wires are seen as a junction point. Several European vendors claim to have solved the RF interference.

The European standardization bodies, especially the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) http://www.etsi.org were chartered to develop specifications for PLC and address the RF radiation problems.

In North America, there were several attempts to transfer the European PLC technology, but so far reputable vendors have shelved it. Technically, power lines attributes (power, frequency & infrastructure) in Europe are different. Much more research for US deployment is required. This delay and added cost put the power line modem at a great disadvantage.

In September of 2010, the IEEE Standards Association announced IEEE Standard 1901-2010 Standard for Broadband over Power Line Networks: Medium Access Control and Physical Layer Specifications. This new standard aims to solve the radio interference issues, while providing 500Mbps of bandwidth

32

over distances less than 1500 meters. Repeaters can be used to achieve longer distances. This new standard may breathe new life into BPL.

References:

1.

Appendix

Readers are encouraged to develop their own cost models for their geographic area.

Cost models

The generic model below will be used to estimate cost models for ISPs who are likely to service rural areas of NC. The broadband cost models analyzed are:

  • 1. ADSL

  • 2. ISDN/IDSL

  • 3. Cable Modem

  • 4. MMDS

  • 5. Satellites

Network User INTERNET ISP User cost Network Long Haul Last mile cost Transmission Routers/ upgrades Transmission
Network
User
INTERNET
ISP
User cost
Network
Long Haul
Last mile cost
Transmission
Routers/
upgrades
Transmission
NM

ADSL cost model

It is assumed that every resident in NC is wired (copper) to a central office.

 

Required hardware

Cost

Cost @ user

Total cost

User equipment

One ADSL Modem

     

Installation charges

     

Last Mile

DLC if beyond 18000 ft

     

T1s

     

Network / Add/ upgrade

DSLAM

     

ADSL modem

     

ATM switch

     

Transmission

T1s monthly rate

     

Connection charges

     

33

 

1 St mile

     

2 nd mile

     

3 rd Mile

     

ISP equipment

Router

     

NM

     

ISDN cost model

It is assumed that every resident in NC is wired (copper) to a central office.

 

Required hardware

Cost

Cost @ user

Total cost

User equipment

One ISDN Modem

     

Connection charges @ Min.

     

Installation charges

     

Last Mile

DLC if beyond 18000 ft

     

T1s

     

Network / Add/ upgrade

ISDN Modem (NT)

     
       

Transmission

T1s monthly rate

     

Connection charges

     

1 St mile

     

2 nd mile

     

3 rd Mile

     

ISP equipment

Router

     

NM

     

IDSL cost model

It is assumed that every resident in NC is wired (copper) to a central office.

 

Required hardware

Cost

Cost @ user

Total cost

User equipment

One ISDL Modem

     

Installation charges

     

Last Mile

Dry loop (unbundling) @ Mon

     

Network / Add/ upgrade

       

Transmission

Connection charges

     

ISP equipment

Router

     

NM

     

Cable Modem cost model

It is assumed that 500 cable modems are connected to a cable HE

 

Required hardware

Cost

Cost @ user

Total cost

User equipment

One cable modem + Ethernet

     

34

 

adapter

     

Installation charges

     

Last Mile

Replace amplifiers

     
       

Network / Add/ upgrade

Fiber from node to fiber Node

     

Lasers for Rec/ X-mit

     

Control hardware

     

Transmission

T1s monthly rate

     

Connection charges

     

1 St mile

     

2 nd mile

     

3 rd Mile

     

ISP equipment

Router

     

NM

     

MMDS cost model

It is assumed that MMDS can provide services for a 30 Mile radius

 

Required hardware

Cost

Cost @ user

Total cost

User equipment

Digital set-top box

     

Roof-mounted, 12-inch dish

     

Installation charges

     

Last Mile

BW @ 64 Kbps

     
       

Network / Add/ upgrade

Towers

     

Network interface unit (NIU)

     

Base station

     

Transmission

T1s monthly rate

     

Connection charges

     

1 St mile

     

2 nd mile

     

3 rd Mile

     

ISP equipment

Router

     

NM

     

Satellite cost model

It is assumed that satellites are sunk cost

 
 

Required hardware

Cost

Cost @ user

Total cost

User equipment Digital set-top box Roof-mounted, 18-inch dish Installation charges
User equipment
Digital set-top box
Roof-mounted, 18-inch dish
Installation charges

35

Last Mile

BW @ 64 Kbps

     
       

Network / Add/ upgrade

Gateway

     
       

Transmission

T1s monthly rate

     

Connection charges

     

1 St mile

     

2 nd mile

     

3 rd Mile

     

ISP equipment

Router

     

NM

     

Other References

1)

*Email message exchange between e-NC Authority

staff and Dr. James Love (December 2001)

2)

Bob Frankston. Telecom From Telecom to Connectivity. Pulver telecom summit October

2001

3)

Bob Lund. “PON architecture „future proofs‟ FTTH” September 1, 1999

4)

5)

6)

7)

ITU new initiative program “economic and regulatory implications of broadband. 12 July

2001document

8)

James Love. “ISDN Pricing, What Went Wrong” Paper presented at the Harvard Information

Infrastructure Project (HIIP) Policy Roundtable on Next-Generation Communications Technologies: Lessons from ISDN. June 24, 1998. NIST, Gaithersburg, MD. http://ksgwww.harvard.edu/iip/ngct/love.html

9)

Marguerite Reardon “Unbarred wireless?”. Red Herring Communications

October 1, 2000 10) N. Ransom presentation to broadband subcommittee “Evolution of ADSL”. October 2001 11) Robert Shaw ITU's Internet Strategy and Policy Adviser “ITU and its role in the Internet” 12) The Center for Wireless Telecommunications (CWT), a research facility of Virginia Tech in

Blacksburg, Va., is organizing an "LMDS Research Consortium."

Acronyms

ADSL

Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

APON

ATM Passive Optical Fiber Network

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

B-ISDN

Broadband ISDN

BRI

Basic Rate Interface

BYTES

See Last Page of Document

CLEC

Competitive Local Exchange Carrier

DBS

Direct Broadcast Satellite

DLC

Digital Loop Carrier

DOCSIS

Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification

DSLAM

DSL Access Multiplexer

DSSS

Direct-sequence spread spectrum

DTH

Direct To Home

36

DVB

Digital Video Broadcasting

e-NC

The e-NC Authority

EPON

Ethernet Passive Optical Network

ETSI

European Telecommunications Standards Institute

FCC

Federal Communication Commission

FIOS

Fiber Optic-based Internet service provided by Verizon Communications

FSAN

Full Service Access Network

FSN

Full Service Network

FTTB

Fiber To The Business

FTTC

Fiber To The Cabinet/Curb

FTTH

Fiber To The Home

GEO

Geostationary Earth Orbiting satellite

GEPON

Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network

GII

Global Information Infrastructure

GPON

Gigabit Passive Optical Network

HDTV

High Definition TV

HE

Headend

HFC

Hybrid Fiber Coax

IDSL

Integrated Digital Subscriber Loop

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

ILEC

Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier

ISDN

Integrated Service Digital Network

ISP

Internet Service Provider

ITFS

Instructional Television Fixed Service

ITU

International Telecommunications Union

LEO

Low-Earth Orbit satellite

LMDS

Local Multipoint Distribution Service

LOS

Line Of Sight

LTE

Long Term Evolution

MiFi

Portable Wi-Fi hotspot

MDS

Multipoint Distribution Service

MMDS

Multi-channel Multi-point Distribution Service

MoCA

Multipmedia over Coaz Alliance

MPLS

Multiprotocol Label Switching

NIU

Network Interface Unit

ONU

Optical Network Unit

OFDM

Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

PLC

Power Line Communication

PON

Passive Optical Network

POTS

Plain Old Telephone Service

PRI

Primary Rate Interface

PSTN

Public Switch Telephone Network

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

QOS

Quality Of Service

QPSK

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

RF

Radio Frequency

RTU

Roof-Top-Unit

SLA

Service Level Agreement

SLC

Subscriber Line Concentrator

SONET

Synchronous Optical Network

TA

Terminal Adapter

TB

Terabyte

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access

UNI

User Network Interface

VDSL

Very High Rate Digital Subscriber Line

VOD

Video On Demand

VPN

Virtual Private Network

WDM

Wave Division Multiplexer

37

3G

3 rd Generation Wireless

4G

4 th Generation Wireless

Table multiples of bytes

 

Multiples of bytes*

   
 
     

Name

Value

 

Name

Value

(Symbol)

 

(Symbol)

   

kilobyte (kB)

10

3

10

  • 2 10

 

megabyte (MB)

10

6

20

  • 2 20

 

gigabyte (GB)

10

9

30

  • 2 30

 

terabyte (TB)

10

12

40

  • 2 40

 

petabyte (PB)

10

15

50

  • 2 50

 

exabyte (EB)

10

18

60

  • 2 60

 

10

21

70

  • 2 70

 

10

24

80

  • 2 80

 
 
   

* Source: Wikipedia