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Chapter no.

What is Communication?
An idea have no matter how great, is unless until it is transmitted and understood by
If we communicate effectively in speaking and writing. We have a highly valued skill.
In numerous surveys, business executives rank the ability to communicate first among
the personal factors necessary for promotion.

Types of Communications?
There are three types of communication.

1. Internal Communication.
2. External Communication.
3. Interpersonal communication.

1. Internal Communication.
When an organization communication in side the organization this types of
communication is called internal communication.

There are three types of internal communication.

1. Upward Communication.
2. Downward Communication.
3. Lateral Communication.

1. Upward Communication.
Flow of documentation upward direction from sender to reviver inside the
organization is called upward communication. E.g staff communicates with his

2. Downward Communication.
Flow of documentation downward direction from sender to receiver inside the
organization is called downward communication. E.g Management communication
with there employees.

3. Lateral Communication.
Means transfer for or sharing of information between co. Equal Authorities or in the
same agencies in side the same organization is called lateral communication.

2. External Communication:-
When an organization communication out side the organization this types of
communication is called external communication it is also called public relationship
the excellent Example of external communication is advertising.

3. Interpersonal Communication:-
Way of interpersonal communication is called the informal communication
in which different individual’s communication to each others examples.
Interests groups friendship groups.
Components of communication.






Every message, whether oral or written, begins with context. Context is a broad field
that includes country, culture, organization and external and internal stimuli. Every
country, every culture and every company or organization has its own conventions for
processing and communicating information.

Sender is the person who communicates the idea, information, material, etc. He acts
in the capacity of speaker, writer, or encoder.

1. The message he intends to send

2. The message he actually sends
3. The message the other person receives or understands.
4. The other person interpretation of the message
5. The other person response.

The message may be in the form of order, opinion, advice, suggestion, instruction,
question answer or material. It is necessary and important that idea or message
received be identical to the idea or message sent. It is possible only when both
communicators sender and receiver are skillful in communication and its language.
Medium of communication includes letters report telegrams fax mailgrams cables
telefax postals telephones charts pictures or any other mechanical device. Medium
may be a person as a postman. It may be a device as a telephone. It may also be an
organization as a post office or news agency.

The receiver is the decoder. He when receives decodes or interprets the message.
Since perfect communication is not possible, there is deviation between the idea sent
and the idea received or interpreted. If the receiver is skillful in communication then
the deviation will be small.

Feedback can be an oral or a written message, an action or simply silence.

Verbal and Nonverbal communications.

Verbal Communication.
Those communication is in word form it may be in oral or in written.

Non-verbal communication.
Those communications with out words is called nonverbal communication.
There are seven kinds of non-verbal communication as shown below.
1. Facial Expressions.
2. Gestures, Posture, and Movement.
3. Smell and Touch.
4. Voice and Sound.
5. Silence
6. Time.
7. Space.

The seven C’s Effective Communication.

After planning steps in communicating the message have been complete we have to
consider specific writing principles to help us choose right words syntax and
sentences for our letter report memonorandums etc.

1. Correctness
2. Conciseness
3. Clarity
4. Completeness
5. Concreteness
6. Consideration
7. Courtesy

To be correct in communication the following principles should be borne in mind.

1. Use the correct level of language

2. Include only facts words and figures
3. Maintain acceptable writing mechanics
4. Apply the following qualities
5. There should be proper grammar punctuation spelling and paragraphing

Business exectives are dead-busy. They don’t have time to go through unnecessarily
lengthy messages. The writer is also a loser if he writes wordy messages
because it involves more time and money to type and read. Conciseness
makes the message more understandable and comprehensible

1. Eliminate wordy Expressions.

2. Include only relevant material.
3. Avoided unnecessary Repetition.

Clarity demands that the business message should be correct concise complete
concrete and with consideration

1. Use the right level of language

2. Proper punctuation make the writing clear
3. Check Accurey of fact figure & Words
The message should be complete to bring desirable results. It should include
everything the reader needs for the reaction you desire. You must know what
information our reader wants or needs You should be able to know the reader’s
background viewpoint needs attitudes and emotions.

1. Provide all necessary information.

2. Answer all questions asked.
3. Give something Extra, when Desirable.

The business writing should be specific definite unambiguous and vivid rather than
vague and general The following guidelines lead to concreateness.

1. Use specific facts and figures

2. Put action in your verb
3. Choose vivid image building words.

Consideration refers to you attitude sympathy the human touch and understanding of
human nature. Consideration means the message with the receiver in mind. You
should try to visualize your readers their desires problems emotions circumstances
and possible reaction to your request.

1. Focus on you instead I & We

2. Show reader benefit or interest in reader
3. Emphasize

Courtesy is more important and advantageous in business writing than it is in face to
face communication or conversation. Courteous message strengthen present
relations and make new friends. It is a goodwill building.

1. Answer your mail promptly

2. Be sincerely tactful thoughtful and appreciative
3. Use expressions that show respect
Communication Pitfalls and Barriers
Communication is never perfect, since every person has different percerption of a
thing or a situation. Some pitfalls are natural and other are due to lack of
knowledge of communication principles. Bias of the sender or receiver is
another reason for the noise.
1. The message he intends to send
2. The message he actually send
3. The message the other person actually receives
4. The response the other person intends to send
5. The response the other person actually send

Some Specific Barriers

1. Wrong assumption
After one has sent the message he assume that it would reach the destiny. He may be

2. Lack of planning
Haphazard Communication will bring no better results. You must plan before you

3. Poor Planning of communication

Poor planning and design of communicatrion distorts the message. Chosen words
impropert punctuation poorly organized ideas, wrong grammer and incorrect
sentences structure make the message vague and incomprehensible. Unplanned
message may miss some important information. Messages should be well-planned and

Loss in each successive transmission

Accuracy and retention decreases at every successive transmission. Findings show
that employee retain only 50 percent and supervisors 60 percent of the information
received. Another study shows that only 20 percent of the oral information reaches the
fifth successive level.

4. Poor listening
Talker are more than listeners. People like to talk more than listen. They find it
difficult to concentrate. When they listen they tend to judge approve or
disapprove what the other person says, rather than trying to understanding the
viewpoint of the speaker.

5. Distrust and fear

Another important area of ineffective communication is distrust fear treat and lack of
Chapter 06
The Process of Preparing Effective Bussiness
There are five planning steps:

Identify your purpose

Analyze your audience
Choose your ideas
Collect data to support your ideas
Organize your message

1. Identify your purpose :

You must know why you should write and what should be written . The purpose may
be sale , good will , request , inquiry or refusal etc.

2. Analyze your audience :

It is better for the sender to understand the receiver. You should know his background
, qualification , education , position , status in the company , desire , expectations ,
problems , circumstances and possible reactions to your request. Also he/she is
superior , subordinate , laborer , professional or technical person , colleague , single
or married , man or woman , young or old , new or long time customer .

3. Choose the ideas :

It depends upon the type of message . Before working jot down the points to be
covered in communication , and then bring them in order of importance and urgency

4. Collect data to support your ideas

To explain facts and figures , visual aids may be utilized , augmenting the

5. Organize ideas :
Once the ideas have been jotted down , they should be properly arranged and
organized . Failing to organize will fail the objectives of the message .