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I HC QUC GIA H NI

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TRNG I HC GIO DC

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L KHC HUYNH

BI DNG HC SINH GII

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THNG QUA DY HC PHN KIM LOI, HA HC 12

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ID

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LUN VN THC S S PHM HA HC

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I HC QUC GIA H NI

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LUN VN THC S S PHM HA HC

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Chuyn ngnh: L LUN V PHNG PHP DY HC

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LI CM N

Sau mt thi gian hc tp v nghin cu, ti hon thnh Lun vn Thc s

S phm ha hc vi ti "Bi dng hc sinh gii thng qua dy hc phn

Kim loi, Ha hc 12".

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Ti xin chn thnh cm n cc thy gio, c gio ca trng i hc Gio dc


HQG H Ni; Cc thy gio, c gio c mi ging dy ti trng gip ,

to iu kin cho ti trong qu trnh hc tp v nghin cu lun vn ny.

Ti xin by t lng bit n su sc PGS.TS. Trn Trung Ninh ngi trc

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tip hng dn ti trong thi gian nghin cu v hon thnh lun vn ny.

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Sau cng, ti xin chn thnh cm n cc thy gio, c gio v cc em hc sinh

ti cc trng thc nghim, cm n cc bn b ng nghip v gia nh lun

H Ni, thng 11 nm 2014


Tc gi

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quan tm, ng vin, gip ti trong qu trnh hc tp v nghin cu.

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DANH MC CH VIT TT

BDHSG HH

Bi dng hc sinh gii ha hc

BTHH

Bi tp ha hc

p n

H C

i hc Cao ng

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pdd

in phn dung dch

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Gio vin

HDG

Hng dn gii

HS

Hc sinh

HSG

Hc sinh gii

N
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Hc sinh gii quc gia

HSGQG

Kim tra nh gi

TR

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THPT

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PTHH

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PPDH

TN

Angstrom

Phng trnh ha hc
Trung hc ph thng
Thc nghim
Nhit

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Phng php dy hc

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MC LC

Li cm n ............................................................................................................... i

Danh mc ch vit tt.............................................................................................. ii

Danh mc bng ..................................................................................................... vii

Mc lc ................................................................................................................. iii

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Danh mc biu ................................................................................................. viii

M U ................................................................................................................ 1

Chng 1: C S L LUN V THC TIN CA TI ........................... 5

1.1. Lch s vn nghin cu......... ...................................................................... .5

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1.1.1. Theo hng nghin cu v vic xy dng v s dng h thng l thuyt v bi

TP

tp Ha hc trong bi dng hc sinh gii .............................................................. 5

1.1.2. Theo hng nghin cu v pht trin nng lc nhn thc trong bi dng hc

sinh gii................................................................................................................... 5

1.2. Cng tc bi dng hc sinh gii Ha hc trng THPT............................... 6

1.2.1. Tm quan trng ca vic bi dng hc sinh gii .......................................... 6

TR

1.2.2. Hot ng nhn thc v pht trin t duy ca HS trong qu trnh dy hc ..... 7

0B

1.2.3. Nhng nng lc, phm cht cn c ca hc sinh gii Ha hc ...................... 9

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1.2.4. Nhng nng lc gio vin cn c khi bi dng hc sinh gii Ha hc ....... 11

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1.2.5. Mt s bin php pht hin v bi dng hc sinh gii Ha hc .................. 12

1.3. Mt s vn l lun v bi tp trong dy hc ha hc trng THPT .......... 12

1.3.1. Khi nim v bi tp .................................................................................... 12

1.3.2. Phn loi bi tp Ha hc ........................................................................... 13

1.3.3. Vai tr, ngha ca bi tp trong dy hc Ha hc trng THPT ............. 14

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1.3.4. V tr ca bi tp trong qu trnh dy hc...................................................... 15

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1.4. Mt s vn l lun v s dng bi tp trong dy hc Ha hc trng THPT15


1.4.1. c trng dy hc mn Ha hc .................................................................. 15
1.4.2. S dng bi tp Ha hc tch cc ha ngi hc ..................................... 16
1.4.3. S dng bi tp Ha hc nhm pht hin v BDHSG HH ............................ 16
1.5. Ni dung kin thc phn kim loi trong cc k thi hc sinh gii, thi i hc, cao
ng ...................................................................................................................... 17

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1.6. Thc trng bi dng hc sinh gii Ha hc trng ph thng.................... 17


1.6.1. Ni dung chng trnh sch gio khoa ......................................................... 17

1.6.2. Nhng thun li v kh khn trong qu trnh pht hin v bi dng hc sinh

1.6.3. Thc trng dy hc ha hc v bi dng hc sinh gii Ha hc lp 12 cc

gii cc trng ph thng tnh Qung Ninh ........................................................ 18

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trng ph thng tnh Qung Ninh ........................................................................ 19

Tiu kt chng 1. ................................................................................................. 21

Chng 2: TUYN CHN, XY DNG V S DNG H THNG CU

HI L THUYT V BI TP PHN I CNG KIM LOI DNG BI

.Q

DNG HC SINH GII HA HC TRUNG HC PH THNG ............ 22

TP

2.1. Phn tch cu trc chng trnh sch gio khoa Ha hc 12 phn kim loi ..... 22

2.2. Nguyn tc tuyn chn v xy dng h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp ....... 22

2.2.1. Theo cu trc chng trnh sch gio khoa .................................................. 22

2.2.2. Theo nng lc nhn thc ca hc sinh ......................................................... 22

2.2.3. Theo dng bi tp ........................................................................................ 23

TR

2.3. Nguyn tc tuyn chn v xy dng h thng l thuyt v bi tp Ha hc ..... 23

0B

2.3.1. H thng l thuyt v bi tp phi m bo tnh chnh xc, khoa hc............ 23

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2.3.2. H thng l thuyt v bi tp phi m bo tnh h thng, a dng ............... 23

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2.3.3. H thng l thuyt v bi tp phi m bo tnh va sc .............................. 23

2.3.4. H thng l thuyt v bi tp phi m rng kin thc, vn hiu bit cho hc

sinh........................................................................................................................ 23

2.3.5. H thng l thuyt v bi tp phi pht trin nng lc nhn thc, rn luyn k

nng ha hc cho HS ............................................................................................. 24

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2.4. Quy trnh xy dng h thng bi tp ............................................................... 24

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2.4.1. Xc nh mc ch ca h thng bi tp ....................................................... 24


2.4.2. Xc nh ni dung ca h thng bi tp ....................................................... 24
2.4.3. Xc nh loi bi tp, cc kiu bi tp .......................................................... 24
2.4.4. Thu thp thng tin son h thng bi tp ................................................. 24
2.4.5. Tin hnh xy dng h thng bi tp............................................................ 25
2.4.6. Tham kho, trao i kin vi ng nghip ................................................ 25

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2.4.7. Thc nghim, chnh sa v b sung ............................................................. 26


2.5. H thng ha cc dng cu hi l thuyt v i cng kim loi ....................... 26

2.6. H thng ha cc dng bi tp v i cng kim loi...................................... 29

2.6.2. Bi tp xc nh tn kim loi........................................................................ 31

2.6.1. Bi tp cu to tinh th kim loi ................................................................... 29

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2.6.3. Bi tp kim loi tc dng vi phi kim .......................................................... 32

2.6.4. Bi tp kim loi v hp cht ca kim loi tc dng vi dung dch axit ......... 34

2.6.5. Bi tp kim loi, oxit, hiroxit tc dng vi nc v dung dch kim ........... 36

2.6.6. Bi tp kim loi tc dng vi dung dch mui, dy in ha ........................ 38

.Q

2.6.7. Bi tp phn ng nhit luyn........................................................................ 40

TP

2.6.8. Bi tp in phn ......................................................................................... 41

2.6.9. Bi tp v pin in ha G, H, E, Ka, Kp, Kc, tan, tch s tan.............. 42

2.6.10. Cc cu hi l thuyt v bi tp v thc tin v kim loi v hp cht .......... 44

2.6.11. H thng cc cu hi trc nghim tng hp v i cng kim loi ............. 47

2.7. Cch s dng h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp v i cng kim loi trong

TR

bi dng hc sinh gii trng THPT ................................................................ 67

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2.7.1. S dng bi tp nhm pht trin nng lc nhn thc, rn k nng ha hc.... 67

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2.7.2. S dng h thng bi tp t chc cc hot ng dy hc trn lp ............ 80

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2.7.3. S dng bi tp kim tra nh gi ........................................................... 80

2.7.4. S dng bi tp xy dng bi tp mi ..................................................... 80

Tiu kt chng 2 .................................................................................................. 85

Chng 3: THC NGHIM S PHM ........................................................... 86

3.1. Mc ch, nhim v thc nghim .................................................................... 86

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3.2. Ni dung thc nghim s phm ...................................................................... 86

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3.3. Phng php thc nghim s phm ................................................................ 86


3.3.1. Phm vi thc nghim s phm ..................................................................... 86
3.3.2. i tng v cch thc tin hnh thc nghim s phm .............................. 86
3.4. Kt qu thc nghim s phm......................................................................... 87
3.4.1. X l kt qu thc nghim s phm ................................................................. 87
3.4.2. Phn tch, nh gi kt qu thc nghim s phm ............................................ 91

vii

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Tiu kt chng 3. .................................................................................................. 94


KT LUN V KHUYN NGH ...................................................................... 95

1. Kt lun ............................................................................................................. 95

TI LIU THAM KHO ................................................................................... 96

2. Khuyn ngh ...................................................................................................... 95

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PH LC ............................................................................................................. 98

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DANH MC BNG

Bng 1.1. Kt qu iu tra v nhng kh khn ca gio vin trong cng tc bi

Bng 1.2. Kt qu iu tra v nhng kh khn ca hc sinh trong cng tc bi

dng hc sinh gii .. ................................................................................................19

dng hc sinh gii ......................................................................................... ..20

T
N

Bng 3.1. Kt qu kim tra tng ng ca cc bi kim tra ................................... 88

Bng 3.2. Bng im kim tra trung bnh v lch chun tng ng ca cc bi

kim tra ................................................................................................................. 88

Bng 3.3. Phn trm hc sinh t im kh gii, trung bnh, yu km ................... 89

TP

.Q

Bng 3.4. Bng phn phi tn s, tn sut v tn sut tch ly bi kim tra s 1(sau

tc ng).......................................................................................................... ......... 89

Bng 3.5. Bng phn phi tn s, tn sut v tn sut tch ly bi kim tra s 2 (sau

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tc ng)......................................................................................................... .......... 90

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DANH MC BIU

Hnh 3.1. th biu din ly tch bi kim tra s 1(sau tc ng)..... ....................90

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Hnh 3.2. th biu din ly tch bi kim tra s 2(sau tc ng).. . ......................91

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M U

1. L do chn ti

nhn ti lun c nh nc ta rt coi trng. Bia tin s Quc T Gim khc

Trong lch s nghn nm dng nc v gi nc vic pht hin v bi dng

nhng dng bt h "Hin ti l nguyn kh ca quc gia. Nguyn kh thnh th th

T
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nc mnh v hng thnh. Nguyn kh suy th th nc yu m thp hn. l

nguyn l sng cn dng nc v gi nc ca ng cha ta.

Ngy nay chng ta ang sng trong k nguyn ca s vn minh hin i cng

vi s pht trin nh v bo ca cuc cch mng khoa hc v cng ngh hin i,

TP

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i ng tr thc tr thnh ngun lc c bit quan trng to nn sc mnh ca mi

quc gia trong chin lc pht trin. X hi phn vinh th k XXI phi l mt x

hi da vo tri thc, da vo nng lc nhn thc, t duy sng to, tr tu thng

minh ti nng sng ch ca con ngi. Ngh quyt i hi ng ton quc ln th

XI khng nh "i mi cn bn, ton din nn gio dc Vit Nam theo hng

chun ho, hin i ho, x hi ha, dn ch ha v hi nhp quc t, trong , i

TR

mi c ch qun l gio dc, pht trin i ng gio vin v cn b qun l gio

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dc l khu then cht. Chin lc pht trin kinh t - x hi 2011 2020 ca chnh
ph xc nh r mt trong ba t ph l pht trin nhanh ngun nhn lc, nht l

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ngun nhn lc cht lng cao, tp trung vo vic i mi cn bn, ton din nn

gio dc quc dn, gn kt cht ch pht trin ngun nhn lc vi pht trin v ng

dng khoa hc, cng ngh, coi trng pht trin nng lc ngi hc. Bi vy, Nng

cao dn tr - o to nhn lc - Bi dng nhn ti lun l mt ni dung quan

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trng trong chin lc pht trin chng trnh gio dc ph thng nc ta. Vic

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pht hin v bi dng nhng hc sinh c nng khiu v cc mn hc bc hc


ph thng l bc khi u quan trng gp phn o to cc em tr thnh nhng
nhn ti, thnh ngun nhn lc cht lng cao ca t nc gp phn xy dng t
nc pht trin bn vng hn trn con ng XHCN.
Hin nay cng tc BDHSG c xc nh l nhim v quan trng hng u, l
cng tc mi nhn, l tiu ch thi ua ca gio vin trc tip ging dy ni ring v
ca nh trng ni chung. Tuy nhin, qua thc t cho thy cng tc pht hin v bi

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dng hc sinh c nng khiu v cc mn hc ni chung v mn Ho hc ni ring


trng THPT cn gp nhiu kh khn v cha t c kt qu nh mong mun.

Trc ht l do kinh nghim ca gio vin trong vic pht hin hc sinh c nng

xc nh phm cht v nng lc cn c ca hc sinh gii Ho hc v cc bin php

khiu v mn Ho hc cn thiu, bn thn gio vin vn cn lng tng trong vic

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nhm pht trin cc phm cht v nng lc .

Trong dy hc Ha hc, bi tp c tc dng ln v mt tr dc v c dc:

Gip hc sinh hiu ng, hiu su hn cc khi nim ha hc, cng c v khc su

cc kin thc ha hc c bn, gp phn hnh thnh v rn luyn cc k nng ha hc

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nh k nng thit lp phng trnh ha hc, k nng tnh ton; vn dng kin thc

TP

ha hc vo thc tin. Gip hc sinh pht trin t duy, rn tr thng minh v nng

lc sng to. Rn luyn cho hc sinh kh nng vn dng sng to kin thc hc

gii p hoc gii quyt nhng vn c t ra trong hc tp hoc trong thc

tin. Bi tp Ha hc gi mt vai tr quan trng trong dy v hc Ha hc, c bit

l s dng h thng bi tp pht trin nng lc khoa hc nh nhn thc, pht

TR

hin - gii quyt vn , sng to, t hc cho hc sinh. Tuy vy, hin nay h thng

0B

bi tp dng BDHSG HH ni chung v ng thi vic s dng h thng bi tp

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ny trong qu trnh BDHSG cn nhiu hn ch nn cng tc bi dng hc sinh

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gii ca nhiu gio vin cha t c kt qu cao.

Xut pht t nhng l do trn, ti chn ti Bi dng hc sinh gii thng

qua dy hc phn Kim loi, Ha hc 12

2. Mc ch nghin cu

Tuyn chn, xy dng h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp phn i cng v

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kim loi v xut cch s dng h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp BDHSG

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nhm t thnh tch cao trong cc k thi HSG cp tnh.


3. Nhim v nghin cu
- Nghin cu c s l lun v thc tin v vic pht hin v BDHSG HH
trng THPT.
- Nghin cu ni dung kin thc l thuyt v bi tp i cng kim loi.

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- Tuyn chn, xy dng h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp (t lun v


TNKQ) phn i cng kim loi dng BDHSG trng THPT.

- xut bin php s dng h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp phn i

- Thc nghim s phm vi h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp phn i

cng kim loi BDHSG trng THPT.

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cng kim loi BDHSG trng THPT.

4. Khch th, i tng v phm vi nghin cu

Khch th nghin cu l qu trnh dy hc mn Ha hc trng THPT.

i tng nghin cu l cng tc bi dng hc sinh gii Ha hc da vo

.Q

h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp phn i cng kim loi, Ha hc 12.

TP

Phm vi nghin cu l h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp phn i cng

kim loi, Ha hc 12 BDHSG cc trng THPT trn a bn tnh Qung Ninh.

5. Gi thuyt khoa hc

Nu tuyn chn, xy dng c h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp phn i

cng kim loi, Ha hc 12 c cht lng tt, ng thi bit s dng n mt cch

TR

hiu qu th s gp phn nng cao c cht lng BDHSG HH cc trng

0B

THPT.

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6.1. Nghin cu l lun

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6. Phng php nghin cu

- Nghin cu cc ti liu v tm l hc, gio dc hc, phng php dy hc

ha hc, cc ti liu v BDHSG, cc thi hc sinh gii, . . .

- Phn tch v tng hp cc s liu iu tra.

- Thu thp ti liu v truy cp thng tin trn internet c lin quan n ti.

-L

- c, nghin cu v x l cc ti liu.

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6.2. Nghin cu thc tin


- iu tra thc tin cng tc BDHSG trng THPT.
- Tp hp v nghin cu ni dung sch gio khoa lp 12 v cc thi hc sinh
gii, thi vo i hc v cao ng, cc ti liu tham kho khc tuyn chn v xy
dng h thng bi tp t lun v TNKQ phn kim loi.

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- Thng qua thc nghim s phm nh gi cht lng h thng bi tp t


c kt kinh nghim BDHSG trng THPT.

6.3. Phng php thng k ton hc

X l s liu bng phng php thng k ton hc.

7. Phm vi v gii hn ca ti

T
N

- Ni dung: Bi tp phn kim loi dng BDHSG HH.

- i tng: HS d thi HSG cp tnh.

- a bn nghin cu v thc nghim: Trng Vn Lang, trng THPT Hn

Gai thuc thnh ph H Long v trng THPT m H thuc huyn m H, tnh

.Q

Qung Ninh.

TP

- Thi gian nghin cu: T thng 7 nm 2013 ti thng 10 nm 2014.

8. ng gp ca ti

- Tuyn chn v xy dng c h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp phn i

cng kim loi c cht lng gip cho gio vin c thm ngun ti liu dng trong

vic BDHSG trn a bn tnh Qung Ninh

TR

- xut c bin php s dng h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp phn

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9. Cu trc ca lun vn

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i cng kim loi trong vic BDHSG.

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Ngoi phn m u, kt lun v ph lc, lun vn c chia thnh ba chng:

Chng 1: Tng quan v c s l lun v thc tin ca vic tuyn chn xy

dng v s dng h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp BDHSG.

Chng 2: Xy dng h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp phn i cng kim

loi dng trong BDHSG HH cc trng THPT trn a bn tnh Qung Ninh.

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Chng 3: Thc nghim s phm

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CHNG 1

C S L LUN V THC TIN CA TI

1.1. Lch s vn nghin cu

Bi dng hc sinh gii l vn quan trng c cc trng ph thng v

cc gio vin c bit quan tm. Hin nay c mt s lun n tin s v lun vn

T
N

thc s nghin cu v vn bi dng hc sinh gii ha hc trng trung hc

ph thng. Cc lun n tin s, lun vn thc s nghin cu theo cc hng sau:

1.1.1. Theo hng nghin cu v vic xy dng v s dng h thng l thuyt v bi

tp Ha hc trong bi dng hc sinh gii

.Q

- Phan Th Hnh. Tuyn chn v xy dng h thng bi tp nng cao ha hc v c

TP

phn kim loi dng cho hc sinh kh gii bc THPT. Lun vn thc s. 2005;

- Nguyn Th Lan Hng. H thng l thuyt v xy dng h thng bi tp phn

kim loi dng cho BDHSG v chuyn ho hc THPT. Lun vn thc s. 2007;

- Nguyn Cu Phc. Xy dng v s dng h thng bi tp ha hc phn kim loi

lp 12 THPT chng trnh nng cao. Lun vn thc s. 2010;

TR

- Trn Th Thy Dung. Xy dng v s dng h thng bi tp BDHSG phn kim

0B

loi lp 12 THPT chuyn. Lun vn thc s. 2011;

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0

- Nguyn Vn Mai. Tuyn chn, xy dng v s dng h thng bi tp ha hc

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3

phn kim loi cho BDHSG THPT. Lun vn thc s. 2012;

- Li Th Qunh Dip. Tuyn chn, xy dng v s dng h thng bi tp phn

kim loi BDHSG ha THPT lp 12 Nng cao. Lun vn thc s. 2013.

1.1.2. Theo hng nghin cu v pht trin nng lc nhn thc trong bi dng

-L

hc sinh gii

- V Anh Tun. Xy dng h thng bi tp ha hc nhm rn luyn t duy trong

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ID

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vic BDHSG ha hc THPT. Lun n tin s. 2006;

- Vn Minh. Xy dng h thng bi tp ho hc v c nhm rn luyn t duy


trong BDHSG THPT . Lun vn thc s. 2007;
- o Th Hng. Tuyn chn, xy dng v s dng bi tp ha hc v c nhm pht
trin nng lc hc sinh trong BDHSG trng THPT. Lun vn thc s. 2012;...

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Tuy c kh nhiu ti nghin cu v vn bi dng hc sinh gii


trng ph thng nghin cu v vn l thuyt v bi tp kim loi lp 12 v ch

yu dnh cho hc sinh chuyn v ni dung nghin cu cn qu rng v a s cc

cha ph hp vi i tng thi HSG tnh Qung Ninh v c bit l i tng

ti u xy dng trn c s c th ca tng a phng hoc cn chung chung nn

T
N

hc sinh khng chuyn, hc sinh ngoi cng lp v vy ti la chn ti Bi

dng hc sinh gii thng qua dy hc phn Kim loi, Ha hc 12 dnh cho HS

THPT tnh Qung Ninh ni chung v dng BDHSG ti trng THPT Vn Lang

ni ring.

.Q

1.2. Cng tc bi dng hc sinh gii ha hc trng THPT

TP

1.2.1. Tm quan trng ca vic bi dng hc sinh gii [9], [37]

Ti nng l vn qu ca nc nh. Ti nng s c v n nh nng khiu song c

nng khiu cng khng tr thnh ti nng c nu khng c qu trnh gio dc, bi

dng mt cch khoa hc.

ng ch L Kh Phiu nguyn B th trung ng ng tng ni: "V nhn

TR

ti mt mt phi tm c nhng cch thch hp pht hin v bi dng nhn ti,

0B

ng thi cng cn lu l nhn ti s c iu kin xut hin trn mt nn dn tr rng

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v trn c s vic t chc o to nhn lc tt v nhn ti l ngi c tr tu sc bn v

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3

nhng ngi c bn tay vng c nhng k nng c bit" . [9]

Ngh quyt i hi ng ton quc ln th XI khng nh " Pht trin nng

cao cht lng ngun nhn lc, nht l ngun nhn lc cht lng cao l mt trong

cc nhn t quyt nh s pht trin nhanh, bn vng t nc. i mi cn bn, ton

din nn gio dc Vit Nam theo hng chun ha, hin i ha, x hi ha, dn ch

-L

ha v hi nhp quc t, trong , i mi c ch qun l gio dc, pht trin i ng

B
ID

TO

GV v cn b qun l gio dc l khu then cht". [9]


Nhim v quan trng ca ngnh Gio dc l phi pht hin nhng hc sinh c
t cht thng minh, c nng khiu bi dng thnh nhn ti, p ng yu cu
pht trin t nc trong thi k cng nghip ho, hin i ho, hi nhp quc t.
Qu trnh pht hin, bi dng hc sinh gii cc mn hc bc THPT l mt

qu trnh mang tnh khoa hc nghim tc c tnh chin lc lu di trong sut qu

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trnh dy hc. c bit i vi mn Ha hc l mn hc mi ch c nghin cu


t lp 8 nn ch c qu trnh ny mi cung cp c tng i y cc kin thc

cn thit cho hc sinh v pht hin chnh xc kh nng hc tp ca cc em, t

mi c th tip tc o to tr thnh nhn ti cho t nc.[37]

1.2.2. Hot ng nhn thc v t duy ca hc HS trong qu trnh dy hc

T
N

1.2.2.1 Khi nim nhn thc v t duy [4], [10]

- Nhn thc l mt trong ba mt ca i sng tm l con ngi (nhn thc,

tnh cm, ch), l tin ca hai mt kia ng thi c quan h cht ch vi chng

v vi cc hin tng tm l khc. Hot ng nhn thc bao hai giai on ln: nhn

.Q

thc cm tnh (gm cm gic, tri gic) v nhn thc l tnh (gm t duy, tng

TP

tng).

- T duy l mt qu trnh tm l phn nh nhng thuc tnh bn cht, nhng

mi lin h bn trong c tnh quy lut ca s vt hin tng trong hin thc khch

quan m trc ta cha bit. Vy t duy l mt qu trnh tm kim v pht hin

ci mi v cht mt cch c lp. Nt ni bt ca t duy l tnh "c vn " tc l

TR

trong hon cnh c vn , t duy c ny sinh.

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Nhng phm cht c bn ca t duy gm:

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+ Tnh nh hng, nhanh chng xc nh i tng cn lnh hi, mc ch

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3

phi t v nhng con ng ti u t c mc ch y.

+ B rng: Th hin kh nng vn dng nghin cu cc i tng khc.

+ su: Th hin kh nng nm vng ngy cng su sc hn bn cht ca

s vt, hin tng.

+ Tnh linh hot: Th hin s nhy bn trong vic vn dng nhng tri thc

B
ID

TO

-L

v cch thc hot ng vo cc tnh hung khc nhau mt cch sng to.
+ Tnh mm do: Th hin hot ng t duy c tin hnh theo hng

xui v ngc chiu.


+ Tnh c lp: Th hin ch t mnh pht hin c vn , xut c
cch gii quyt v t gii quyt vn .
+ Tnh khi qut: Th hin ch khi gii quyt mi loi nhim v s a ra
m hnh khi qut, t vn dng gii quyt cc nhim v cng loi.

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Nh vy, qu trnh t duy l khu c bn ca qu trnh nhn thc. Nm bt


c qu trnh ny, ngi gio vin s hng dn t duy khoa hc cho hc sinh

trong sut qu trnh dy v hc mn Ho hc trng ph thng.

T duy sng to l nhng hot ng t duy c sng kin, t duy sng to l

1.2.2.2. T duy sng to v nhng phm cht ca t duy sng to [22]

T
N

mc cao ca t duy. T duy sng to c nhng phm cht sau :

- Tnh i mi: Biu hin tnh khc l, i mi trong t duy, s c lp suy

ngh, dm tm ra ci mi.

- Tnh khuch tn: Biu hin kh nng hiu rng nhng vn nghin cu

.Q

nhng cu trc khc nhau.

TP

- Tnh c o: Thng khng dp khun theo nhng quy tc hoc tri thc

thng thng, bit gii quyt vn mt cch linh hot, ng bin.

1.2.2.3. Nhng hnh thc c bn ca t duy [4], [21], [22]

a. Khi nim: Khi nim phn nh nhng thuc tnh chung, bn cht ca s

vt hin tng, qu trnh hin thc. L kt qu ca s tng hp, khi qut bin

TR

chng cc ti liu kinh nghim, cc khi nim c hnh thnh t trong qu trnh

0B

lu di ca con ngi nhn thc th gii v ci to th gii.

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b. Phn on: Phn on phn nh nhng mi lin h gia cc s vt hin

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3

tng v qu trnh hin thc. Trong phn on bao gi cng th hin mt ngha

nhm khng nh hay ph nh hin thc. Phn on c tnh ng hoc sai tu

thuc vo iu khng nh hay ph nh c thc hay khng i tng c phn

on.

c. Suy l: Suy l l hnh thc suy ngh lin h cc phn on li vi nhau

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ID

TO

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to thnh mt phn on mi.


Nhn chung, suy l gm hai b phn: cc phn on c trc (gi l tin )

v cc phn on c sau (gi l kt lun). Suy l c chia thnh ba loi: suy l


din dch, suy l quy np v loi suy.
- Suy l din dch: L i t nguyn l chung, ph bin n ci ring l, c bit.
- Suy l quy np: L suy l ngc li ca suy l din dch (nhng hai loi suy
l ny gn b mt thit vi nhau).

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- Loi suy: L suy l i t mt s thuc tnh ging nhau ca hai i tng


rt ra kt lun v nhng thuc tnh ging nhau khc ca hai i tng .

i vi pht trin nng lc nhn thc ca hc sinh, khu trung tm l pht

trin nng lc t duy.

1.2.3. Nhng nng lc, phm cht cn c ca hc sinh gii ha hc

T
N

1.2.3.1. nh ngha v nng lc [38]

Nng lc l kh nng thc hin c hiu qu v c trch nhim cc hnh ng,

gii quyt cc nhim v, vn thuc cc lnh vc ngh nghip, x hi hay cc

nhn trong nhng tnh hung khc nhau trn c s hiu bit, k nng, k xo v kinh

.Q

nghim, cng nh s sn sng hnh ng.

TP

1.2.3.2. Nhng nng lc, phm cht cn c ca hc sinh gii ha hc [24], [38]

- Theo lut Hoa K nh ngha: HSG l nhng HS chng minh c tr

tu trnh cao v c kh nng sng to th hin ng c hc tp mnh lit v

t kt qu xut sc trong lnh vc l thuyt hoc khoa hc; l i tng cn c mt

s gio dc c bit t c trnh gio dc tng ng vi nng lc ca con

TR

ngi .

0B

- Theo PGS.TS Bi Long Bin (Trng H Bch Khoa): "HSG ha hc phi

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l ngi nm vng bn cht hin tng ha hc, nm vng cc kin thc c bn

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3

c hc, vn dng ti u cc kin thc c bn c hc gii quyt mt hay

nhiu vn mi trong cc k thi a ra"

- Theo PGS.TS Trn Thnh Hu (Trng HSP H Ni): Nu da vo kt

qu bi thi nh gi th bi thi phi hi t nhng yu cu sau y:

+ C kin thc ha hc c bn vng vng, su sc, h thng.HS c nng lc

-L

tip thu kin thc vt tri, tc l kh nng nhn thc vn nhanh, r rng, c

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thc b sung v hon thin kin thc.


+ C nng lc ghi nh, t duy tt v sng to, kh nng suy lun logic, bit
phn tch s vt, hin tng qua cc du hiu c trng ca chng, bit so snh,
tng hp, khi qut ha cc s vt hin tng
+ C nng lc trnh by v din t chnh xc, logic.

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+ C nng lc kim chng, bit suy xt s ng sai t mt lot s kin, bit


khng nh hoc bc b mt c trng no trong sn phm do mnh lm ra. Bit

ch ra mt cch chc chn cc d liu cn phi kim nghim sau khi thc hin mt

+ C nng lc thc hnh th nghim tt, kh nng quan st, m t, nhn xt,

s ln kim nghim.

T
N

gii thch cc hin tng; vn dng l thuyt iu khin thc nghim v t thc

nghim kim tra cc vn l thuyt.

+ C nng lc t duy c lp, sng to, c kh nng nghin cu khoa hc.

+ C kh nng vn dng gii quyt cc vn trong hc tp v thc tin.

.Q

Nh vy l mt HSG ha hc th ngi HS cn phi hi t cc nng lc: tip

TP

thu kin thc, suy lun logic, sng to, kim chng, thc hnh ha hc

1.2.3.3. Dy hc theo nh hng pht trin nng lc [3], [30], [38]

Gio dc ph thng nc ta ang thc hin bc chuyn t chng trnh gio

dc tip cn ni dung sang tip cn nng lc ca ngi hc, ngha l t ch quan

tm n vic hc sinh hc c ci g n ch quan tm hc sinh vn dng c ci

TR

g qua vic hc. m bo c iu , nht nh phi thc hin thnh cng vic

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chuyn t phng php dy hc theo li "truyn th mt chiu" sang dy cch hc,

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cch vn dng kin thc, rn luyn k nng, hnh thnh nng lc v phm cht;

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3

ng thi phi chuyn cch nh gi kt qu gio dc t nng v kim tra tr nh

sang kim tra, nh gi nng lc vn dng kin thc gii quyt vn , coi trng c

kim tra nh gi kt qu hc tp vi kim tra nh gi trong qu trnh hc tp

c th tc ng kp thi nhm nng cao cht lng ca cc hot ng dy hc v

gio dc.

-L

Trc bi cnh v chun b cho qu trnh i mi chng trnh,

B
ID

TO

sch gio khoa gio dc ph thng sau nm 2015, cn thit phi i mi ng


b phng php dy hc v kim tra nh gi kt qu gio dc theo nh hng
pht trin nng lc ngi hc.
i mi PPDH v KTG theo nh hng pht trin nng lc hc sinh c

tin hnh ba khu quan trng. Mt l: i mi cc yu t c bn ca chng


trnh gio dc: Chuyn t chng trnh nh hng ni dung dy hc sang chng

10

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trnh nh hng nng lc v nh hng chun u ra v phm cht v nng lc


ca chng trnh gio dc cp THPT. Hai l: i mi PHDH bao gm: vic ci

tin cc PPDH truyn thng thay th bng cc PPDH nhm ch trng pht trin

gii quyt vn , theo tnh hung v nh hng hnh ng c bit l vic tng

nng lc ca hc sinh; kt hp a dng cc phng php dy hc; vn dng dy hc

T
N

cng s dng phng tin dy hc, cng ngh thng tin hp l h tr,Ba l: i

mi KTG kt qu hc tp ca hc sinh: chuyn t nh gi tng kt sang nh gi

qu trnh; t nh gi ch yu t ghi nh, hiu kin thc,... sang nh gi nng lc

vn dng, gii quyt nhng vn ca thc tin, c bit ch trng nh gi cc

.Q

nng lc t duy bc cao nh t duy sng to; xem nh gi nh l mt PPDH (tch

TP

hp nh gi vo qu trnh dy hc); tng cng s dng CNTT trong kim tra,

nh gi.

1.2.4. Nhng nng lc gio vin cn c khi bi dng HSG ha hc

Mt gio vin khi dy BDHSG HH i hi phi c kh nhiu cc k nng v

nng lc quan trng nh:

TR

- Nng lc tr tu, bi mun c tr gii th ngi thy trc tin phi gii.

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- Nng lc trnh chuyn mn, khi ngi thy c chuyn mn su v vng

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c th truyn t cho tr mt cch chnh xc v cn k cc vn cn quan tm.

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- Lp k hoch BDHSG ph hp vi nng lc ca HS.

- Bit gim st, theo di, tip nhn thng tin phn hi t HS v ng nghip.

- C k nng giao tip, k nng truyn t r rng, d hiu, chnh xc.

- C k nng la chn v s dng PPDH ph hp vi ni dung dy hc v i

tng hc sinh.

-L

- C k nng tin hnh th nghim v s dng cc thit b h tr dy hc nh

B
ID

TO

tranh v, my tnh, my chiu, phn mm ha hc


- C k nng xy dng bi tp v ra kim tra.
- C k nng nghin cu khoa hc.
- C phm cht o c tt, yu thng, qu trng hc sinh, bit hi sinh cho
mc tiu gio dc chung.

11

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1.2.5. Mt s bin php pht hin v bi dng hc sinh gii ha hc


1.2.5.1. Mt s bin php pht hin hc sinh gii

- Lm r mc y chnh xc ca kin thc, k nng, k xo theo chun

- Lm r trnh nhn thc v mc t duy ca tng hc sinh bng nhiu bin

kin thc, k nng ca chng trnh SGK.

T
N

php v nhiu tnh hung v l thuyt v thc nghim o mc t duy ca hc sinh.

1.2.5.2. Mt s bin php bi dng hc sinh gii

i vi gio vin, khi bi dng nhng hc sinh c nng khiu v mn Ha

hc ta cn thc hin cc bin php c bn sau:

.Q

- Hnh thnh cho hc sinh c kin thc c bn, vng vng, su sc. l l

TP

thuyt ch o, l cc nh lut v cc quy lut c bn ca b mn.

- Rn luyn cho hc sinh k nng vn dng cc l thuyt ch o, cc nh

lut, cc quy lut ca mn hc mt cch linh hot, sng to trn c s bn cht ha

hc ca s vt hin tng.

- Rn luyn cho hc sinh k nng da vo bn cht ha hc, kt hp vi kin thc

TR

ca mn hc khc c c hng gii quyt vn mt cch logic gn gng.

0B

- Rn luyn cho hc sinh kh nng phn on (quy np, din dch,...) mt cch c

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lp sng to gip hc sinh c cch gii bi tp nhanh hn, ngn gn hn.

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- Rn luyn k nng thc hnh cho hc sinh, gip cc em bit cch dng thc

nghim kim chng li nhng nhng d on v bit dng l thuyt.

- Hng dn cho hc sinh bit cch t nghin cu ti liu mt cch hiu qu

v xem l bin php khng th thiu c trong cng tc BDHSG.

Nh vy i vi nhng gio vin, khi o to nhng hc sinh c nng khiu

-L

v mn ha hc ta cn hng dn hc sinh hc tp cc em c trang b nhng

B
ID

TO

kin thc, nhng k nng, gip cc em t hc hi, t sng to nhm pht huy ti a
nng lc ca mnh.
1.3. Mt s vn l lun v bi tp trong dy hc ha hc trng THPT
1.3.1. Khi nim v bi tp [25]
Theo t in Ting Vit Bi tp l bi giao cho HS lm vn dng kin
thc hc, cn bi ton l vn cn gii quyt bng phng php khoa hc.

12

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Theo cc nh l lun dy hc Lin X (c), bi tp bao gm c cu hi v bi


ton, m trong khi hon thnh chng, HS cn nm c hay hon thin mt tri thc

hoc mt k nng no bng cch tr li vn p, vit hoc c km theo thc

nghim. Hin nay nc ta thut ng bi tp c dng theo quan im ny.

1.3.2. Phn loi bi tp ha hc

T
N

1.3.2.1. Da vo tnh cht ca bi tp ha hc [22], [23]

- Bi tp nh tnh: Thng di dng cu hi v khng tnh ton nhm lm

chnh xc khi nim; cng c, h thng ha kin thc; vn dng kin thc vo thc

tin. Cc dng hay gp: vit phng trnh ha hc, hon thnh chui phn ng, nhn

.Q

bit, iu ch, tch cht, gii thch hin tng, bi tp v tnh cht ha hc cc cht,...

TP

- Bi tp nh lng: L nhng bi tp gn lin vi tnh ton, thao tc trn cc

s liu tm c s liu khc, bao hm 2 tnh cht ton hc (dng php tnh i

s, quy tc tam sut, gii h phng trnh,) v ha hc (dng ngn ng ha hc,

kin thc ha hc v cc phng trnh ha hc xy ra).

- Bi tp thc nghim: Bi tp c lin quan n k nng thc hnh nh lp dng

TR

c th nghim, quan st th nghim m t v gii thch hin tng th nghim, lm

0B

th nghim th hin tnh cht ca mt cht hoc phn bit cc cht,...

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- Bi tp tng hp: L bi tp c tnh cht bao gm cc dng trn.

2+
3

1.3.2.2. Da vo hnh thc ca bi tp ha hc [22], [23]

Da vo hnh thc ca BTHH, c th chia thnh 2 loi: Bi tp trc nghim v

bi tp t lun.

- Bi tp trc nghim: L loi bi tp hay cu hi c km theo cu tr li v yu cu

hc HS la chn p n ng hay vit thm mt t hay mt cu tr li. Bi tp trc

B
ID

TO

-L

nghim khch quan gm cc dng: in khuyt, ghp i, ng sai, nhiu la chn).


- Bi tp t lun: L loi bi tp i hi HS phi t vit ra cu tr li, thng

gm nhiu dng ng vi mi cu hi hay mi phn cu hi.


1.3.2.3. Da vo kiu hay dng bi tp [23]
Da vo kiu hay dng bi tp c th chia thnh:
- Bi tp xc nh cng thc phn t hp cht;
- Bi tp xc nh thnh phn % ca hn hp;

13

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- Bi tp nhn bit cc cht;


- Bi tp tch cc cht ra khi hn hp;

- Bi tp iu ch cc cht,...

T
N

chng trong sch gio khoa lp 12, ta c th chia bi tp gm cc loi sau:

Cn c theo ni dung kin thc, chng hn theo ni dung kin thc ca

1.3.2.4. Da vo ni dung kin thc [22]

- Bi tp v i cng kim loi;

- Bi tp v kim loi kim, kim loi kim th;

- Bi tp v nhm;...

.Q

C nhiu cch phn loi bi tp, mi cch phn loi c nhng u v nhc im

TP

ring. Ty thuc vo cc trng hp c th gio vin c th s dng h thng phn

loi ny hoc h thng phn loi khc hay kt hp cc cch phn loi nhm pht huy

c cc u im ca mi loi.

1.3.2.5. Bi tp ha hc nh hng pht trin nng lc [38]

Theo hng dy hc tch cc, dy hc nh hng pht trin nng lc ca HS

TR

th trong cc k thi HSG ngoi cc dng bi tp truyn thng theo nh hng v ni

0B

dung th cn c cc dng bi tp ha hc theo nh hng pht trin nng lc ca

10
0

HS v qua mi bi tp c th nh gi c kh nng vn dng sng to nhng

2+
3

kin thc hc gii quyt nhng vn thc tin trong cuc sng.

1.3.3. Vai tr, ngha ca bi tp trong dy hc ha hc trng THPT [22]

Vic s dng bi tp ha hc trong ging dy ha hc c nhiu ngha quan

trng trong nhiu mt ca cng tc Gio dc v o to ni chung v mc tiu ca

mn Ha hc ni ring, c th l

+ Lm chnh xc ho cc khi nim ha hc; cng c, o su v m rng

kin thc mt cch sinh ng, phong ph, hp dn. Ch khi vn dng c kin
thc vo vic gii bi tp, HS mi nm c kin thc mt cch su sc.
+ n tp, h thng ho kin thc mt cch tch cc nht.

B
ID

TO

-L

1.3.3.1. ngha tr dc

14

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

+ Rn luyn cc k nng ha hc nh cn bng phng trnh ha hc, tnh ton


theo cng thc ha hc v phng trnh ha hc,Nu l bi tp thc nghim s

rn cc k nng thc hnh, gp phn vo vic gio dc k thut tng hp HS.

+ Rn luyn kh nng vn dng kin thc vo thc tin i sng, lao ng sn

+ Rn luyn k nng s dng ngn ng ha hc v cc thao tc t duy.

T
N

xut v bo v mi trng.

1.3.3.2. ngha pht trin

Pht trin HS cc nng lc t duy logic, bin chng, khi qut, c lp,

thng minh v sng to.

.Q

1.3.3.3. ngha gio dc

TP

+ Rn luyn c tnh chnh xc, kin nhn, trung thc v lng say m khoa

hc.

+ Bi tp thc nghim cn c tc dng rn luyn vn ho lao ng (lao ng

c t chc, c k hoch, gn gng, ngn np, sch s ni lm vic), tinh thn lm

vic tp th, lm vic nhm.

TR

Nh vy ta c th thy rng bi tp ha hc va l mc tiu, va l ni dung,

0B

li va l phng php dy hc hiu qu.

10
0

1.3.4. V tr ca bi tp ha hc trong qu trnh dy hc [22], [23]

2+
3

GV c th s dng bi tp bt c thi im no, khi thy n ph hp vi

mc ch v nhim v dy hc. Ngc li, GV hon ton c th khng s dng

bi tp khi iu khng cn thit cho cng vic ging dy ca mnh.

Bi tp ha hc khng phi l ni dng nhng n cha ng ni dung dy

-L

hc. Bi tp phi ph hp vi ni dung dy hc, vi nng lc nhn thc ca HS

v phi phc v c ca GV. Khi ra mt bi tp phi xc nh ng v tr

B
ID

TO

ca n bi tp tr thnh mt b phn hu c ca h thng kin thc cn


truyn th.
1.4. Mt s vn l lun v s dng BTHH trong dy hc trng THPT
1.4.1. c trng dy hc mn Ha hc [22]
i vi cc mn hc t nhin ni chung, mn Ha hc ni ring th vic s
dng BTHH trong ging dy ha hc cng l nt c trng trong dy hc. BTHH l

15

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

phng tin c bn dy hc sinh tp vn dng cc kin thc hc vo thc t


i sng, sn xut v tp nghin cu khoa hc. Kin thc hc sinh tip thu c ch

c ch khi s dng v vn dng n. Phng php s dng bi tp trong dy hc ha

hc mt trong cc phng php quan trng nng cao cht lng dy hc b mn.

- BTHH th hin c nhng c trng kin thc ca b mn.

T
N

- Cc hnh thc dy hc u c th s dng BTHH lm phng tin.

- BTHH th hin c s a dng v cc hnh thc hc tp.

- Thng qua BTHH gip ngi dy v ngi hc din t c tt c

nhng phng php t duy nh phn tch, tng hp, so snh, khi qut ha,

.Q

- Bi tp va l mc ch va l ni dung li va l phng php dy hc hiu

TP

qu, bi tp cung cp cho hc sinh kin thc, con ng ginh kin thc.

- BTHH gip hc sinh hiu su hn cc khi nim, nh lut hc, rn luyn

ngn ng ha hc cho hc sinh, l phng tin cng c, n tp, h thng ha

kin thc tt nht, qua vic gii BTHH gip hc sinh rn luyn nhng c tnh tt

ca bn thn nh tnh kin nhn, chnh xc, khoa hc, linh hot, sng to,

TR

1.4.2. S dng bi tp ha hc tch cc ha ngi hc [22], [23]

0B

- Khi s dng BTHH, ngi hc phi vn dng tt c cc k nng gii quyt

10
0

qua gp phn nng cao nng lc nhn thc, nng lc t duy.

2+
3

- Vi hnh thc s dng khi hc tp nh gip hc sinh nng cao tnh ch

ng, kh nng t hc, l c s tch cc ha ngi hc.

- Bo m nguyn tc Hc i i vi hnh qua ngi hc c thi quen

vn dng kin thc vo i sng t c thi yu thch mn hc cng l mt

nguyn nhn lm ngi hc tch cc.

-L

- Thng thng BTHH c s dng di dng giao nhim v hc tp cho

B
ID

TO

hc sinh, qua rn cho hc sinh tnh t gic.


- S dng BTHH thng khng b l thuc vo mt khong thi gian hoc
mt khng gian hc tp no nn gip cho hc sinh linh ng hn trong hc tp.
1.4.3. S dng BTHH nhm pht hin v bi dng hc sinh gii ha hc
BTHH c th s dng bt c cng on no trong dy hc ha hc (hot ng
vo bi, cng c, kim tra,...). Vi dy hc ha hc hin nay c rt nhiu hng s

16

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

dng bi tp. Hng s dng bi tp no, mc n u ph thuc vo mc tiu ca


gio vin ging dy v hc sinh.

- H thng BTHH vi s a dng ca cc dng bi tp s gip hc sinh nm vng

- Di cng mt ni dung kin thc, BTHH c th din t theo nhiu cch khc

kin thc, k nng mt cch y .

T
N

nhau, li gii ca bi tp theo nhiu hng, vi nhng hc sinh c nng lc t duy th

BTHH l ti liu quan trng o c nng lc t duy, vi mt bi tp nhng c

nhiu cch gii khc nhau s nh gi c nng lc t duy ca HS, t pht hin v

bi dng c HS tr thnh HSG.

.Q

1.5. Ni dung kin thc phn Kim loi trong cc k thi hc sinh gii, thi i

TP

hc, cao ng.

thi hc sinh gii (tnh Qung Ninh): Nhng bi ton v kim loi, hp cht

ca kim loi thng chim khong 8 10 im/20im.

Nh vy ta c th thy c ni dung phn kim loi trong cc thi hc sinh

gii cng nh thi i hc chim khi lng kin thc tng i ln.

TR

1.6. Thc trng bi dng hc sinh gii trng ph thng

10
0

0B

1.6.1. Ni dung chng trnh sch gio khoa


Xu hng dy hc hin i l tng cng vai tr ch ng ca hc sinh trong

2+
3

qu trnh chim lnh kin thc mi, nhm pht huy tnh c lp sng to ca hc

sinh, gip cho hc sinh c mt phng php t duy logic, sng to. Ni dung ca

chng trnh v sch gio khoa lp 12 ni chung v cc ti liu ha hc khc hin

nay gp phn thc hin mc tiu .

-L

Hin nay trn th trng ti liu dng BDHSG HH sch kh nhiu vi s lng

B
ID

TO

bi tp ln, a dng v loi hnh bi tp v phong ph v ni dung gp phn tch cc vo


vic pht hin v BDHSG.
Thc t cho thy h thng ti liu dng ging dy ha hc trng THPT ni
chung v ti liu dng BDHSG ni ring, h thng bi tp tuy c a dng v loi
hnh v phong ph v ni dung nhng s lng bi tp c cht lng dng pht hin
v BDHSG vn cn tip tc cn b sung v chn lc p ng vi yu cu ca thi
hc sinh gii, thi i hc v cao ng hin nay.

17

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

1.6.2. Nhng thun li, kh khn trong qu trnh pht hin v bi dng HSG
cc trng ph thng tnh Qung Ninh

1.6.2.1 Thun li

nhn ti giai on 2008 - 2020 vi cc phng hng, mc tiu c th, y l ng

- B Gio dc v o to thnh lp Chng trnh quc gia bi dng

T
N

lc mnh m thc y vic bi dng, o to nhn ti cho t nc

- SGK ha hc c b sung, cp nht kh nhiu kin thc mi c bit l

cc l thuyt ch o to iu kin cho HS nghin cu Ha hc su hn, rng hn

v c tc dng kch thch ng c hc tp, pht huy kh nng t hc ca HS.

.Q

- hu ht cc trng THPT, ban gim hiu nh trng lun ch o, quan

TP

tm ng vin kp thi, c nhng k hoch c th, lu di trong cng vic bi

dng HSG.

- Gio vin c trnh chuyn mn vng vng, c nhiu kinh nghim v tm

huyt trong cng tc bi dng HSG.

1.6.2.2. Kh khn

TR

Gio vin:

0B

- Ch chnh sch cho GV bi dng HSG cn thp, do khng c sc thu

10
0

ht GV u t nghin cu BDHSG v HS khng c ng lc tham gia.

2+
3

- a s GV u qu ti vi thi gian lm vic nhiu ngoi vic dy trn lp,

dy bi dng HSG cn phi kim nhim nhiu cng vic khc.

Hc sinh

- Ph huynh HS v bn thn HS khng mun dnh nhiu thi gian cho vic n

thi HSG m thay vo l nh hng tp trung cho vic n thi H C.

B
ID

TO

-L

- HS c rt t quyn li t k thi HSG nn kh thu ht HS thi HSG.

Ti liu, chng trnh hc


- Chng trnh hc qu ln i vi HS.
- Ti liu dy chuyn hay ti liu bi dng HSG cc trng THPT rt t.

Gio vin dy bi dng u phi t son chng trnh dy, theo kinh nghim ca
bn thn, theo ch quan, t nghin cu, t su tm ti liu.

18

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

- SGK v cc ti liu tham kho vn cn c nhiu im khng khp nhau v


kin thc, gy kh khn cho GV v HS nghin cu.

- Cch thc ra cn nhiu bt cp, kin thc thc tin, thc hnh cn hn

1.6.3. Thc trng dy hc ha hc v bi dng hc sinh gii ha hc cc

ch, ch yu kin thc mang tnh hn lm l thuyt.

T
N

trng THPT tnh Qung Ninh

tm hiu v thc trng dy hc ha hc v cng tc bi dng hc sinh gii

cc trng THPT, chng ti pht phiu iu tra cho cc gio vin v hc sinh

ca cc trng THPT. Kt qu c th nh sau:

.Q

Bng 1.1. Kt qu iu tra v nhng kh khn ca gio vin

STT

TP

trong cng tc bi dng hc sinh gii

S
lng

(%)

Ni dung iu tra

Gio vin cha xc nh c vng kin thc cn

1.

Dung lng kin thc qu ln so vi thi gian c

TR

2.

14/15

93,3%

12/15

80%

14/15

93,3%

13/15

86,7%

11/15

73,3%

13/15

86,7%

5/15

33,3%

11/15

73,3%

ging dy cho hc sinh.

0B

phn phi trong chng trnh.

10
0

Gio vin cha tuyn chn, xy dng c h thng


3.

2+
3

bi tp ph hp pht hin v bi dng hc sinh

gii.

Ti liu tham kho cn hn ch.

5.

Cha i mi phng php hc cho hc sinh.

4.

Phng php s dng bi tp ca gio vin trong

7.

B
ID

TO

-L

6.

8.

ging dy cn hn ch.
Ni dung kin thc ha hc cn tru tng nn khng
gy c hng th, tnh cm cho hc sinh.
Gio vin cn cn thiu kinh nghim trong vic la
chn hc sinh c nng khiu ha hc.

9.

S hc sinh c nng khiu ha hc cha nhiu.

8/15

53,3%

10.

Cc nguyn nhn khc

5/15

33,3%

19

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

Bng 1.2. Kt qu iu tra v nhng kh khn ca hc sinh trong cng tc bi

Dung lng kin thc qu ln so vi thi gian hc tp

H
N

80%

Ti liu tham kho cn hn ch

5.

Phng php hc cn hn ch

4.

106/120

Hc sinh cha c h thng bi tp ph hp

3.

50,8%

101/120

84,16%

60/120

50%

40/120

33,33%

TR

Cc nguyn nhn khc

88,33%

61/120

U
.Q
TP
G

gy c hng th, tnh cm cho hc sinh.

Ni dung kin thc ha hc cn tru tng nn khng

7.

85,8%

96/120

ca hc sinh.

6.

103/120

Hc sinh cha xc nh c kin thc cn hc tp.

2.

(%)

lng

T
N

1.

Ni dung iu tra

STT

dng hc sinh gii.

0B

T nhng kt qu iu tra nh trn, c th nhn thy rng cht lng hc sinh gii

10
0

cha cao v cha bn vng l do nhiu nguyn nhn. Trong cc nguyn nhn th vic

2+
3

la chn, xy dng c h thng bi tp ph hp; phng php s dng bi tp thch

hp; vic xc nh c vng kin thc cn nghin cu v phng php hc tp ca hc

sinh c xc nh l cc nguyn nhn ch yu.

Vic s dng cc PPDH ha hc theo hng dy hc tch cc t kt qu kh

quan. Tuy nhin vic s dng phng php dy hc tch cc, s dng th nghim v

-L

phng tin trc quan trong cc tit dy cha thng xuyn hoc s dng cha hiu

tinh thn trch nhim ca gio vin cha cao.


Vic s dng bi tp trong ging dy ha hc cha nhiu, cha thng xuyn v

B
ID

TO

qu do c s gio dc khng y trang thit b dy hc v dng th nghim v

cha cht lng v vic son h thng bi tp ny mun hay thng mt nhiu thi
gian; c bit vic s dng bi tp thc nghim ging dy cn rt hn ch, rt t s
tit c s dng dng bi tp ny phc v cho vic ging dy.

20

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

Vi thc trng ging dy nh hng nhiu n vic tip thu kin thc v
hnh thnh nng lc ca hc sinh. Cc em khng ch ng tch cc trong vic lnh hi

kin thc nn kin thc khng su sc, khng chc chn, kh nng vn dng kin thc

khng hiu qu trong thc tin,...

T
N

Tiu kt chng 1

Trong chng ny chng ti tin hnh nghin cu v c s l lun ca

ti, bao gm cc vn chnh sau:

.Q

+ Nhn thc v t duy ca HS trong qu trnh dy hc.

C s l lun

TP

+ Nhng nng lc, phm cht cn c ca hc sinh gii ha hc

+ Mt s bin php pht hin v bi dng hc sinh gii ha hc

+ Mt s vn l lun v bi tp trong dy hc ha hc trng THPT

+ Mt s vn v s dng bi tp ha hc trong dy hc trng THPT.

C s thc tin

TR

Bn cnh vic nghin cu v cc c s l lun ca ti, chng ti tin

0B

hnh phn tch ni dung kin thc phn kin thc kim loi trong cc k thi hc sinh

10
0

gii, i hc v cao ng ng thi tin hnh tm hiu tnh hnh thc t v cng tc

2+
3

dy hc ha hc v bi dng hc sinh gii trng THPT hin nay ti tnh Qung

Ninh.

Cn c vo cc kt qu nghin cu t c v c s l lun cng nh thc

tin, chng ti tuyn chn v xy dng h thng l thuyt v bi tp phn kim

B
ID

TO

-L

loi phc v cho cng tc pht hin v BDHSG.

21

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

CHNG 2
TUYN CHN, XY DNG V S DNG H THNG CU HI L

THUYT V BI TP PHN I CNG KIM LOI BI DNG HC

2.1. Phn tch cu trc chng trnh sch gio khoa ha hc 12, phn kim loi

SINH GII HA HC TRUNG HC PH THNG

T
N

Chng 5: i cng v kim loi

Ni dung kin thc trong chng cung cp cho HS nhng khi nim v v tr,

tnh cht vt l, tnh cht ha hc chung ca kim loi, dy in ha, th in cc

chun ca kim loi, s in phn, n mn kim loi, nguyn tc v phng php iu

TP

Chng 6: Kim loi kim kim loi kim th - nhm

.Q

ch kim loi.

S nghin cu cc nhm kim loi kim, kim th v nhm c thc hin t

v tr v cu to nguyn t, tnh cht vt l, tnh cht ha hc, ng dng, iu ch,

mt s hp cht quan trng ca chng. T nhng kin thc l thuyt v cu to

nguyn t, i cng v kim loi to iu kin cho HS d on l thuyt v tnh

TR

cht cc cht v dng th nghim kim chng,...

0B

Chng 7: Crom st ng

10
0

y l kim loi nhm B c nhiu ng dng trong thc tin. Khi nghin cu

2+
3

cc kim loi ny cng yu cu HS bit v tr, cu to ca chng, cc trng thi s oxi

ha ca chng hiu c tnh cht, phng php iu ch cc kim loi cng nh

hp cht ca chng.

2.2. Nguyn tc tuyn chn v xy dng h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp

2.2.1. Theo cu trc chng trnh sch gio khoa

-L

H thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp c sp xp theo chng trnh SGK

B
ID

TO

c chun ha, cu trc ny c s hp l v c sp xp cng chiu vi chng


trnh hc ca HS, nh HS s d dng nh hnh c chng trnh.
2.2.2. Theo nng lc nhn thc ca hc sinh
H thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp c xy dng ph hp vi mc nhn
thc ca hc sinh nh t bit, hiu n vn dng v sng to.

22

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

2.2.3. Theo dng bi tp


H thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp sp xp theo dng kin thc, dng bi tp

nh: Bi tp v s phn ng, bi tp nhn bit, bi tp tch v tinh ch cc cht,

T
N

2.3.1. H thng l thuyt v bi tp phi m bo tnh chnh xc, khoa hc

2.3. Nguyn tc tuyn chn v xy dng h thng l thuyt v bi tp ha hc

bi tp dng th, bi tp bin lun lng cht trc v sau phn ng,

Khi tuyn chn v xy dng ni dung ca bi tp phi c s chnh xc v kin

thc ha hc, bi tp cho cc d kin. Cc bi tp khng c thiu chnh xc v

ngn ng din t, ni dung thiu logic cht ch. Gio vin khi ra bi tp cn ni,

.Q

vit mt cch chnh xc, m bo logic v tnh khoa hc v mt ngn ng ha hc.

TP

2.3.2. H thng l thuyt v bi tp phi m bo tnh h thng, a dng

Vn dng quan im h thng cu trc vo vic xy dng bi tp cho hc

sinh. Trc ht chng ti xc nh tng bi tp. Mi bi tp tng ng vi mt k

nng nht nh v bi tp khng th dn tri cho mi k nng. Ton b h thng gm

nhiu bi tp s hnh thnh h thng k nng ton din cho hc sinh gii ha hc.

TR

Mt khc, h thng bi tp cn phi c xy dng mt cch a dng, phong

0B

ph. S a dng ca h thng bi tp s gip cho vic hnh thnh cc k nng c th,

10
0

chuyn bit mt cch hiu qu.

2+
3

2.3.3. H thng l thuyt v bi tp phi m bo tnh va sc

Bi tp phi c tuyn chn v xy dng t d n kh, t n gin n

phc tp. H thng bi tp ph hp vi mc pht trin tm sinh l, mc nhn

thc ca hc sinh, nhng ni dung kin thc ca BTHH phi m bo hc sinh

c th s dng c, khng mang tnh nh . Cc bi tp phi c loi in

-L

hnh v tnh mc ch r rng, gy c hng th, kch thch tr s tm ti quyt tm

B
ID

TO

t c kt qu ch khng mang tnh cht p buc.


2.3.4. H thng l thuyt v bi tp phi m rng kin thc, vn hiu bit ca HS
Ni dung kin thc phn kim loi rt rng, nht l khi vo i tuyn quc gia,
quc t th yu cu v kin thc kim loi i hi cao hn rt nhiu. Kin thc m
rng khng ch l kin thc l thuyt nng cao m cn phi b sung cc kin thc
thc tin vn dng vo i sng. Chnh v vy, bi tp l cng c ti u gip b

23

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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sung m rng kin thc, vn hiu bit cho HS mt cch a dng, khng gy nhm
chn m cn mang li nhiu hiu qu tch cc.

2.3.5. H thng l thuyt v bi tp phi pht trin nng lc nhn thc, rn luyn

H thng bi tp gip hc sinh pht trin nng lc nhn thc, rn luyn k

k nng ha hc cho hc sinh

T
N

nng ha hc cho hc sinh nh: nng lc pht hin vn v gii quyt vn ,

nng lc phn tch, suy lun, din t logic, chnh xc,cc k nng thc hnh, vn

dng kin thc gii quyt cc vn thc tin.

2.4. Quy trnh xy dng h thng bi tp

.Q

2.4.1. Xc nh mc ch ca h thng bi tp

TP

Mc ch xy dng h thng bi tp phn kim loi nhm pht trin nng lc

nhn thc, rn luyn k nng ha hc cho hc sinh gii ha hc.

2.4.2. Xc nh ni dung h thng bi tp

trong chng trnh ho 12, bao gm:

Ni dung ca h thng bi tp phi bao qut c kin thc phn kim loi

TR

- H thng kin thc i cng v kim loi: Cu to nguyn t, cu to tinh

0B

th, tnh cht vt l, tnh cht ha hc, iu ch, s in phn, n mn kim loi...

10
0

- Cc kim loi nhm A (nhm IA, IIA, nhm) v mt s hp cht quan trng

2+
3

ca chng (oxit, hiroxit, mui).

- Cc kim loi nhm B (Cr, Fe, Cu,Ag, Ni, Zn, Sn, Pb, Au,) v mt s hp

cht quan trng ca chng.

2.4.3. Xc nh loi bi tp, cc kiu bi tp

- Bi tp nh tnh;

- Bi tp thc nghim;
- Bi tp tng hp;...

2.4.4. Thu thp thng tin son h thng bi tp


Gm cc bc c th sau:

B
ID

TO

-L

- Bi tp nh lng;

24

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- Nghin cu cc ti liu hng dn ni dung thi chn HSG cp tnh, thnh


ph, ni dung thi chn HSG quc gia ca B Gio dc v o to, cc k thi

Olympic ha hc trong nc v quc t.

T
N

Bc Ninh, Bc Giang, Hi Dng, Ngh An, An Giang, t cc nm n 2013.

ca cc tnh, thnh ph Qung Ninh, Hi Phng, H Ni, Vnh Phc, Thi Bnh,

- Su tm, phn tch cc thi chn HSG mn Ha quc gia, thi HSG

- Thu thp v tham kho cc ti liu lin quan n h thng bi tp cn xy

dng qua sch, bo, tp ch, mng internet...

- Tm hiu, nghin cu thc t nhng ni dung ha hc c lin quan n thc

.Q

tin ca i sng.

TP

2.4.5. Tin hnh xy dng h thng bi tp

Gm cc bc sau:

- Son tng loi bi tp: Chn lc bi tp t cc ngun ti liu v thi su

tm ph hp vi ni dung h thng bi tp cn xy dng.

- Chnh sa cc bi tp cha ph hp nh qu kh hoc qu nng n, cha

TR

chnh xc,

0B

- Chn lc bi tp theo tng giai on nhn thc: T n gin n phc tp, t

10
0

mc nhn thc hiu bit n vn dng v sng to.

2+
3

- Xy dng bi tp bi dng HSG ha hc.

Ngoi tuyn chn, GV phi bit cch xy dng bi tp ph hp vi trnh

nhn thc, rn k nng gii quyt vn thng qua mt s cch sau:

+ Lc bt hoc chia nh

+ Thay i mc yu cu hoc hnh thc bi tp

B
ID

TO

-L

+ Thay i hnh thc pht trin bi tp theo nhiu hng


+ Xy dng cc bi tp tng t nhau,...

2.4.6. Tham kho, trao i kin vi ng nghip


Sau khi xy dng xong h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp, chng ti tham
kho kin cc ng nghip v tnh chnh xc, tnh khoa hc, tnh ph hp
vi trnh ca hc sinh, vi mc ch BDHSG.

25

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2.4.7. Thc nghim, chnh sa v b sung


khng nh li mc ch ca h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp l nhm

pht trin nng lc nhn thc, rn luyn k nng ha hc cho hc HSG HH,

thng bi tp v nh gi tnh hiu qu ca vic p dng h thng bi tp trong

chng ti tin hnh thc nghim s phm bc u th nghim s dng h

T
N

BDHSG HH.

2.5. H thng ha cc dng cu hi l thuyt v i cng kim loi

Bi 1: Vit PTHH ca cc phn ng theo s chuyn ha sau:

Dng 1: Hon thnh s chuyn ha, vit PTHH iu ch kim loi

.Q

a. S 1

TP

Hy chn cc cht A, B, C, D thch hp t cc cht Al2O3, AlCl3, Na[Al(OH)4],

(6)
(7)

(8)
Al

(2)

(11) (12)

(9)

0B

(4)

2+
3

10
0

b. S 2
+ O2, t0

A(kh)

(2)

+ KMnO4 / H2SO4 l

(7)

+ Fe, t0

B (rn)

(3)

+F

(8)

+ dd H2SO4 l

(4)

+ dd NaOH

(9)

pdd

t0

+ O2 + H2O

(10)

(5)

(11)

+ dd H2SO4 l

+ dd H2S

(1)

(6)

TR

(10)
D

FeS2

(5)

(1)

(3)

Al(NO3)3 hon thnh s bin ha sau:

Bi 2: T cc cht ban u l KCl, FeS2, H2O, MgCO3.CaCO3, Cu(OH)2.CuCO3 v

-L

iu kin cn thit. Hy vit PTHH iu ch cc kim loi K, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu.

B
ID

TO

Bi 3: Vit 3 PTHH ca phn ng trc tip iu ch


a. Kim loi Fe

b. Kim loi Na

c. Kim loi Ag

Bi 4(HSG Vnh Phc 2010): Xc nh cc cht ng vi cc k hiu v hon


thnh cc phng trnh ha hc theo s sau.
A + B + H2O
c kt ta v c kh thot ra
C + B + H2O
c kt ta trng keo

26

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D + B + H2O
c kt ta v kh

A + E
c kt ta

E + B
c kt ta

D + Cu(NO3)2
c kt ta ( mu en)

Vi A, B, C, D, E l cc mui v c c gc axit khc nhau.

T
N

Bi 5(HSG Ngh An 2010): Sc kh A vo dung dch cha cht B ta c rn C

mu vng v dung dch D. Kh X c mu vng lc tc dng vi kh A to ra C v F.

Nu X tc dng vi kh A trong nc to ra Y v F, ri thm BaCl2 vo dung dch

th c kt ta trng. A tc dng vi dung dch cht G l mui nitrat kim loi to ra

TP

.Q

kt ta H mu en. t chy H bi oxi ta c cht lng I mu trng bc. Xc nh

A, B, C, F, G, H, I, X, Y v vit phng trnh ha hc ca cc phn ng.

Dng 2: Gii thch hin tng ha hc

a. Cho kim loi K vo dung dch FeCl2.

Bi 1: Nu hin tng, gii thch v vit PTHH cho cc trng hp sau:

b. Cho kim loi Al vo dung dch Ba(OH)2 thu c dung dch X. Sc CO2 ti

TR

d vo dung dch X.

10
0

0B

c. Cho Zn vo dung dch NH3 c.

2+
3

d. Cho thanh Fe vo dung dch CuSO4 un nng.


e. Cho kim loi Cu vo dung dch H2SO4 long, sau sc lin tc kh O2 vo.

Bi 2(HSG Qung Ninh 2004): Cho mt kim loi A tc dng vi mt dung dch

mui ca B. Vit cc PTHH trong cc trng hp sau v gii thch.

a. C 2 cht kh.

B
ID

TO

-L

b. Dung dch mt mu xanh.


c. C kim loi mi kt ta bm ln kim loi A. Ly hn hp kim loi cho tan ht

trong HNO3 c, nng thu c mt dung dch G cha 3 mui v kh D duy nht.
d. C kh + kt ta xanh v dung dch D. Lc b kt ta ly dung dch D cho
thm mt mu Cu sau nh dung dch HCl n d vo dung dch D thy c kh
khng mu F d ha nu ngoi khng kh.
e. C kh + kt ta trng + kt ta xanh. Lc kt ta sc NH3 d vo thy xut
hin dung dch mu xanh c trng, cn mt phn kt ta khng tan.

27

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f. C kh + dung dch K. Sc t t CO2 vo dung dch K thy kt ta xut hin.


Sc t t HCl vo dung dch K thy kt ta xut hin sau tan dn khi d HCl

to dung dch trong sut Y. Tip tc nh NaOH t t vo dung dch trong sut Y

Bi 3: Hn hp A gm Fe3O4, Al, Fe, Al2O3. Cho A tan trong NaOH d c hn

thy kt ta xut hin sau tan dn khi d NaOH

T
N

hp cht rn A1 dung dch B1 v kh C1. Kh C1 (d) cho tc dng vi A un nng

c hn hp cht rn A2. Dung dch B1 cho tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 long,

d c dung dch B2. Cht rn A2 tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 c, nng c

dung dch B3 v kh C2. Vit cc PTHH xy ra.

.Q

Bi 4: V sao Au, Pt li tan c trong nc cng toan? Ag c b nc cng toan

TP

n mn khng? Ti sao? Ti sao Ag lu trong khng kh b xm li.

Bi 5: Trong cng nghip ngi ta iu ch CuSO4 bng cch ngm Cu trong dung

dch H2SO4 long ng thi sc O2 lin tc. Gii thch, vit ptp v chng minh?

Nu iu ch CuSO4 bng cch cho Cu tc dng vi H2SO4 c, nng c hiu qu

hn phng php trn y hay khng? Gii thch?

0B

l hp cht lng tnh khng?

TR

Bi 6: a. Cho bit Cu(OH)2 tan trong axit d hn hay trong kim d hn. C th coi

10
0

b. Vit cc PTHH trong cc th nghim sau:

2+
3

- un nng Cu(OH)2 vi dung dch NaOH c 50%.

- un nng kt ta Cu(OH)2 trong nc 80-90 0C.

Bi 7: Nu v gii thch hin tng xy ra khi:

- Cho bt Fe tc dng vi dung dch CuSO4.

- Cho t t dung dch NaOH c n d vo dung dch CuSO4 un nng.

-L

- Cho t t dung dch NH3 n d vo dung dch CuSO4.

B
ID

TO

Bi 8: Canxi xianamit (CaCN2) l mt loi phn bn a nng c tc dng tt. N c


th c sn xut rt d dng t cc loi ha cht thng thng nh CaCO3. Qu
trnh nhit phn ca CaCO3 cho ra mt cht rn mu trng XA v mt cht kh

khng mu XB khng duy tr s chy. Mt cht rn mu xm XC v kh XD c to


thnh bi phn ng ca XA vi cacbon. XC v XD cn c th b oxi ha to thnh
cc sn phm c mc oxi ha cao hn. Phn ng ca XC vi nit taoh thnh CaCN2.

28

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a. Vit tt c cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra.


b. Khi thu phn CaCN2 th thu c cht g? Vit phng trnh phn ng.

c. Trong ha hc cht rn th ion CN22-- c th c ng phn. Axit ca c hai

anion u c bit (ch tn ti trong pha kh). Vit cng thc cu to ca c hai

axit v cho bit cn bng chuyn ha gia hai axit trn dch chuyn v pha no?

T
N

Dng 3: Tch v nhn bit

Bi 1: Trnh by phng php ha hc nhn bit cc kim loi ring bit sau: Na,

Ba, Mg, Fe, Cu.

Bi 2: Bng phng php ha hc hy phn bit 4 kim loi sau: Al, Zn, Cu, Fe.

.Q

Bi 3: C 4 oxit sau ring bit: Na2O, Al2O3, Fe2O3 v MgO. Lm th no nhn

TP

bit c mi oxit bng phng php ha hc ch c dng thm 2 cht.

Bi 4: Ch dng mt ha cht hy nhn bit cc kim loi: Mg, Zn, Fe, Ba.

Bi 5: C ba l ng ba hn hp dng bt (I) cha Al v Al2O3, (II) cha Fe v

Fe2O3, (III) cha FeO v Fe2O3. Dng phng php ha nhn bit ba mu bt trn.

Bi 6(HSG Vnh Phc 2013): Khng dng thm thuc th, hy trnh by cch

TR

phn bit 5 dung dch sau: NaCl, NaOH, NaHSO4, Ba(OH)2, Na2CO3.

0B

2.6. H thng ha cc dng bi tp v i cng kim loi

10
0

2.6.1. Bi tp cu to tinh th kim loi

2+
3

Bi 1: Tinh th ng kim loi c cu trc lp phng tm din.

a. Hy v cu trc mng t bo c s v cho bit s nguyn t Cu cha trong t

bo s ng ny.

b. Tnh cnh lp phng a ca mng tinh th, bit nguyn t Cu c bn knh

bng 1,28 .

B
ID

TO

-L

c. Xc nh khong cch gn nht gia hai nguyn t Cu trong mng.


d. Tnh khi lng ring ca Cu theo g/cm3.
0

Bi 2: Tinh th CsCl c cu to dng lp phng nh hnh v. Bit r+= 1,69 A v r0

= 1,81 A . Hy xc nh s n v cu trc; hng s mng (cnh a) theo bn knh


nguyn t (r); c kht ( )

29

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Bi 3: Cu trc mng tinh th ca hp cht ion NaCl c biu din di y: Trong

T
N

cc qu cu ln (ion Cl-) phn b theo kiu lp phng tm din, cc qu cu nh


0

(ion Na+) phn b tm v gia cc cnh ca hnh lp phng. Bit r+ = 0,97 A v

r- = 1,81 A . Hy xc nh s n v cu trc; hng s mng (cnh a) theo bn knh

TP

.Q

nguyn t (r); c kht ( ) .

TR

Bi 4(HSG Casio Bc Ninh 2013): Mt nguyn t kim loi M c bn knh

0B

nguyn t R = 143 pm v n cht kt tinh theo cu trc lp phng tm din, c

10
0

khi lng ring D = 2,7 g/cm3. Xc nh kim loi M.

2+
3

Bi 5: Tnh bn knh nguyn t gn ng ca Ca 200C, bit ti nhit khi

lng ring ca Ca bng 1,55 g/cm3. Gi thit trong tinh th cc nguyn t Ca c

hnh cu, c c kht l 74%. Cho nguyn t khi ca Ca = 40,08

Bi 6(HSGQG 2007): Thc nghim cho bit pha rn, vng (Au) c khi lng

ring l 19,4g/cm3 v c mng li lp phng tm din. di cnh ca mng

B
ID

TO

-L

n v l 4,070.10-10m. Khi lng mol nguyn t ca Au l 196,97g/mol.


a. Tnh phn trm th tch khng gian trng trong mng li tinh th ca Au.
b. Xc nh tr s ca s Avogadro.
Bi 7(HSGQG - 2009): Mu trong c th ngi c mu v cha hemoglobin
(cht vn chuyn oxi cha st). Mu ca mt s ng vt nhuyn th khng c mu
m c mu khc v cha kim loi khc (X). T bo n v ( mng c s) lp
phng tm din ca tinh th X c cnh bng 6,62.10-8 cm. Khi lng ring ca
nguyn t ny l 8920 kg/m3.
30

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a. Tnh th tch ca cc nguyn t trong mt t bo v phn trm th tch ca


t bo b chim bi cc nguyn t.

b. Xc nh nguyn t X.

Bi 8(HSG Qung Ninh 2013): Kim loi vng kt tinh di dng lp phng

tm din vi chiu di cnh ca mng c s a = 4,070 A .

T
N

a. Tnh khong cch ngn nht gia 2 nguyn t vng.

b. Xung quanh nguyn t vng c bao nhiu nguyn t vng khc k cn c

cng khong cch ngn nht trn y.

c. Tnh khi lng ring ca kim loi vng (Au = 197u).

TP

.Q

d. Tnh t l c kht ca vng.

2.6.2. Bi tp xc nh tn kim loi

Bi 1: Ha tan hon ton mt kim loi ha tr III trong 100ml dung dch H2SO4 1M.

trung ha lng axit d phi dng ht 30ml dung dch NaOH 1M. Nu ly dung

dch thu c cho tc dng vi dung dch NH3 d th thu c kt ta, ra sch, sy

kh n khi lng khng i cn c 2,89 gam. Xc nh tn kim loi.

TR

Bi 2: Cho 6,46 gam hn hp hai kim loi ha tr II l A v B tc dng vi dung

10
0

0B

dch H2SO4 long d. Sau phn ng thu c 1,12 lit kh (ktc) v 3,2 gam cht rn.
Lng cht rn ny tc dng va vi 200ml dung dch AgNO3 0,5M thu c

2+
3

dung dch D v kim loi E. Lc E ri c cn dung dch D thu c mui khan F.

a. Xc nh kim loi A v B bit A ng trc B trong dy hot ng ha hc.

b. em lng mui khan F nung nhit cao trong mt thi gian thu c

6,16 gam cht rn G v V lt hn hp kh (ktc). Tnh V.

-L

c. Nhng thanh kim loi A vo 400ml dung dch mui F c nng aM. Sau

B
ID

TO

khi phn ng kt thc, ly thanh kim loi ra nh, lm kh v cn thy khi lng
gim 0,1 gam. Tnh a bit tt c cc kim loi sinh ra u bm ln b mt ca A.
Bi 3: Cho 6,3 gam hn hp X gm Mg v kim loi M (ha tr khng i) tc dng
vi Cl2, sau mt thi gian thu c 20,5 gam cht rn Y. Ha tan ht Y trong dung
dch HCl sinh ra 2,24 lt H2 (ktc). Mt khc, cho 0,1 mol M phn ng vi dung
dch HNO3 c, nng d th lng NO2 thot ra vt qu 5,04 lt (ktc).
a. Xc nh kim loi M.

31

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b. Cho 12,6 gam X trn tc dng vi dung dch HNO3 long d, kt thc phn
ng thu c 2,24 lt (ktc) hn hp kh Z gm N2 v N2O c t khi hi so vi H2

l 18. Tnh khi lng mui thu c sau khi cc phn ng kt thc.

tip trong bng tun hon vo nc thu c dung dch X v 3,024 lt H2 (ktc).

Bi 4: Ha tan 8,72 gam h hp gm Ba v hai kim loi kim thuc hai chu k lin

T
N

Nu cho ton b dung dch X tc dng vi 20ml dung dch Na2SO4 1M th sau khi

kt thc phn ng lng Na2SO4 cn d.

a. Xc nh tn 2 kim loi kim.

b. Tnh th tch dung dch HCl 1M ti thiu cn trung ha ht dung dch X.

.Q

Bi 5(HSG Qung Ninh Bng A - 2012): Mt dung dch X cha hai mui ASO4

TP

v B2(SO4)3. Chia dung dch X thnh 3 phn bng nhau: Phn 1: Cho tc dng vi

dung dch BaCl2 d, thy to thnh 104,85 gam kt ta. Phn 2: Tc dng va

vi 550 ml dung dch KOH 2M v to thnh 8,7 gam kt ta. Phn 3: C cn cn

TR

b. Xc nh hai kim loi A, B.

a. Vit cc PTHH dng ion thu gn.

thn th c 52,2 gam cht rn.

0B

Bi 6(HSG Vnh Phc 2010): Cho 39,84 gam hn hp X gm Fe3O4 v kim loi

10
0

M vo dung dch HNO3 un nng, khuy u hn hp phn ng hon ton, thu

2+
3

c 4,48 lt kh NO2 l sn phm kh duy nht (ktc), dung dch Y v 3,84 gam

kim loi M. Cho dung dch NH3 d vo dung dch Y thu c kt ta T, nung T

trong khng kh n khi lng khng i thu c 24 gam cht rn H.

a. Tm kim loi M (bit M c ha tr khng i trong cc phn ng trn).

b. C cn cn thn dung dch Y thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan.

-L

2.6.3. Bi tp kim loi tc dng vi phi kim

B
ID

TO

Bi 1: Trn 15,2 gam hn hp X gm Fe v Cu vi 6,4 gam bt S thu c hn hp


Y. Nung Y trong bnh chn khng mt thi gian thu c hn hp Z. Ha tan hon
ton Z trong dung dch HNO3 c, nng, d thu c dung dch A v 40,32 lt NO2
(sn phm kh duy nht ca N+5, ktc).
a. Tnh thnh phn phn trm khi lng mi kim loi trong X.

32

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b. Cho Y tc dng vi dung dch Ba(OH)2 d. Tnh khi lng kt ta to


thnh sau phn ng.

Bi 2: Cho m gam hn hp A gm Fe, Cu phn ng vi O2. Sau mt thi gian thu

17,5% v khi lng). Cho ton b lng X trn vo 300 gam dung dch HNO3

c 32 gam cht rn X gm Fe2O3, Fe3O4, FeO, Fe, CuO, Cu (trong oxi chim

T
N

31,5%. Sau khi kt thc phn ng thu c dung dch Y v 5 gam kh NO (sn

phm kh duy nht ca N+5).

a. Tnh khi lng mi kim loi.

b. Tnh nng phn trm cc cht trong dung dch Y.

.Q

Bi 3: t chy hn hp kim loi gm 1,92 gam Mg v 4,48 gam Fe vi hn hp

TP

kh X gm Cl2 v O2, sau phn ng ch thu c hn hp Y gm cc oxit v mui

clorua (khng cn kh d). Ha tan Y bng mt lng va 120ml dung dch HCl

2M, thu c dung dch Z. Cho AgNO3 d vo dung dch Z, sau khi cc phn ng

hon ton thu c 56,69 gam kt ta. Tnh % th tch kh Cl2 trong X.

Bi 4(HSG Qung Ninh Bng A 2010): Hn hp A gm bt Mg v S. un nng

TR

A trong iu kin khng c khng kh, sau lm ngui v cho sn phm tc dng

0B

vi dung dch HCl d thu c 2,987 lt kh B c t khi so vi khng kh bng

10
0

0,8966. t chy hon ton kh B, sau cho ton b sn phm vo 100 ml H2O2

2+
3

5% (D = 1/ml) thu c dung dch D. Xc nh phn trm khi lng cc cht trong

A v C% cc cht to ra trong dung dch D. Cho th tch cc cht kh o ktc.

Bi 5(Chuyn L Hng Phong Nam nh 2009): Nung hn hp A gm st v

lu hunh sau mt thi gian c hn hp rn B. Cho B tc dng vi dung dch

HCl d, thu c V1 lt hn hp kh C. T khi ca C so vi hidro bng 10,6. Nu

B
ID

TO

-L

t chy hon ton B thnh Fe2O3 v SO2 cn V2 lt kh oxi.


a. Tm tng quan gi tr V1 v V2 (o cng iu kin).
b. Tnh hm lng phn trm cc cht trong B theo V1 v V2.
c. Hiu sut thp nht ca phn ng nung trn l bao nhiu phn trm.
d. Nu hiu sut ca phn ng nung trn l 75%, tnh hm lng phn trm cc
cht trong hn hp B.

33

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2.6.4. Bi tp kim loi v hp cht ca kim loi tc dng vi dung dch axit
Bi 1: Chia m gam hn hp X gm Mg v Fe thnh hai phn bng nhau. Phn 1 cho

tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 long d, sinh ra 6,72 lt kh H2 (ktc). Ha tan ht

c dung dch Y (khng cha mui NH4NO3) v 3,36 lt (ktc) hn hp gm 2 kh

phn 2 trong lng d dung dch HNO3, sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton thu

T
N

N2O v NO c tng khi lng l 5,2 gam.

a. Tnh gi tr ca m.

b. Cho Y tc dng vi lng d dung dch Na2CO3. Tnh m kt ta to thnh.

Bi 2(HSG Qung Ninh Bng B 2013): Tin hnh hai th nghim sau: TN1: Cho

.Q

a gam Fe vo V lt dung dch HCl, c cn dung dch sau phn ng thu c 3,1 gam

TP

rn khan. TN2: Cho hn hp gm a gam Fe v b gam Mg vo V lt dung dch HCl

trn th thu c 448 ml kh H2 (ktc), c cn dung dch sau phn ng c 3,34

gam rn khan. Xc nh khi lng a v b, bit cc phn ng u xy ra hon ton.

Bi 3: Chia 29,6 gam hn hp X gm Fe v Cu thnh hai phn bng nhau. Phn 1

cho phn ng vi lng d dung dch HCl, sinh ra 3,36 lt H2 (ktc). Cho phn 2 tc

TR

dng vi dung dch HNO3 c nng, d thu c V lt NO2 (ktc) v dung dch Y.

0B

a. Tnh gi tr ca V.

2+
3

c sau phn ng.

10
0

b. Cho Y phn ng vi lng d dung dch NH3. Tnh khi lng kt ta thu

Bi 4: Ha tan hon ton 91,6 gam hn hp 3 kim loi A, B, C vo HNO3 c ngui

d thu c 54 gam kim loi C, kh mu nu D v dung dch E. Cho ton b kh D

hp th bng dung dch KOH d thu c hn hp mui, c cn dung dch ri nhit

phn hn hp thu c 3,92 lt kh khng mu. 54 gam kim loi C phn ng va

-L

vi 67,2 lt Cl2. Nhng thanh kim loi B vo dung dch E sau khi loi ht axit

B
ID

TO

HNO3 d cho phn ng n khi dung dch ch cn mt mui duy nht th ly ra cho
tip thanh kim loi C vo dung dch cho phn ng kt thc. Ly thanh kim
loi C lm kh, em cn thy khi lng tng 16,1 gam. Cc kh o ktc.
a. Vit cc PTHH xy ra.
b. Xc nh A, B, C bit s mol A bng 80% s mol B. A ha tr I, B ha tr II.
Bi 5(HSG Qung Ninh Bng B 2014): Cho 19,6 gam hn hp Mg, Fe v Cu tc

34

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dng vi dung dch HCl d n phn ng hon ton th thy c 7,84 lt kh thot ra
ktc. Nu cho 19,6 gam hn hp trn tc dng vi dung dch HNO3 c, nng, d

n phn ng hon ton th thu c sn phm kh duy nht l kh NO2. Th tch

Bi 6(HSG Qung Ninh Bng A 2011): Cho 7,02 gam hn hp bt kim loi gm

kh NO2 a v iu kin tiu chun c th tch l V lt. Tnh V.

T
N

Al, Fe, Cu vo bnh A cha dung dch HCl d, sau phn ng cn li cht rn B.

Lng kh thot ra c dn qua mt ng cha CuO un nng, phn ng kt thc

khi lng ng gim 2,72 gam. Thm tip vo bnh A(sau phn ng trn) lng d

mt mui natri, un nng nh, thu c 0,896 lt (ktc) mt cht kh khng mu

.Q

ha nu trong khng kh.

b. Tnh % khi lng mi kim loi trong hn hp.

TP

a. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng di dng ion. Xc nh mui natri dng.

c. Tnh khi lng mui natri ti thiu tc dng ht vi cc cht bnh A.

Bi 7(HSG Ngh An 2010): a. Cho 20,80 gam hn hp Fe, FeS, FeS2, S tc dng

vi dung dch HNO3 c nng d thu c V lt kh NO2 (l sn phm kh duy

TR

nht, o ktc) v dung dch A. Cho A tc dng vi dung dch Ba(OH)2 d thu

0B

c 91,30 gam kt ta. Tnh V?

10
0

b. Cho m gam hn hp hai kim loi Fe, Cu (trong Fe chim 30% v khi

2+
3

lng) vo 50 ml dung dch HNO3 nng 63% (d = 1,38 gam/ml) un nng,

khuy u hn hp ti cc phn ng hon ton thu c rn A cn nng 0,75 m

gam, dung dch B v 6,72 lt hn hp kh NO2 v NO ( ktc). Hi c cn dung

dch B th thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan? (Gi s trong qu trnh un nng

HNO3 bay hi khng ng k)

-L

Bi 8(HSG Vnh Phc 2007): Cho 39,84 gam hn hp F gm kim loi M v

B
ID

TO

Fe3O4 vo dung dch HNO3 un nng khuy u hn hp phn ng xy ra hon


ton thu c 4,48 lt kh NO2 l sn phm kh duy nht (ktc), dung dch G v
3,84 gam kim loi M. Cho lng d dung dch NH3 vo dung dch G thu c kt
ta B. Nung B trong khng kh n khi lng khng i c 24 gam cht rn R.
Tm tn kim loi M. Cho bit khi lng mui c trong dung dch G. Bit M c ha
tr khng i trong cc phn ng trn.

35

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Bi 9(HSG Bc Ninh 2012): Cho 88,2 gam hn hp rn A gm FeS2 v FeCO3


cng vi lng khng kh (ly d 10% so vi lng cn thit t chy A) vo

bnh kn dung tch khng i (th tch rn A khng ng k. Nung nng bnh

trong bnh c kh B v cht rn C (gm A d v Fe2O3). Kh B gy ra p sut ln

phn ng xy ra trong mt thi gian, sau a bnh v nhit trc khi nung,

T
N

hn 1,45% so vi p sut kh trong bnh trc khi nung. Ha tan hon ton rn C

trong H2SO4 d (long) c kh D ( lm kh). Cc cht cn li trong bnh cho

tc dng vi dung dch KOH d c cht rn E. E ngoi khng kh n khi

lng khng i c cht rn F. Trong A c 1 cht gp 1,5 ln s mol cht cn li.

TP

Trong khng kh cha 80% nit v 20% oxi v th tch.

.Q

Gi thit hai cht trong A c kh nng phn ng nh nhau trong cc phn ng.

a. Vit phng trnh ha hc ca cc phn ng xy ra.

b. Tnh thnh phn % khi lng cc cht trong F.

c. Tnh t khi ca D so vi B.

Bi 10(HSG Qung Ninh 2010): Cho 10,62 gam hn hp gm Fe, Zn vo 800 ml

TR

dung dch hn hp X gm NaNO3 0,45M v H2SO4 0,9M. un nng cho phn ng

0B

xy ra hon ton thu c dung dch Y v 3,584 lt kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht, o

10
0

ktc). Dung dch Y ha tan ti a m1 gam bt Cu v thu c V lt kh NO (ktc, sn

2+
3

phm kh duy nht ca NO 3 ).

a. Tnh phn trm v khi lng tng kim loi trong hn hp ban u.

b. Tnh gi tr ca m1 v V.

c. Cho m2 gam Zn vo dung dch Y (to kh NO l sn phm kh duy nht ca

-L

NO 3 ), sau phn ng thu c 3,36 gam cht rn. Tnh gi tr ca m2.

B
ID

TO

2.6.5. Bi tp kim loi, oxit, hiroxit tc dng vi nc v dung dch kim


Bi 1: Chia hn hp hai kim loi A v B c ha tr tng ng l n v m thnh 3
phn bng nhau: Phn 1 cho ha tan ht trong dung dch HCl, thu c 1,792 lt H2
(ktc). Phn 2 cho tc dng vi dung dch NaOH d thu c 1,344 lt kh (ktc),
cn li cht rn khng tan c khi lng 4/13 khi lng mi phn. Phn 3 nung
trong oxi d thu c 2,84 gam hn hp oxit l A2On v B2Om.

36

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a. Tnh tng khi lng ca kim loi trong 1/3 hn hp ban u. Hy xc nh


2 kim loi A, B.

b. Mun ha tan hn hp ban u bng dung dch HNO3 3,98%(D = 1,02 g/ml)

Bi 2: Hn hp A l Al Cu (dng bt). Ly m gam hn hp A ha tan vo 500ml

c kh N2O duy nht bay ra th phi dung ti thiu bao nhiu ml.

T
N

dung dch NaOH nng a mol/l cho ti khi ngng thot kh th thu c 6,72 lt

H2(ktc) v cn li m1 gam kim loi khng tan. Mt khc ly m gam hn hp A ha

tan bng 500ml HNO3 bM cho ti khi ngng thot kh th thu c 6,72 lit kh NO

duy nht (ktc) v cn li m2 gam kim loi khng tan. Ly ring m1 v m2 gam kim

.Q

loi khng tan trn oxi ha hon ton thnh oxit th thu c 1,6064m1 gam v

TP

1,542m2 gam oxit.

a. Tnh a v b.

b. Tnh m.

c. Tnh % khi lng ca Cu trong hp kim.

Bi 3: Ha tan ht 7,74 gam h hp X gm hai kim loi A (ha tr 2) v B(ha tr 3)

TR

trong dung dch H2SO4 long d, sinh ra 8,736 lt H2 (ktc). Cho ton b lng X

0B

trn tc dng vi dung dch NaOH d thu c 6,048 lit H2 (ktc) v cn li mt

2+
3

a. Xc nh A, B.

10
0

cht rn khng tan c khi lng l 2,88 gam

b. Mt hn hp Y gm 2 kim loi A, b trn c khi lng 12,9 gam. Chng

minh rng hn hp Y tan ht trong 0,5 lt dung dch H2SO4 2M.

Bi 4: Cho hn hp A gm Na, Al, Fe.

Cho m gam hn hp A tc dng vi nc d thu c V lit kh

-L

Cho m gam hn hp A tc dng vi dung dch NaOH d thu c 7/4V lit kh

B
ID

TO

Cho m gam hn hp A tc dng vi dung dch HCl d thu c 9/4 V lit kh.
Tnh % khi lng mi kim loi trong hn hp A? (Cc th tch kh o ktc)
Bi 5: Hn hp A gm cc kim loi Al, Fe, K. Cho m gam A tc dng vi lng d
nc thu c 0,448 lit kh H2. Nu cho m gam A tc dng vi 70 ml dung dch
NaOH 1M (d) th thu c 1,12 lit kh H2 v dung dch B. Mt khc nu cho m

37

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gam A tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 long d th sau phn ng thu c 2,24 lit
H2. Bit cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, cc th tch kh o ktc.

a. Tnh % khi lng ca mi kim loi trong hn hp A?

b. Tnh th tch dung dch H2SO4 1M cn cho tc dng vi dung dch B :

+ Thu c lng kt ta ln nht, tnh lng kt ta .

T
N

+ Thu c 0,78g kt ta.

Bi 6(HSG Qung Ninh Bng A 2013): Cho 11,9 gam hn hp Al v Zn tan

hon ton trong dung dch cha lng d hn hp gm NaNO3 v NaOH thu c

4,928 lt hn hp hai kh (ktc).Cho hn hp kh qua bnh ng CuO d, un nng,

.Q

sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton, thy khi lng bnh gim 4 gam.

TP

a. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra.

b. Tnh % khi lng ca mi kim loi trong hn hp ban u.

2.6.6. Bi tp kim loi tc dng vi dung dch mui, dy in ha

Bi 1: Cho m gam Fe bt vo 50 ml dung dch Cu(NO3)2 1M, sau phn ng thu

c dung dch X v 4,88 gam cht rn Y. Cho 4,55 gam bt Zn vo dung dch X,

TR

kt thc phn ng thu c 4,1 gam cht rn Z v dung dch cha mt mui duy

0B

nht. Tnh gi tr ca m.

10
0

Bi 2: Cho 2 dung dch FeSO4 v CuSO4 c cng nng a mol/l. Nhng 1 thanh

2+
3

kim loi M ha tr II vo mt lt dung dch FeSO4, kt qu thy khi lng thanh

kim loi tng 16 gam. Nu nhng thanh kim loi y vo 1 lt dung dch CuSO4, kt

qu thy khi lng thanh kim loi tng 20 gam. Gi thit cc phn ng xy ra hon

ton v thanh kim loi M cha b tan ht.

a. Xc nh M, tnh a.

-L

b. Nu khi lng ban u ca thanh M l 24 gam, chng minh rng sau phn

B
ID

TO

ng vi dung dch trn cn d M. Tnh khi lng thanh M sau 2 phn ng trn.
Bi 3: Cho 2,144 gam hn hp A gm Fe v Cu tc dng vi 0,2 lt dung dch
AgNO3, sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c dung dch B v 7,168 gam

cht rn C. Cho B tc dng vi NaOH d, lc kt ta, nung trong khng kh ti khi


lng khng i thu c 2,56 gam cht rn.
a. Tnh % khi lng cc kim loi trong A.

38

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b. Tnh nng mol ca dung dch AgNO3.


c. Nu cho cht rn C thu c trn tc dng vi dung dch AgNO3 d thu

c cht rn D. Hi khi lng ca D tng trong khong bao nhiu phn trm so

Bi 4: Cho 7,22 gam hn hp X gm Fe v kim loi M c ha tr khng i. Chia

vi khi lng ca C.

T
N

hn hp thnh hai phn bng nhau. Ha tan ht phn 1 trong dung dch HCl, c

2,128 lt H2. Ha tan ht phn 2 trong dung dch HNO3 c 1,792 lt NO duy nht.

a. Xc nh kim loi M v phn trm khi lng mi kim loi trong X.

b. Cho 3,61 gam X tc dng vi 100 ml dung dch A cha Cu(NO3)2 v

.Q

AgNO3. Sau phn ng thu c dung dch A v 8,12 gam cht rn B gm 3 kim

TP

loi. Cho cht rn B tc dng vi dung dch HCl d, thu c 0,672 lt H2. Cc

th tch o iu kin tiu chun, cc phn ng xy ra hon ton. Tnh nng mol

ca Cu(NO3)2 v AgNO3 trong dung dch A.

Bi 5: Cho 3,58 gam hn hp bt X gm Al, Fe, Cu vo 200ml dung dch Cu(NO3)2

0,5M n khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c dung dch A v cht rn B. Nung

TR

B trong khng kh nhit cao n khi phn ng hon ton thu c 6,4 gam cht

0B

rn. Cho A tc dng vi dung dch NH3 d, lc ly kt ta em nung ngoi khng

10
0

kh n khi lng khng i thu c 2,62 gam cht rn D.

2+
3

a. Tnh % khi lng mi cht trong hn hp X.

b. Ho tan hon ton 3,58g hn hp X vo 250 ml dung dch HNO3 a M thu

c dung dch E v kh NO. dung dch E tc dng va vi 0,88g Cu. Tnh a.

Bi 6: Ha tan a gam CuSO4.5H2O vo nc c dung dch X. Cho 1,48 gam hn

hp Mg v Fe vo dung dch X . Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c

-L

cht rn A c khi lng 2,16 gam v dung dch B. Cho dung dch B tc dng vi

B
ID

TO

dung dch NaOH d, lc ly kt ta ri nung trong khng kh n khi lng khng


i thu c hn hp oxit c khi lng 1,4 gam. Tnh khi lng mi kim loi
trong hn hp ban u v gi tr ca a.
Bi 7: Dung dch X gm AgNO3 v Cu(NO3)2 c cng nng . Ly mt lng hn
hp gm 0,03 mol Al; 0,05 mol Fe cho vo 100 ml dung dch X cho ti kh phn
ng kt thc thu c cht rn Y v dung dch Z.Cho Y vo dd HCl d gii phng

39

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0,07 gam kh. Cho dung dch Z tc dng vi dung dch NaOH d thu c kt
ta.Tnh nng cc mui trong dung dch X.

2.6.7. Bi tp phn ng nhit luyn

FeO vi s mol bng nhau. Ly m1 gam A cho vo mt ng s chu nhit, nung

Bi 1(HSG Bc Ninh 2013): Cho hn hp A gm ba oxit ca st Fe2O3, Fe3O4 v

T
N

nng ri cho mt lung kh CO i qua ng, CO phn ng ht, ton b kh CO2 ra

khi ng c hp th ht vo bnh ng lng d dung dch Ba(OH)2 thu c m2

gam kt ta trng. Cht cn li trong ng s sau phn ng c khi lng l 19,20

gam gm Fe, FeO v Fe3O4, cho hn hp ny tc dng ht vi dung dch HNO3 d

TP

a. Vit phng trnh ha hc ca cc phn ng.

.Q

un nng c 2,24 lt kh NO duy nht (ktc).

b. Tnh khi lng m1, m2 v s mol HNO3 phn ng.

Bi 2: Dn t t 5,6 lt (1,2 atm; 136,50C) hn hp kh X gm CO v H2 (c t khi

so vi hiro l 4,25) qua mt ng cha 16,8 gam hn hp A gm Fe, FeCO3 v

Fe3O4 nung nng. Thu ton b kh bay ra khi ng ta c hn hp kh B v trong

TR

ng cn li hn hp cht rn D. Cho hn hp kh B sc qua nc vi trong d, th

0B

thu c 7 gam kt ta trng v cn li 1,344 lt (ktc) ca 1 kh E khng b hp

10
0

th. Ly cht rn D ha tan ht trong dung dch H2SO4 long d, ta thu c 2,24 lit

2+
3

(ktc) ca kh E v mt dung dch L. Dung dch L lm mt mu va 95 ml dung

dch thuc tm nng 0,4 mol/lit.

a. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra.

b. Tnh khi lng cc cht c trong hn hp A v D.

Bi 3: Nung nng m gam hn hp gm Al v Fe3O4 trong iu kin khng

-L

c khng kh. Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c mt hn hp rn X. Cho

B
ID

TO

X tc dng vi dd NaOH d thu c dd Y, cht rn Z v 3,36 lt kh H2 (ktc). Sc


kh CO2 d vo dd Y, thu c 39 g kt ta. Tnh m.
Bi 4: Nung 16,2 gam hn hp A gm cc oxit MgO, Al2O3 v MO trong mt ng
s ri cho lung kh H2 i qua. iu kin th nghim, H2 ch kh MO vi hiu

sut 80%, lng hi nc to ra ch c hp th bi 15,3 gam dung dch H2SO4


86,34%. Cht rn cn li trong ng c ha tan trong mt lng va axit khng

40

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c tnh oxi ha gc nh HCl thu c dung dch B v cn li 2,56 gam cht rn


khng tan M. Ly 1/10 dung dch B cho tc dng vi NaOH d, lc ly kt ta nung

nhit cao ti khi lng khng i th thu c 0,28 gam oxit.

a. Tm M.

b. Tnh % khi lng cc cht trong A.

T
N

Bi 5: Tin hnh phn ng nhit nhm m gam hn hp A (Al + FexOy) thu c

hn hp rn B. Cho B tc dng vi dung dch NaOH d thu c dung dch C v

phn khng tan D v 0,672 lt H2. Cho t t dung dch HCl vo dung dch C cho

n khi thu c lng kt ta ln nht, nung kt ta n khi lng khng i

.Q

c 5,1 gam cht rn. Phn khng tan D cho tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 c

lt SO2. Cc kh o ktc, hiu sut phn ng 100%.

TP

nng. Sau phn ng ch thu c dung dch E cha mt mui st duy nht v 2,688

a. Xc nh cng thc oxit st v tnh m.

b. Nu cho 200 ml dung dch HCl 1M tc dng vi dung dch C n khi phn

ng kt thc thu c 6,24 gam kt ta th s gam NaOH trong dung dch NaOH

TR

lc u l bao nhiu gam?

0B

2.6.8. Bi tp in phn

10
0

Bi 1(HSG Vng Tu 2010): Chia 1500 ml dung dch Y cha hn hp HCl v

2+
3

Cu(NO3)2 thnh 2 phn (Phn 2 c khi lng gp i phn 1).

a. em in phn phn 1 (vi in cc tr) bng dng in 1 chiu c cng

2,5A, sau mt thi gian t thu c 3,136 lt (ktc) mt cht kh duy nht anot.

Dung dch sau in phn phn ng va vi 110 ml dung dch NaOH 4M, thy

xut hin 1,96 gam kt ta. Tnh CM cc cht trong dung dch Y v thi gian t.

-L

b. Cho m gam bt kim loi Fe tc dng vi phn 2 n khi phn ng hon ton.

B
ID

TO

Kt thc phn ng thu c hn hp kim loi c khi lng 0,75m gam v V lt


(ktc) kh khng mu ha nu trong khng kh. Tm gi tr ca m v V.
Bi 2(HSG H Tnh 2010): Tin hnh in phn (vi in cc tr, mng ngn

xp) mt dung dch cha m gam hn hp CuSO4 v NaCl cho ti khi nc bt u


b in phn th dng li. anot thu c 0,448 lt kh (ktc). Dung dch sau in
phn c th ha tan ti a 0,68 gam Al2O3

41

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a. Tnh gi tr ca m.
b. Tnh khi lng catot tng ln trong qu trnh in phn. Gi thit ton b

kim loi sinh ra u bm vo catot.

c. Gi s lng nc b bay hi trong qu trnh in phn khng ng k. Tnh

khi lng dung dch gim trong qu trnh in phn.

T
N

Bi 3(Olympic 30/4 2002): in phn c vch ngn xp 500 ml dung dch hn

hp HCl v 7,8 gam mui clorua ca kim loi M, anot thy c kh Cl2 thot ra lin

tc, catot lc u c kh H2 bay ra, sau n kim loi M thot ra. Sau in phn thu

c 2,464 lt kh clo v m gam M, em trn m ga M vi 1,3 gam kim loi R khc

.Q

ri cho tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 d th th tch H2 bay ra nhiu gp 4 ln so

TP

vi khi ch cho 1,3 gam R tc dng. Bit khi trn 1,3 gam kim loi R vi lu hunh

ri nung nng thu c cht rn C v khi cho C phn ng ht vi dung dch H2SO4

d th c hn hp kh D nng 0,52 gam v c t khi vi hiro l 13.

a. Xc nh tn ca M, R.

b. Tnh nng mol ca dung dch HCl in phn. Gi s cc phn ng xy

TR

ra hon ton, th tch dung dch in phn xem nh khng i.

10
0

HCl 0,01M v NaCl 0,1M.

0B

Bi 4: Tin hnh in phn (vi in cc tr, mng ngn xp) 500 ml dung dch

2+
3

a. Nhn xt s thay i pH ca dung dch trong qu trnh in phn

b. Bit cng dng in khng thay i l 1,34A ; hiu sut in phn 100%

v th tch dung dch thay i khng ng k trong qu trnh in phn. Thit lp

phng trnh tnh pH ca dung dch theo thi gian in phn (tnh bng gi) v xc

t(h)

0,01

0,02

0,03

0,04

0,05

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

pH

B
ID

TO

-L

nh pH dung dch ti cc thi im:

2.6.9. Bi tp v pin in ha, G; H; E; Ka; Kp; Kc; pH, tan, tch s tan
Bi 1(HSG Tuyn Quang 2011): Mt dung dch A cha hai mui MgCl2 0,004M
v FeCl3 0,001M. Cho KOH vo dung dch A. Kt ta no to ra trc? Tm pH

42

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thch hp tch 1 trong 2 ion Mg2+ hoc Fe3+ ra khi dung dch. Cho TMg(OH)2 =
10-11 ; TFe(OH)3 = 10-39. Bit nu nng 10-6M th coi nh ht.

Bi 2(HSG Qung Ngi 2011): C dung dch [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 0,9M; ion phc

4NH4+

Cu2+ +

[Cu(NH3)4]2+ + 4H+

[Cu(NH3)4]2+ b phn hy trong mi trng axit theo phn ng:

T
N

Tnh pH cn thit 95% ion phc b phn hy. Cho hng s bn ca ion phc

Kb[Cu(NH3)4]2+ = 1012 ; hng s axit Ka(NH4+) = 10-9

Bi 3(HSG ng Nai 2000): Xc nh nng NH4Cl cn thit ngn chn kt

ta Mg(OH)2 trong 1 lt dung dch cha 0,01 mol NH3 v 0,001 mol Mg2+. Hng s

.Q

Kb(NH3) = 1,75.10-5 ; Tch s tan Mg(OH)2 = 7,1.10-12.

TP

Bi 4(HSG Quc Gia 2003): Dung dch bo ha H2S c nng 0,100 M.

Hng s axit ca H2S: K1 = 1,0 10-7 v K2 = 1,3 10-13.

a. Tnh nng ion S2- trong dung dch H2S 0,100 M khi iu chnh pH = 2,0.

b. Mt dung dch A cha Mn2+, Co2+, v Ag+ vi nng ban u ca mi ion

u bng 0,010 M. Ho tan H2S vo A n bo ho v iu chnh pH = 2,0 th ion

TR

no to kt ta? Cho: TMnS = 2,5 10-10 ; TCoS = 4,0 10-21 ; TAg2S = 6,3 10-50.

10
0

0B

c. Hy cho bit c bao nhiu gam kt ta ch (II) sunfua c tch ra t 1,00 lit
dung dch bo ha PbSO4? bit nng sunfua c iu chnh n 1,00 .10-17M?

2+
3

Cho cc gi tr tch s tan: TPbSO4 = 1,6 10-8 v TPbS = 2,5.10-27.

Bi 5(Duyn Hi Min Trung 2009): tan ca BaSO4 trong dung dch HCl

2M bng 1,5.10-4M. Tnh tch s tan ca BaSO4 trong dung dch HCl. Suy ra tan

BaSO4 trong nc nguyn cht ri so vi tan trong dung dch HCl v gii thch.

-L

Hng s axit nc th 2 ca axit sunfuric l Ka = 10-2.

B
ID

TO

Bi 6: Al(OH)3 l mt hidroxit lng tnh c th tn ti 2 cn bng:

Al3+ + 3OHAl(OH)3

Tt1 = 10-33

AlO2- + 2H2O Tt2 = 40


Al(OH)3 + OH-

Vit biu thc biu th tan ton phn ca Al(OH)3 (S) = [Al3+] + [AlO2-] di
dng mt hm ca [H+]. pH bng bao nhiu th S cc tiu? Tnh gi tr Smin?
Bi 7: Mt dung dch FeCl3 nng C mol/lt . Cation Fe3+ l axit

43

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Fe3+

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+ H2O

Fe(OH)2+ + H+ ; pKa = 2,2

Hi gi tr C l bao nhiu th bt u c kt ta Fe(OH)3 ? Tnh pH ca dung dch

Bi 8: 10 gam Na phn ng vi mt lng nc d 25oC ta ra 80,4 kJ. Cn 20 g

thi im ny ? Bit tch s tan ca Fe(OH)3 l 10-38.

Na2O (tt) phn ng vi nc d ta ra 77,6 kJ. Bit rng sinh nhit chun ti 25oC

T
N

ca H2Olng v Na aq ln lt l -285,200 v -240,100 kJ/mol. Tnh sinh nhit hnh

thnh chun ca Na2O(tt) ti 25oC.

Bi 9: Mt pin in gm mt in cc l mt si dy Ag nhng vo dung dch

AgNO3 v in cc kia l mt si dy Pt nhng vo dung dch mui Fe2+ v Fe3+.

TP

.Q

a. Vit phng trnh phn ng khi pin hot ng.

b. Tnh E0 ca phn ng.

c. Nu [Ag]+ bng 0,100 M; [Fe2+] v [Fe3+] u bng 1,000 M th phn ng c

din bin nh phn (a) hay khng? Bit E 0Ag /Ag = + 0,8 V v E 0Fe

3+

/Fe2+

= + 0,77 V.

2.6.10. Cc cu hi l thuyt v bi tp thc tin v kim loi v hp cht

TR

Bi 1: Trc y ngi ta thng dng hp cht ca Zn v P lm thuc chut. Vy

0B

thuc chut y l g ? Ti sao nhng con chut sau khi n thuc chut li i tm

10
0

nc ung? Ci g lm chut cht ? Nu sau khi n thuc m khng c nc

2+
3

ung n cht mau hn hay lu hn ?

Bi 2: V sao phn chua c dng nh trong nc?

Bi 3: V sao vt bng Ag lu ngy thng b xm en? V sao dng vt

bng Ag ng thc n th thc n lu b i thiu hn?

Bi 4: Trong cc hang ng ca ni vi nhiu ch nh to thnh bc rm

-L

lng ly nhiu ch li to thnh rng mng , c ch li to thnh cc cy ct v

B
ID

TO

i (do nh v mng ni vi nhau). Bng s hiu bit ca mnh em hy gii


thch s to thnh nh , mng . Vit phng trnh phn ng xy ra nu c.
Bi 5: Trong xng ng vt, nguyn t canxi v photpho tn ti ch yu di
dng Ca3(PO4)2. Theo bn ninh xng bng nc th nc xng thu c c giu

canxi v photpho hay khng? Nu mun nc xng thu c c nhiu canxi v


photpho ta nn lm g?
A. Ch ninh xng vi nc.
44

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B. Cho thm vo nc ninh xng mt t qu chua ( me, su, dc).


C. Cho thm t vi ti.

D. Cho thm t mui n.

thnh I2 ri bay hi mt nht l khi c nc hoc cc cht oxi ho c trong mui

Bi 6: Kali iotua trn trong mui n lm mui iot l mt cht rt d b oxi ho

T
N

hoc khi nhit cao. Theo nghin cu th sau 3 thng kali iotua trong mui n s

b mt hon ton. phng iu ngi ta hn ch hm lng nc trong

mui iot khng vt qu 3,5% v khi lng (theo tiu chun ca Lin X), cho

thm cht n nh iot nh Na2S2O3. Khi c th gi lng KI trong mui iot

.Q

khong 6 thng.

TP

a. Tnh lng nc ti a trong 1 tn mui iot theo tiu chun ca Lin X?

b. Hy nu phng php bo qun mui iot v cch dng mui iot khi nu thc

n nhm hn ch s tht thot iot?

Bi 7: rng chc kho v gim bnh su rng th hm lng flo trong nc cn

t l 1,0 1,5 mg/l. Hy tnh lng natriflorua cn phi pha vo trong nc c

TR

hm lng flo t 0,5 mg/l ln n 1mg/l cung cp cho 3 triu ngi dn H Ni,

0B

mi ngi dng 200 lt nc/ngy. Gi s natriflorua khng b tht thot trong qu

10
0

trnh pha trn v cung cp n ngi tiu dng.

2+
3

Bi 8: Natri peoxit (Na2O2) khi tc dng vi nc s sinh ra H2O2 l mt cht oxi

ho mnh c th ty trng c qun o. V vy tng hiu qu ty trng ca bt

git ngi ta thng cho thm vo mt t bt natri peoxit.


2H2O2 2H2O + O2 .

Na2O2 + 2H2O 2 NaOH + H2O2 ;

Vy cch tt nht bo qun bt git l :

-L

A. trong mt hp khng c np

B
ID

TO

ra ngoi nh nng cho bt git lun kh ro.


B. trong mt hp khng c np trong bng rm.
C. trong mt hp c np kn ni rm mt.
D. trong mt hp khng c np ni rm mt.
Bi 9: Thu ngn l mt cht c. Hy nu phng php n gin loi b thu
ngn ri vo rnh bn, gh kh ly ra c.

45

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Bi 10: 1. Dng 1 tn qung piritst cha 72% FeS2 iu ch axit sunfuric bng
phng php tip xc. Cho ton b axit thu c tc dng vi ng iu ch

CuSO4.5H2O. Tnh khi lng CuSO4. 5H2O thu c bit hiu sut ca c qu

T
N

dung dch ng (II) sunfat 0,8% pha ch c t lng CuSO.5H2O trn.

2. tr nm thc vt, ngi ta dng dung dch ng (II) sunfat 0,8%. Tnh lng

trnh iu ch ch t 80%.

Bi 11: Trong cng ngh ch bin vng, ngi ta ho tan qung trong dung dch

natrixianua to thnh phc vng tan:

Au + NaCN + O2 + H2O Na[Au(CN)2] + NaOH.

Hy cn bng cc phng trnh trn.

TP

Zn + Na[Au(CN)2] Na2[Zn(CN)4] + Au

.Q

Lc ly dung dch ri kt ta vng:

Bi 12: Dch v d dy thng c pH trong khong 2-3. Nu ngi no c pH ca

dch v qu nh hn 2 th d b vim lot d dy. cha bnh ny, ngi bnh

thng ung trc ba n mt t:

B. Nc.

C. Nc mm.

D. Nc ng.

0B

TR

A. Dung dch natri hirocacbonat (NaHCO3).

10
0

Bi 13: Hy gii thch v sao c th bo v v tu bin bng cch gn nhng tm

2+
3

km vo v tu (phn ngm di nc). Trnh by c ch ca s n mn s xy ra.

Bi 14: C nhng vt bng st trng thic (st ty) hoc st trng km (tn). Nu

trn b mt nhng vt c nhng vt xc su ti lp st bn trong, hy cho bit:

a. Hin tng g s xy ra khi t vt trong khng kh m?

-L

b. V sao ngi ta li dng tn lp nh m khng dng st ty?

Bi 15: Vng 24K l vng nguyn cht. i vi cc loi vng c s K km hn 24

B
ID

TO

th lc ny khng cn l vng nguyn cht na m l hp kim vng. S K s ch


hm lng vng nguyn cht trong hp kim vng. V d 18K c ngha l hm lng
vng chim 18 ming/24 ming ~ 75% (7 tui ri), vng 14K s c hm lng
vng l 14/24 ~ 58.3% (6 tui), vng 12K s c hm lng vng l 12/24 ~ 50% (5
tui) v vng 10K s c hm lng vng l 10/24 ~ 41.7% (4 tui). M vng 10K
l tiu chun ti thiu hp kim vng vn c gi l vng. M vng Bng

46

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Miu Qung Nam l mt trong s nhng m vng ln nht ca Vit Nam. Trung
bnh c khong 5 gam vng c tch ra t 1 tn qung vng m vng Bng

Miu. Vy cn bao nhiu tn qung vng Bng Miu sn xut ra 16651 si dy

chuyn 2 ch vng 18K. Cho rng hiu sut qu trnh tch vng t qung l 80%.

Bit rng 1 ch vng = 3,75 gam vng.

T
N

Bi 16: Bnh thng ngi ta dng bnh cu ha dp tt m chy, nhng khi

2.6.11. H thng cu hi trc nghim tng hp v i cng kim loi

xy ra m chy c cc kim loi nh K, Na, Mg.... th tuyt i khng c dng?

Vi h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp tng hp v kim loi gip cho HS

.Q

cng c kin thc, khc su kin thc v rn luyn t duy thng minh sng to,

TP

cch gii quyt nhanh mt vn , m rng ni dung kin thc hc. H thng

cu hi l thuyt v bi tp trc nghim phn kim loi gip cho HS n tp tng qut

mt cch hiu qu trc cc k thi hc sinh gii, thi i hc v cao ng.

Cu 1: Pht biu khng ng khi ni v nguyn t kim loi l

A. Bn knh nguyn t tng i ln hn so vi phi kim trong cng mt chu k.

TR

B. S electron ho tr thng t hn so vi phi kim.

0B

C. Nng lng ion ho ca kim loi ln.

10
0

D. Lc lin kt gia ht nhn vi cc electron ho tr tng i yu.

2+
3

Cu 2: Trong cc kim loi Cu, Al, Fe, Ag, Au. dn in ca kim loi c xp

theo th t gim dn l

B. Al, Ag, Au, Cu, Fe.

A. Ag, Cu, Au, Al, Fe.

D. Au, Al, Fe, Cu, Ag.

C. Au, Ag, Al, Cu, Fe.

-L

Cu 3: C cc pht biu sau:

1. Lin kt trong a s tinh th hp kim vn l lin kt kim lai.

B
ID

TO

2. Kim lai c tnh cht vt l chung: do, dn in, dn nhit, c nh kim.


3. iu ch Mg, Al ngi ta dng kh H2 hoc CO kh oxit kim loi tng

ng nhit cao.
4. Cc thit b my mc bng st tip xc vi hi nc nhit cao c kh
nng b n mn ha hc.

47

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5. Kim loi kim c m in nh nht tng chu k, c kiu mng tinh th


lng tr lc gic u nn cc kim loi kim c nhit nng chy, cng thp nht

so vi cc kim loi khc trong chu k.

C. 0.

D. 3.

B. 2.

A. 1.

S pht biu sai l

T
N

Cu 4: Hn hp A gm 3 kim loi: Cu, X, Fe. tch ri kim loi X ra khi hn

hp A m khng lm thay i khi lng X ta dng 1 ha cht duy nht l mui

C. Zn.

D. Al.

B. Pb.

A. Ag.

nitrat st. Vy X l

.Q

Cu 5(A 09): Cho hn hp gm Fe v Zn vo dd AgNO3 n khi cc phn ng

TP

xy ra hon ton, thu c dd X gm hai mui v cht rn Y gm hai kim loi. Hai

mui trong X l

B. AgNO3 v Zn(NO3)2.

A. Fe(NO3)2 v AgNO3.

D. Fe(NO3)3 v Zn(NO3)2.

C. Zn(NO3)2 v Fe(NO3)2.

Cu 6: Cho bt Fe vo dung dch gm AgNO3 v Cu(NO3)2. Sau khi cc phn ng

TR

xy ra hon ton, thu c dung dch X gm hai mui v cht rn Y gm hai kim

0B

loi. Hai mui trong X v hai kim loi trong Y ln lt l:


B. Cu(NO3)2; Fe(NO3)2 v Ag; Cu

C. Fe(NO3)2; Fe(NO3)3 v Cu; Ag.

D. Cu(NO3)2; AgNO3 v Cu; Ag.

2+
3

10
0

A. Cu(NO3)2; Fe(NO3)2 v Cu; Fe.

Cu 7: Cho y mol Mg vo dd hn hp cha a mol Zn(NO3)2 v b mol AgNO3

khuy u phn ng hon ton thu c dd c cha mt mui. Mi quan h gia

y vi a v b l

B. 2y (a+2b).

C. 2y (2a+b).

D. y (a+b).

A. 2y >(b+2a).

-L

Cu 8: Cho hn hp Mg, Al v Fe vo dung dch AgNO3, n phn ng hon ton

B
ID

TO

thu c cht rn X v dung dch Y. Cho dung dch Y tc dng vi NaOH d thu
c kt ta Z. Nung Z trong khng kh ti khi lng khng i thu c hn hp
T cha 3 cht rn khc nhau. Vy trong dung dch Y cha cc cation:
A. Mg2+, Fe3+, Ag+.

B. Mg2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Ag+.

C. Mg2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+.

D. Mg2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Ag+.

Cu 9: Tin hnh cc th nghim sau:

48

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- TN 1: Cho hi nc i qua ng ng bt st nung nng.


- TN 2: Cho inh st nguyn cht vo dung dch H2SO4 long c nh thm vi

git dung dch CuSO4.

- TN 3: Cho tng git dung dch Fe(NO3)2 vo dung dch AgNO3.

B
T
N

- TN 5: Nhng l km nguyn cht vo dung dch CuSO4.


D. 2.

C. 1.

B. 4.

S trng hp xy ra n mn in ho hc l:
A. 3.

- TN 4: thanh thp (hp kim ca st vi cacbon) trong khng kh m.

Cu 10(A 12): Dy cc kim loi u c th c iu ch bng phng php in

.Q

B. Li, Ag, Sn.

C. Ca, Zn, Cu.

TP

A. Ni, Cu, Ag.

phn dung dch mui (vi in cc tr) l

D. Al, Fe, Cr.

Cu 11: Hn hp gm Al, Al2O3, Cu, Zn. Ho tan hon ton trong dung dch HNO3

long c dung dch G. Cho G tc dng vi dung dch NH3 d thu c kt ta T.

Nung T ti khi lng khng i c cht rn R. Thnh phn ca R l

A. Al2O3.

D. Al2O3, CuO.

TR

C. Al2O3, ZnO.

B. Al2O3, CuO, ZnO.

0B

Cu 12: Cho lung kh CO d i qua hn hp BaO, Al2O3 v FeO t nng thu c

10
0

cht rn X1. Ho tan cht rn X1 vo nc thu c dung dch Y1 v cht rn E1. Sc kh

2+
3

CO2 d vo dung dch Y1 thu c kt ta F1. Ho tan E1 vo dung dch NaOH d thy

b tan mt phn v cn cht rn G1. Cho G1 vo dung dch AgNO3 d (Coi CO2 khng

B. 6.

C. 8.

D. 9.

A. 7.

phn ng vi nc). Tng s phn ng xy ra l

Cu 13: Nhit phn hn hp M gm 4 mui nitrat ca 4 kim loi X, Y, Z, T thu


v cht rn B gm ba oxit kim loi v mt mui. Loi b

-L

c hn hp kh A

B
ID

TO

mui thu c hn hp C gm ba oxit kim loi. Cho C tc dng vi H2 d nung

nng thu c cht rn D. Cho D tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 long d thu c
dung dch E v cht rn F v khng c kh thot ra. Cc phn ng xy ra hon ton.
Cc mui trong hn hp M l
A. Cu(NO3)2, AgNO3, KNO3, Al(NO3)3.
B. Al(NO3)3, Fe(NO3)2, NaNO3, Cu(NO3)2.

49

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C. KNO3, Cu(NO3)2, AgNO3, Zn(NO3)2.


D. Mg(NO3)2, Cu(NO3)2, Al(NO3)3, NaNO3.

Cu 14: Kim loi kim c nhit nng chy, nhit si thp, khi lng ring

A. kim loi kim c mng tinh th lp phng tm khi, cu trc rng v c lin

nh v cng thp do

T
N

kt kim loi yu.

B. cc kim loi kim u c khi lng nh.

C. cc kim loi kim c nguyn t khi nh.

D. trong tinh th cc nguyn t v ion lin kt vi nhau bng lin kt kim loi

.Q

yu.

TP

Cu 15: Cho dung dch Ba(HCO3)2 ln lt vo cc dung dch: CaCl2, Ca(NO3)2,

NaOH, Na2CO3, KHSO4, Na2SO4, Ca(OH)2, H2SO4, HCl. S trng hp ng thi

C. 6.

B. 2.

D. 3.

A. 5.

to ra kt ta v c kh bay ra l

Cu 16(A 09): Cho bn hn hp, mi hn hp gm hai cht rn c s mol bng

TR

nhau: Na2O v Al2O3; Cu v FeCl3; BaCl2 v CuSO4; Ba v NaHCO3. S hn hp

0B

c th tan hon ton trong nc (d) ch to ra dd l


B. 2.

C. 1.

10
0

A. 4.

D. 3.

2+
3

Cu 17(A 11): Phn chua c dng trong ngnh cng nghip thuc da, cng

nghip giy, cht cm mu trong ngnh nhum vi, cht lm trong nc. Cng thc

ha hc ca phn chua l
B. K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O.

A. Li2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O.

D. Na2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O.

C. (NH4)2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O.

-L

Cu 18: A, B, C l cc hp cht v c ca mt kim loi kim, khi t nng nhit

B
ID

TO

cao cho ngn la mu vng. A tc dng vi B to thnh C; nung nng B nhit


cao c C, nc v kh D (c cha nguyn t cacbon). Khi cho D tc dng vi
A th thu c B hoc C. Vy A, B, C, D ln lt l
A. NaOH ; Na2CO3 ; NaHCO3 ; CO2.
B. NaOH ; NaHCO3 ; Na2CO3 ; CO2.
C. Na2CO3 ; NaHCO3 ; NaOH ; CO2.

50

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D. CO2 ; NaOH ; NaHCO3 ; Na2CO3.


Cu 19(B 09): Khi nhit phn hon ton tng mui X, Y th u to ra s mol kh

nh hn s mol mui tng ng. Khi t mt lng nh tinh th Y trn n kh

D. NaNO3 v KNO3.

C. Cu(NO3)2 v NaNO3.

B. KMnO4 v NaNO3.

T
N

A. CaCO3 v NaNO3.

khng mu thy ngn la c mu vng. Hai mui X, Y ln lt l

Cu 20: A l hp cht c to ra t 3 ion c cng cu hnh electron l: 1s22s22p6.

C. Criolit.

D. Xierit.

B. Photphorit.

A. lmit.

Hp cht A l thnh phn chnh ca qung no sau y:

.Q

Cu 21: X l dung dch Na[Al(OH)4]. Cho t t n d mi dung dch sau vo

TP

dung dch X : AlCl3, NaHSO4, HCl, BaCl2, NaHCO3, NH4Cl. S trng hp thu
C. 4.

B. 3.

D. 5.

A. 2.

c kt ta sau phn ng l

Cu 22(A 11): Tin hnh cc th nghim sau

(1) Cho dung dch NaOH vo dung dch Ca(HCO3)2.

TR

(2) Cho dung dch HCl ti d vo dung dch NaAlO2 (hoc Na[Al(OH)4]).

0B

(3) Sc kh H2S vo dung dch FeCl2.

10
0

(4) Sc kh NH3 ti d vo dung dch AlCl3.

2+
3

(5) Sc kh CO2 ti d vo dung dch NaAlO2 (hoc Na[Al(OH)4]).

(6) Sc kh etilen vo dung dch KMnO4.

B. 4.

C. 6.

D. 5.

A. 3.

Sau khi cc phn ng kt thc, c bao nhiu th nghim thu c kt ta?

Cu 23(A 12): Pht biu no sau y l ng?

-L

A. Tt c cc phn ng ca lu hunh vi kim loi u cn un nng.

B
ID

TO

B. Trong cng nghip nhm c sn xut t qung olomit.


C. Ca(OH)2 c dng lm mt tnh cng vnh cu ca nc.
D. CrO3 tc dng vi nc to ra hn hp axit.

Cu 24: T cc s phn ng sau:


(a) X1 + X2
Ca(OH)2 + H2
(b) X3 + X4
CaCO3 + Na2CO3 + H2O

51

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(c) X3 + X5
Fe(OH)3 + NaCl + CO2

(d) X6 + X7 + X2
Al(OH)3 + NH3 + NaCl

D. H2O; Ca(HCO3)2; NaOH; FeCl3.

C. Ca; NaOH; Ca(HCO3)2; FeCl3.

B. H2O; NaHCO3; Ca(OH)2; FeCl3.

A. Ca; Ca(OH)2; NaHCO3; FeCl3.

Cc cht thch hp vi X2, X3, X4, X5 tng ng l

T
N

Cu 25: C cc mnh sau:

1. Nc cng l nc c cha nhiu ion Ca2+, Mg2+,...

2.T qung lmit c th iu ch ring bit c kim loi Ca v Mg.

3. lm mt tnh cng ca nc cng vnh cu ngi ta dng Na2CO3, K3PO4,

.Q

Ca(OH)2, trao i ion.

TP

4. Thch cao sng c cng thc CaSO4.H20.

5. iu ch cc kim loi Ca, Mg, K, Al cn in phn nng chy cc mui clorua

tng ng.

6. Nc cng lm mt tc dng ca cht git ra tng hp.

B. 2.

TR

A. 5.

S mnh ng l

C. 4.

D. 3.

2+

2+

0B

Cu 26: Trong mt cc nc cha a mol Ca ; b mol Mg ; c mol Cl ; d mol HCO3-

10
0

. Nu ch dng nc vi trong nng p mol/l lm gim cng trong cc th

2+
3

ngi ta thy khi cho V lit nc vi trong vo, cng ca nc trong bnh l nh

a+3b
.
2p

B. V =

2a+b
.
p

C. V =

a+2b
.
p

D. V =

a+b
.
2p

A. V =

nht. Bit c=d, biu thc lin h gia V vi a, b v p l

Cu 27: Dung dch nc cha 0,005 mol Na+; 0,01 mol Cl-; 0,005 mol Mg2+; 0,01

-L

mol Ca2+; a mol HCO3-. Tnh gi tr ca a v xc nh xem sau khi un si mt hi

B
ID

TO

lu, nc cn cng khng?


A. 0,025 ; nc khng cn cng.

B. 0,025 ; nc cn cng.

C. 0,0125 ; nc khng cn cng.

D. 0,0125 ; nc cn cng.

3+

Cu 28: Ion M c cu hnh electron phn lp ngoi cng l 3d3. Pht biu no sau
y khng ng?
A. M2O3 v M(OH)3 c tnh cht lng tnh.
B. Trong bng tun hon M nm chu k 4 ,nhm VIB.
52

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C. Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t M l: [Ar]3d44s2.


D. ion M3+ va c tnh kh, va c tnh oxi ha.

Cu 29(A 13): Cho cc pht biu sau:

(a) Trong bng tun hon cc nguyn t ha hc, Cr thuc chu k 4, nhm VIB.

(b) Cc oxit ca crom u l oxit baz.

T
N

(c) Trong cc hp cht, s oxi ha cao nht ca crom l +6

(d) Trong cc phn ng ha hc, hp cht Cr(III) ch ng vai tr cht oxi ha.

H
Y

Trong cc pht biu trn, nhng pht biu ng l:


C. (b), (d) v (e)

B. (a), (c) v (e)

D. (b), (c) v (e)

.Q

A. (a), (b) v (e)

(e) Khi phn ng vi kh Cl2 d, crom to ra hp cht crom(III).

TP

Cu 30: Cho cc pht biu v crom:

(a). Cc mui cromat v icromat c tnh oxi ha mnh, c bit trong mi

trng axit, mui crom(VI) b kh thnh mui crom(II).

(b). Crom bn trong khng kh nhit thng do c lp mng mng crom

(III) oxit bo v.

TR

(c). Trong cng nghip ngi ta sn xut crom t qung cromit Fe2O3.Cr2O3.

0B

(d). Hp cht Cr(OH)2 l cht rn mu vng, c tnh kh v l mt baz.

10
0

(e). Hp cht Cr2O3 l oxit lng tnh, tan d dng trong dung dch axit hay kim

2+
3

to mui.

(g). Khi nh vi git dung dch axit vo mui cromat mu da cam ta c mt

dung dch mi mu vng.

S cc pht biu ng l
B. 3.

C. 4.

D. 5.

A. 2.

-L

Cu 31: Pht biu no di y khng ng?

B
ID

TO

A. Cu hnh electron ca ion Fe2+ l [Ar]3d6.


B. Mc oxi ha c trng ca Fe trong hp cht l +2 v +3.

C. Ion Fe3+ c cha 5 electron c thn.


D. Bn knh nguyn t Fe nh hn bn knh ion Fe2+.
Cu 32(A 11): Thc hin cc th nghim sau:
(1) t dy st trong kh clo.

53

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(2) t nng hn hp bt Fe v S (trong iu kin khng c oxi).


(3) Cho FeO vo dung dch HNO3 (long, d).

(4) Cho Fe vo dung dch Fe2(SO4)3.

(5) Cho Fe vo dung dch H2SO4 (long, d).


D. 1.

C. 3.

B. 2.

T
N

A. 4.

C bao nhiu th nghim to ra mui st (II)?

Cu 33: Phn ng no sau y khng ng?


0

t
A. (NH4)2Cr2O7
Cr2O3 + N2 + 4H2O.

B. Fe2O3 + 6HI 2FeI3 + 3H2O.


0

.Q

t
3Cu + N2 + 3H2O.
C. 3CuO + 2NH3 (k)

TP

D. 2CrO3 + 2NH3 (k)


Cr2O3 + N2 + 3H2O.

Cu 34: Cho cc cht sau: K2S, H2S, HI, AgNO3, KSCN, Cu, NaOH, Cu(NO3)2,

B. 9.

C. 7.

D. 6.

A. 8.

Na2CO3, Ag, dd KMnO4/H2SO4. S cht tc dng vi dung dch FeCl3 l

Cu 35: Pht biu sau y khng ng l

TR

A. Qung pirit st (FeS2) khng c gi tr cao trong luyn gang.

10
0

0B

B. Gang xm cha nhiu cacbon hn gang trng.


C. Gang xm nng chy khi ha rn th tng th tch.

2+
3

D. luyn c nhng loi gang cht lng cao, ngi ta dng phng php

l in.

Cu 36(A 12): Thc hin cc th nghim sau ( iu kin thng):

(a) Cho ng kim loi vo dung dch st (III) clorua.

-L

(b) Sc kh hiro sunfua vo dung dch ng (II) sunfat.

B
ID

TO

(c) Cho dung dch bc nitrat vo dung dch st (III) clorua.


(d) Cho bt lu hunh vo thy ngn.
S th nghim xy ra phn ng l
A. 2.

B. 1.

C. 3.

D. 4.

Cu 37: Cho cc pht biu sau:


(a) Cu2O va c tnh oxi ha, va c tnh kh.
(b) Hp kim ng thau Cu-Ni c tnh bn vng cao; dng ch to chn vt tu bin.

54

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(c) Dung dch [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2 ha tan c xenluloz.


(d) CuSO4 khan c mu xanh dng pht hin nc ln vo du ha hoc xng.

(e) CuSO4 c th dng lm kh kh NH3.

(g) Kim loi ng c cu to mng tinh th lp phng tm din.

C. (a), (c), (g)

D. (a), (d),(e)

B. (a), (c), (e)

T
N

A. (a), (e), (g)

S pht biu ng l

Cu 38: Cho cc cp cht (hoc dd) sau: dd Al(NO3)3 + dd Na2S (1); dd C6H5ONa

+ dd C6H5NH3Cl (2); Al + dd NaOH (3); dd AlCl3 + dd NaOH (4); dd NH3 + dd

B. 5.

C. 6.

TP

A. 4.

.Q

dd Na2CO3 (8). S cp cht khi phn ng to sn phm kh l

FeCl3 (5); dd NH4Cl + dd NaAlO2(to) (6); dd Na2CO3 + dd FeSO4 (7); dd AlCl3 +


D. 7.

Cu 39: Cho dy cc cht sau: Al, NaHCO3, (NH4)2CO3, NH4Cl, Al2O3, Zn,

K2CO3, K2SO4. C bao nhiu cht trong dy va tc dng c vi dung dch HCl,

B. 3.

C. 4.

D. 5.

A. 2.

va tc dng c vi dung dch NaOH?

TR

Cu 40: Hn hp rn X gm Al, Fe2O3 v Cu c s mol bng nhau. Hn hp X tan

0B

hon ton trong dung dch

B. HCl (d).

C. AgNO3 (d).

10
0

A. NaOH (d).

D. NH3 (d).

2+
3

Cu 41: Cho cc pht biu sau:

(1) Hn hp Na2O + Al2O3 (t l mol 1: 1) tan ht trong nc d.

(2) Hn hp Fe2O3 + Cu (t l mol 1: 1) tan ht trong dung dch HCl d.

(3) Hn hp KNO3 + Cu (t l mol 1: 1) tan ht trong dung dch NaHSO4 d.

(4) Hn hp FeS + CuS (t l mol 1:1) tan ht trong dung dch H2SO4 long d.

-L

S pht biu ng l

B
ID

TO

A. 4.

B. 3.

C. 1.

D. 2.

Cu 42: C cc pht biu sau:


(1). ng c th tan trong dung dch HCl c mt oxi.
(2). Mui Na2CO3 d b nhit phn hu.
(3). Hn hp Cu v Fe2O3 c s mol bng nhau s tan ht trong dung dch HCl d.

55

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(4). Khi pin in ha Zn Cu phng in, th tng v gim khi lng ca 2


in cc lun bng nhau.

(5). Kim loi Na, K, Ba u c cu to mng tinh th lp phng tm khi.

C. 4.

D. 3.

B. 2.

A. 5.

S cu pht biu ng l

T
N

Cu 43(B 10): Pht biu no sau y khng ng?

A. Trong mi trng kim, mui Cr(III) c tnh kh v b cc cht oxi ho mnh

chuyn thnh mui Cr(VI).

B. Do Pb2+/Pb ng trc 2H+/H2 trong dy in ho nn Pb d dng phn ng

.Q

vi dung dch HCl long ngui, gii phng kh H2.

TP

C. CuO nung nng khi tc dng vi NH3 hoc CO, u thu c Cu.

D. Ag khng phn ng vi dung dch H2SO4 long nhng phn ng vi dung

dch H2SO4 c nng.

Cu 43: C cc nhn nh sau y:

(1) Khi in phn dd CuSO4 vi anot ng nhn thy anot tan dn, nng ion

TR

Cu2+ trong dd tng ln lm mu xanh m dn.

0B

(2) Nguyn tc sn xut thp l thc hin qu trnh kh cc tp cht trong gang ti

10
0

l cao.

2+
3

(3) Trong n mn in ho cc m xy ra qu trnh oxi ho.

(4) Nc cng l nc c cha ion Ca2+, Mg2+ dng mui Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-.

(5) Khi cho CrO3 vo nc thu c hn hp 2 axit; cho vo dd NaOH (d) thu

c hn hp 2 mui ca 2 axit tng ng .

(6) Trong qu trnh sn xut nhm, criolit c tc dng h nhit nng chy ca Al.

-L

S nhn nh chnh xc l
B. 3.

C. 4.

D. 1.

Cu 44: Vng khng tan trong


A. thy ngn.

B. nc cng thy.

C. dd KCN (c mt oxi).

D. dd HNO3.

B
ID

TO

A. 2.

56

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Cu 45: Cho cc cht sau: dd HNO3, dd HCl (c mt oxi), kh O2, H2S (c mt


oxi), kh O3, kh Cl2, thy ngn, dd KCN (c mt oxi), nc cng toan, dd FeCl3.

C. 6.

D. 7.

B. 5.

Cu 46: Cho Zn vo dd HNO3 thu c hn hp kh E gm N2O, N2. Khi phn ng

A. 4.

S cht phn ng vi bc l

T
N

kt thc, ta cho thm dd NaOH vo li thy thot ra hn hp kh F. Vy hn hp

B. NO v NH3.

C. H2 v N2O.

C. H2 v NH3.

A. H2 v NO2.

kh F gm c

Cu 47: Nhn xt no sau y khng ng?

.Q

A. Khi in phn dung dch NaCl c mng ngn ta thu c kh H2 ant

TP

B. Cu, Fe, Ni l nhm kim loi c th iu ch c theo c 3 phng php: thu

luyn, nhit luyn, in phn.

C. thu c hn hp c nhit nng chy thp, khi in phn nng chy

Al2O3 ngi ta ha tan Al2O3 vo 3NaF.AlF3 nng chy.

D. S khc nhau v bn cht gia n mn ho hc v n mn in ho l cch

TR

dch chuyn electron t kim loi n mn sang mi trng.

0B

Cu 48: Thc hin cc th nghim sau iu kin thng:

10
0

(a) Cho kim loi liti tc dng vi kh nit

2+
3

(b) Sc kh hiro iotua vo dd mui st (III) clorua

(c) Cho bc kim loi vo dd st (III) clorua

(d) Dn kh amoniac vo bnh ng kh clo

(e) Cho phn m ure vo nc

(g) Nhng thanh st vo dung dch H2SO4 98%

-L

(h) Cho dd axit axetic vo dd natri phenolat

B
ID

TO

(i) Sc kh imetyl amin vo dd phenylamoni clorua.


S th nghim xy ra phn ng l
A. 7.

B. 6.

C. 5.

D. 4.

Cu 49: Au ch tan trong cng thu (HNO3 : HCl = 1: 3), l do


A. Tc dng oxi ho mnh ca HNO3.
B. Tc dng ca Cl mi sinh.

57

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C. Tc dng oxi ho mnh ca HNO3 v chc nng lm phi t to phc ca Cl-.

D. S c mt HCl l tng kh nng oxi ho ca HNO3.

Cu 50: Cho m gam kim loi M tan hon ton trong 200 ml dung dch HCl 0,5M

thu c dung dch X v 2,016 lt H2 (ktc). Cho dung dch AgNO3 d vo dung

B
C. 28,70 gam

D. 14,35 gam

B. 32,84 gam

T
N

A. 23,63 gam

dch X th thu c bao nhiu gam kt ta?

Cu 51: Ngi ta iu ch Al2S3 bng cch cho Al tc dng vi S c nung nng

chy trong kh H2 hoc kh CO2 d. Phn ng ny khng c thc hin trong

TP

B. Mt phn S s tc dng vi O2 khng kh to SO2.

.Q

A. Mt phn Al s tc dng vi O2 khng kh to Al2O3.

khng kh v:

C. Al2S3 sinh ra s tc dng vi hi nc to Al(OH)3 v H2S.

D. Al2S3 sinh ra s tc dng vi O2 khng kh to Al2O3 v SO2.

Cu 52: Ha tan hon ton 19 gam hn hp Mg, Al v Fe vo dung dch axit HCl

d thy c 13,44 lt kh thot ra ktc v dung dich X. C cn dung dich X thu

TR

c a gam mui khan. Gi tr ca a l


B. 54,4

C. 27,2

0B

A. 61,6

D. 36,8

10
0

Cu 53: ha tan hon ton 2,32 gam hn hp X gm FeO, Fe3O4 v Fe2O3

2+
3

(trong s mol FeO bng s mol Fe2O3), cn dng va V lt dung dch HCl

B. 0,16.

C. 0,18.

D. 0,23.

A. 0,08.

1M. Gi tr ca V l

Cu 54: Trn 0,54 gam bt nhm vi hn hp bt Fe2O3 v CuO ri tin hnh phn

-L

ng nhit nhm nhit cao trong iu kin khng c khng kh mt thi gian

thu c hn hp rn X. Ha tan X trong dung dch HNO3 c, d th thu c V

B
ID

TO

lt kh NO2 (sp kh duy nht) ktc. Gi tr ca V l


A. 0,672 lt

B. 0,896 lt

C. 1,120 lt

D. 1,344 lt

Cu 55(B 13): Ha tan 25 gam hn hp X gm FeSO4 v Fe2(SO4)3 vo nc, thu


c 150 ml dung dch Y. Thm H2SO4 (d) vo 20ml dung dch Y ri chun
ton b dung dch ny bng dung dch KMnO4 0,1M th dng ht 30 ml dung dch
chun. Phn trm khi lng FeSO4 trong hn hp X l

58

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A. 13,68%

B. 68,4%

C. 9,12%

D. 31,6%

Cu 56: Ha tan hon ton hn hp X gm a mol FeS2 v b mol Cu2S trong HNO3

(va ) thu c dung dch Y ch cha hai mui sunfat v kh NO (sn phm kh

C. 1,5.

D. 2,0

B. 1,0.

A. 0,5.

duy nht ktc). T s a/b l

C. Fe3O4

D. FexOy

B. Fe2O3

A. FeO

sau phn ng c 0,84 gam st v 0,02 mol CO2. Cng thc oxit st l

T
N

Cu 57: Kh hon ton mt oxit st nhit cao cn va V lt kh CO (ktc),

Cu 58(B 11): Cho 0,01 mol mt hp cht ca st tc dng ht vi H2SO4 c,

.Q

nng (d), thy thot ra 0,112 lt kh SO2 (sp kh duy nht, ktc). Cng thc ca
B. FeS2

C. FeO

A. FeS

TP

hp cht st l

D. FeCO3

Cu 59: Cho 1,35 gam hn hp gm Cu, Mg v Al tc dng ht vi dung dch

HNO3 c, nng thu c hn hp kh gm 0,01 mol NO v 0,04 mol NO2. Khi

lng mui nitrat to thnh trong dung dch l (dung dch khng c mui amoni)
B. 5,96 gm

C. 3,83 gam

D. 6,31 gam

TR

A. 4,45 gam

0B

Cu 60: Cho m gam hn hp gm Fe v Al tc dng ht vi dung dch H2SO4 c,

10
0

nng thu c 8,4 lt kh SO2 (sp kh duy nht, ktc), dung dch to thnh 45,65

2+
3

gam hn hp mui sunfat. Khi lng ca Fe trong hn hp u l


B. 8,4 gam

C. 9,65 gam

D. 14,0 gam

A. 5,6 gam

Cu 61: in phn dung dch hn hp mui CuSO4 v KCl n khi catot bt u

thot kh th dng li. Khi lng catot tng 4,8 gam, ng thi anot thy thot ra

1,4 lt (ktc) hn hp kh O2 v Cl2. Th tch kh Cl2 thu c l


B. 0,56 lt

C. 1,12 lt

D. 0,84 lt

-L

A. 0,28 lt

ng khi lng dung dch axit tng thm 7,0g. Khi lng nhm v magie trong
hn hp u l
A. 2,7g v 1,2g

B. 5,4g v 2,4g

C. 5,8g v 3,6g

D.1,2g v 2,4g

B
ID

TO

Cu 62: Ho tan 7,8g hn hp bt Al v Mg trong dung dch HCl d. Sau phn

59

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Cu 63: Oxi ha hon ton 7,2 g hn hp X gm Al, Mg, Zn bng oxi d c 12,8

gam hn hp oxit Y. Ha tan ht Y trong dung dch H2SO4 long thu c dung
C. 30,8 g

D. 40,8 g

B. 20,8 g

Cu 64: Chia hn hp hai kim loi A, B c ha tr khng i thnh hai phn bng

A. 50,8 g

dch T. C cn dung dch T thu c lng mui khan l:

T
N

nhau. Phn 1 ha tan ht trong dung dch HCl, thu c 1,792 lt kh H 2 (ktc).

Phn 2 nung trong oxi thu c 2,84 gam hn hp cc oxit. Khi lng hn hp

C. 2,2 gam

D. 1,8 gam

B. 3,12 gam

A. 1,56 gam

hai kim loi trong hn hp u l:

.Q

Cu 65(A 07): Ha tan hon ton 12 gam hn hp Fe, Cu (t l mol 1:1) bng

TP

axit HNO3, thu c V lt ( ktc) hn hp kh X (gm NO v NO2) v dung dch

B. 4,48 lt.

C. 5,60 lt.

D. 3,36 lt.

A. 2,24 lt.

Y (ch cha hai mui v axit d). T khi ca X i vi H2 bng 19. Gi tr V l

Cu 66: Hn hp X gm hai kim loi A v B ng trc H trong dy in ha v

c ha tr khng i trong cc hp cht. Chia m gam X thnh hai phn bng nhau:

TR

Phn 1 ha tan hon ton trong dung dch cha axit HCl v H 2SO4 long to ra

0B

3,36 lt kh H2. Phn 2 tc dng hon ton vi dung dch HNO3 thu c V lt kh

10
0

NO (sn phm kh duy nht, ktc). Gi tr ca V l


B. 3,36 lt.

C. 4,48 lt.

2+
3

A. 2,24 lt.

D. 6,72 lt.

Cu 67(A 07): Ho tan hon ton 12 g hn hp Fe, Cu ( t l mol 1: 1) bng

HNO3 thu c V lt hn hp kh (ktc) gm NO, NO2 v dung dch Y cha 2

mui v axit d. T khi ca X so vi H2 l 19. Gi tr V l


B. 2,8

C. 11,2

D. 8,4

-L

A. 5,6

B
ID

TO

Cu 68: Ha tan 6,25 gam hn hp Zn v Al vo 275 ml dung dch HNO3 thu c

dung dch A, cht rn B gm cc kim loi cha tan ht cn nng 2,516 gam v 1,12
lt hn hp kh D ( ktc) gm NO v NO2. T khi ca hn hp D so vi H2 l

16,75. Tnh nng mol/l ca HNO3 v tnh khi lng mui khan thu c khi c
cn dung dch sau phn ng.
A. 0,65M v 11,794 gam.

B. 0,65M v 12,35 gam.

C. 0,75M v 11,794 gam.

D. 0,55M v 12.35 gam.

60

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Cu 69: Cho 8,3 gam hn hp hai kim loi Al v Fe tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4

c d thu c 6,72 lt kh SO2 (ktc). Khi lng ca mi kim loai trong hn hp

D. 1,35g v 2,4g

C. 9,8g v 3,6g

B. 5,4g v 4,8g

A. 2,7g v 5,6g

ban u:

T
N

Cu 70: Ha tan 15 gam hn hp X gm hai kim loi Mg v Al vo dung dch

Y gm HNO 3 v H2SO4 c thu c 0,1 mol mi kh SO2, NO, NO2, N2O. Phn

C. 50% v 50%.

D. 46% v 54%.

B. 36% v 64%.

.Q

A. 63% v 37%.

trm khi lng ca Al v Mg trong X ln lt l:

TP

Cu 71: Mt hn hp X c khi lng 18,2g gm 2 Kim loi A (ha tr 2) v B

(ha tr 3). Ha tan X hon ton trong dung dch Y cha H2SO4 v HNO3. Cho ra

hn hp kh Z gm 2 kh SO2 v N2O. Xc nh 2 kim loi A, B (B ch co th l

ln lt l 0,1 mol mi kh.


B. Cu, Fe

TR

A. Cu, Al

Al hay Fe). Bit s mol ca hai kim loi bng nhau v s mol 2 kh SO2 v N2O
C. Zn, Al

D. Zn, Fe

0B

Cu 72: m gam bt st (A) ngoi khng kh, sau mt thi gian bin thnh hn

10
0

hp (B) c khi lng 12 gam gm Fe, FeO, Fe3O4, Fe2O3. Cho B tc dng hon

A. 20,08 g

2+
3

ton vi dung dch HNO3 thy sinh ra 2,24 lt kh NO duy nht ktc. Tnh m.
B. 30,08 g

C. 21,8 g

D. 22,08 g

Cu 73(A 07): Ha tan 5,6 gam Fe bng dung dch H2SO4 long d thu c

dung dch X. Dung dch X phn ng va vi V ml ung dch KMnO4 0,5M. Gi

-L

tr ca V l

B
ID

TO

A. 20 ml

B. 40 ml

C. 60 ml

D. 80 ml

Cu 74(A 13): Cho 3,2 gam Cu tc dng vi 100 ml dung cha hai axit HNO3

0,8M v H2SO4 0,2 M. Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton sinh ra V lt kh NO


(ktc) l sn phm kh duy nht. Gi tr ca V l
A. 0,746

B. 0,448

C. 1,792

D. 0,672

61

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Cu 75(A 10): in phn (in cc tr) dung dch X cha 0,2 mol CuSO4 v 0,12
mol NaCl bng dng in c cng 2A. Th tch kh (ktc) thot ra anot sau

C. 1,792 lt

D. 1,344 lt

B. 2,912 lt

Cu 76(B 09): in phn c mng ngn 500ml dung dch cha hn hp gm

A. 2,240 lt

9650 giy in phn l

T
N

CuCl2 0,1M v NaCl 0,5M (in cc tr, hiu sut in phn 100%) vi cng

dng in 5A trong 3860 giy. Dung dch thu c sau in phn c kh nng ha

C. 1,35

D. 5,40

B. 2,70

A. 4,05

tan m gam Al. Gi tr ln nht ca m l

.Q

Cu 77: Lm cc th nghim sau:

TP

- Th nghim 1: Cho vo dung dch axit sunfuric long ng trong 3 cc nh s 1,

2, 3 mi cc mt ming st.

- Th nghim 2: Thm vo cc 1 mt ming nhm t tip xc vi ming st.

- Th nghim 3: Thm vo cc 2 mt ming ng t tip xc vi ming st.

- Th nghim 4: Thm vo cc 3 mt ming bc t tip xc vi ming st.

TR

Cho bit cc no th ming st tan nhanh nht?


B. Cc 2

C. Cc 3

D. Cc 2 v 3

0B

A. Cc 1

10
0

Cu 78: Mt loi qung st trong t nhin c loi b tp cht. Ho tan qung

2+
3

ny trong dung dch axit nitric thy c kh mu nu bay ra, dung dch thu c cho

tc dng vi dung dch bari clorua thy c kt ta trng (khng tan trong axit). Hy

cho bit cng thc ha hc ca qung .


C. FeS2

B. FeO

D. Fe2O3

A. FeCO3

Cu 79: Natri peoxit (Na2O2), kali supeoxit (KO2) l nhng cht oxi ho mnh, d

-L

dng hp th kh cacbonic v gii phng kh oxi. Do chng c s dng trong

B
ID

TO

bnh ln hoc tu ngm hp th kh cacbonic v cung cp kh oxi cho con ngi


trong h hp. Theo nghin cu, khi h hp, th tch kh cacbonic mt ngi thi ra
xp x th tch kh oxi ht vo. Vy cn trn Na2O2 v KO2 theo t l s mol nh th

no th tch kh cacbonic hp th bng th tch kh oxi sinh ra?


A. 1:1

B. 1:2

C. 2:1

D. 3:4

62

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Cu 80(A 14): t chy 4,16 gam hn hp Mg v Fe trong kh O2, thu c 5,92


gam hn hp X ch gm cc oxit. Ha tan hon ton X trong dung dch HCl va ,

thu c dung dch Y. Cho dung dch NaOH d vo Y, thu c kt ta Z. Nung Z

C. 32,11

D. 10,80.

H
N

B. 31,57

T
N

A. 32,65

Y tc dng vi dung dch AgNO3 d, thu c m gam kt ta. Gi tr ca m l

trong khng kh n khi lng khng i, thu c 6 gam cht rn. Mt khc cho

Cu 81(A 14): Thc hin phn ng nhit nhm hn hp gm Al v m gam hai

oxit st trong kh tr, thu c hn hp rn X. Cho X vo dung dch NaOH d, thu

c dung dch Y, cht khng tan Z v 0,672 lt kh H2 ((ktc). Sc kh CO2 d vo

.Q

Y, thu c 7,8 gam kt ta. Cho Z tan ht vo dung dch H2SO4, thu c dung

TP

dch cha 15,6 gam mui sunfat v 2,464 lt kh SO2 ( ktc, l sn phn kh duy
C. 6,96

B. 6,48

D. 5,04.

A. 6,29.

nht ca H2SO4). Bit cc phn ng xy ra hon ton. Gi tr ca m l

Cu 82(A 14): in phn dung dch X cha a mol CuSO4 v 0,2 mol KCl (in

cc tr, mng ngn xp, cng dng in khng i) trong thi gian t giy, thu

TR

c 2,464 lt kh anot (ktc) . Nu thi gian in phn l 2t giy th tng th tch

0B

kh thu c c hai in cc l 5,824 lt (ktc) . Bit hiu sut in phn 100%,

10
0

cc kh sinh ra khng tan trong dung dch. Gi tr ca a l


B. 0,18.

C. 0,24

2+
3

A. 0,15

D. 0,26.

Cu 83(A 14): Hn hp X gm Al, Fe3O4 v CuO, trong oxi chim 25% khi

lng hn hp. Cho 1,344 lt kh CO (ktc) i qua m gam X nung nng, sau mt

thi gian thu c cht rn Y v hn hp kh Z c t khi so vi H2 bng 18. Ha

tan hon ton Y trong dung dch HNO3 long (d), thu c dung dch cha 3,08m

-L

gam mui v 0,896 lt kh NO ( ktc, l sn phm kh duy nht). Gi tr m gn gi

A. 9,5

B. 8,5

C. 8,0

D. 9,0.

Cu 84(A 14): Khi nh t t n d dung dch NaOH vo dung dch hn hp


gm a mol HCl v b mol AlCl3, kt qu th nghim c biu din trn th sau:

B
ID

TO

tr no nht sau y?

63

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C. 1 : 1

D. 2 : 1.

B. 2 : 3

A. 4 : 3

T
N

T l a : b l

Cu 85(A 14): Nung hn hp gm 0,12 mol Al v 0,04 mol Fe2O4 mt thi gian,

thu c hn hp rn X. Ha tan hon ton X trong dung dch HCl d thu c

TP

B. 32,58.

C. 31,97.

D. 33,39.

A. 34,10.

.Q

0,15 mol kh H2 v m gam mui. Gi tr ca m l

Cu 86(B 14): Nung nng hn hp bt X gm a mol Fe v b mol S trong kh tr,

hiu sut phn ng bng 50%, thu c hn hp rn Y. Cho Y vo dung dch HCl

H2 bng 5. T l a : b bng
B. 1 : 1.

TR

A. 2 : 1.

d, sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c hn hp kh Z c t khi so vi

C. 3 : 1.

D. 3 : 2.

10
0

0B

Cu 87(B 14): Ha tan ht 10,24 gam hn hp X gm Fe v Fe3O4 bng dung


dch cha 0,1 mol H2SO4 v 0,5 mol HNO3, thu c dung dch Y v hn hp gm

2+
3

0,1 mol NO v a mol NO2 (khng cn sn phm kh no khc). Chia dung dch Y

thnh hai phn bng nhau: Phn mt tc dng vi 500 ml dung dch KOH 0,4M, thu

c 5,35 gam mt cht kt ta. Phn hai tc dng vi dung dch Ba(OH)2 d, thu

c m gam kt ta. Bit cc phn ng xy ra hon ton. Gi tr ca m l


B. 41,24

C. 20,21

D. 31,86

-L

A. 20,62

B
ID

TO

Cu 88(B 14): Cho hn hp X gm Al v Mg tc dng vi 1 lt dung dch gm


AgNO3 a mol/l v Cu(NO3)2 2a mol/l, thu c 45,2 gam cht rn Y. Cho Y tc
dng vi dung dch H2SO4 c, nng (d), thu c 7,84 lt kh SO2 ( ktc, l sn
phm kh duy nht). Bit cc phn ng xy ra hon ton. Gi tr ca a l
A. 0,25.

B. 0,30.

C. 0,15.

D. 0,20.

Cu 89(A 13): Hn hp X gm 3,92 gam Fe, 16 gam Fe2O3 v m gam Al. Nung
X nhit cao trong iu kin khng c khng kh, thu c hn hp cht rn Y.

64

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Chia Y thnh hai phn bng nhau. Phn mt tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 long
(d), thu c 4a mol kh H2. Phn hai phn ng vi dung dch NaOH d, thu c

C. 7,02

D. 4,05

B. 3,51

Cu 90(A 13): Hn hp X gm Na, Ba, Na2O v BaO. Ha tan hon ton 21,9

A. 5,40

a mol kh H2. Bit cc phn ng u xy ra hon ton. Gi tr ca m l

T
N

gam X vo nc, thu c 1,12 lt kh H2 (ktc) v dung dch Y, trong c 20,52

gam Ba(OH)2. Hp th hon ton 6,72 lt kh CO2 (ktc) vo Y, thu c m gam kt

C. 21,92

D. 39,40

B. 15,76

A. 23,64

ta. Gi tr ca m l

.Q

Cu 91(A 13): Cho m gam Fe vo bnh cha dung dch gm H2SO4 v HNO3, thu

TP

c dung dch X v 1,12 lt kh NO. Thm tip dung dch H2SO4 d vo bnh thu

c 0,448 lt kh NO v dung dch Y. Bit trong c hai trng hp NO l sn phn

kh duy nht, o iu kin tiu chun. Dung dch Y ha tan va ht 2,08 gam Cu

(khng to thnh sn phm kh ca N+5). Bit cc phn ng u xy ra hon ton.

B. 4,20

C. 4,06

D. 3,92

TR

A. 2,40

Gi tr ca m l

0B

Cu 92(A 13): Cho hn hp X gm 0,01 mol Al v a mol Fe vo dung dch

10
0

AgNO3 n khi phn ng hon ton, thu c m gam cht rn Y v dung dch Z

2+
3

cha 3 cation kim loi. Cho Z phn ng vi dung dch NaOH d trong iu kin

khng c khng kh, thu c 1,97 gam kt ta T. Nung T trong khng kh n khi

B. 3,24

C. 6,48

D. 9,72

A. 8,64

lng khng i, thu c 1,6 gam rn ch cha mt cht duy nht. Gi tr ca m l

Cu 93(A 13): Ha tan hon ton 1,805 gam hn hp gm Fe v kim loi X vo

-L

bng dung dch HCl, thu c 1,064 lt kh H2. Mt khc, ha tan hon ton 1,805

B
ID

TO

gam hn hp trn bng dung dch HNO3 long (d), thu c 0,896 lt kh NO (sn

phm kh duy nht). Bit cc th tch kh u o iu kin tiu chun. X l


A. Al.

B. Cr.

C. Mg.

D. Zn.

Cu 94(A 13): Tin hnh in phn dung dch cha m gam hn hp CuSO4 v
NaCl (hiu sut 100%, in cc tr, mng ngn xp), n khi nc bt u b in

65

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phn c hai in cc th ngng in phn, thu c dung dch X v 6,72 lt kh


(ktc) anot. Dung dch X ha tan ti a 20,4 gam Al2O3. Gi tr ca m l
C. 51,1.

D. 50,4.

B. 23,5

A. 25,6.

nng, sau mt thi gian thu c hn hp cht rn Y v hn hp kh Z. Cho ton

Cu 95: Hn hp X gm FeO, Fe2O3 v Fe3O4. Cho kh CO qua m gam X nung

T
N

b Z vo dung dch Ca(OH)2 d, phn ng hon ton, thu c 4 gam kt ta. Mt

khc, ha tan hon ton Y trong dung dch H 2SO 4 c, nng (d), thu c 1,008

lt kh SO2 (ktc, sn phm kh duy nht) v dung dch cha 18 gam mui. Gi tr
C. 5,68.

B. 6,80.

D. 13,52.

.Q

A. 7,12.

ca m l

TP

Cu 96: Bn kim loi Na; Al; Fe v Cu c n nh khng theo th t X; Y; Z;

T. Bit rng: - X; Y c iu ch bng phng php in phn nng chy.

- X y c kim loi T ra khi dung dch mui ca T.

- Z tc dng c vi dd H2SO4 c nng nhng khng tc dng c vi dd

H2SO4 c ngui .

D. Na; Fe; Al; Cu.

10
0

C. Al; Na; Cu; Fe.

B. Al; Na; Fe; Cu.

0B

A. Na; Al; Fe; Cu.

TR

X; Y; Z; T theo th t l

2+
3

Cu 97(HSG Thi Bnh 2012): Cho m gam bt Fe vo 200 ml dung dch hn

hp A cha H2SO4 1M, Fe(NO3)3 0,5M v CuSO4 0,25M. Khuy u cho n khi

phn ng kt thc thu c 0,75m gam cht rn. Gi tr ca m l


B. 56 gam

C. 33,6 gam

D. 32 gam

A. 43,2 gam

-L

Cu 98(HSG Thi Bnh 2012): Cho kim loi M vo dung dch mui ca kim loi

B
ID

TO

X thy c kt ta v kh bay ln. Cho kim loi X vo dung dch mui ca kim loi Y
thy c kt ta Y. Mt khc, cho kim loi X vo dung dch mui ca kim loi Z,
khng thy c hin tng g. Cho bit s sp xp no sau y ng vi chiu tng dn
tnh kim loi ca X, Y, Z, M?
A. Z < X < Y < M

B. Y < X < Z < M

C. Z < X < M < Y

D. Y < X < M < Z

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Cu 99(HSG Thi Bnh 2012): Ha tan hon ton m gam hn hp gm Na,


Na2O, NaOH v Na2CO3 trong dung dch axt H2SO4 40% (va ) thu c 8,96

lt hn hp kh c t khi i vi H2 bng 16,75 v dung dch Y c nng

D. 50,6 gam

C. 23,8 gam

B. 50,4 gam

A. 37,2 gam

51,449%. C cn Y thu c 170,4 gam mui. Gi tr ca m l

T
N

Cu 100(HSG Thi Bnh 2012): Ha tan hon ton 30 gam hn hp X gm Mg, Al v

Zn trong dung dch HNO3, sau phn ng hon ton thu c dung dch Y v hn hp gm

0,1 mol N2O v 0,1 mol NO. C cn dung dch sau phn ng thu c 127 gam hn hp

C. 0,45 mol

B. 0,30 mol

D. 0,35 mol

.Q

A. 0,40 mol

mui. Vy s mol HNO3 b kh trong phn ng trn l

TP

2.7. Cch s dng h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp phn kim loi trong vic

bi dng hc sinh gii trng THPT

Trong cng tc BDHSG ngoi vic son ra h thng cc cu hi l thuyt v

phn bi tp th vic s dng h thng cc cu hi v bi tp nh th no t

hiu qu cao trong qu trnh n luyn l iu ht sc c quan tm. Thng qua qu

TR

trnh ging dy chng ti s dng h thng bi tp theo cc hnh thc sau:

0B

2.7.1. S dng bi tp nhm pht trin nng lc nhn thc, rn luyn k nng

10
0

Ha hc

2+
3

2.7.1.1. S dng bi tp cng c kin thc v rn luyn k nng c bn

V d: Vit 3 PTHH ca phn ng trc tip iu ch


b. Kim loi Na

a. Kim loi Fe
a.

HDG:

-L
N

Mg

MgCl2

pdd

Fe

b.

2NaCl
4NaOH

2Na2O
c.

pnc

+ Cl2

4Na + O2 + 2H2O

pnc

4Na + O2

4AgNO3 + 2H2O

pdd

O2

t0

4Ag

+ O2

+ 4HNO3

Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag

Cu + 2AgNO3
Ag2S +

Fe

2Fe + 3CO2

2Na

pnc

+ Cl2

t0

Fe2O3 + 3CO

TO

FeCl2

B
ID

FeCl2

c. Kim loi Ag

2Ag

+ SO2

67

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Nhn xt: Thng qua bi tp ny c th cng c cho HS phn kin thc l thuyt v
cc phng php iu ch kim loi v rn luyn k nng vit PTHH.

2.7.1.2. S dng bi tp rn luyn nng lc pht hin v gii quyt vn

dng vi dung dch HNO3 c nng d thu c V lt kh NO2 (l sn phm kh

V d 1(HSG Ngh An 2010): a. Cho 20,80 gam hn hp Fe, FeS, FeS2, S tc

T
N

duy nht, o ktc) v dung dch A. Cho A tc dng vi dung dch Ba(OH)2 d thu

c 91,30 gam kt ta. Tnh V?

b. Cho m gam hn hp hai kim loi Fe, Cu (trong Fe chim 30% v khi

lng) vo 50 ml dung dch HNO3 nng 63% (d = 1,38 gam/ml) un nng,

.Q

khuy u hn hp ti cc phn ng hon ton thu c rn A cn nng 0,75 m

TP

gam, dung dch B v 6,72 lt hn hp kh NO2 v NO ( ktc). Hi c cn dung

dch B th thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan? (Gi s trong qu trnh un nng

HNO3 bay hi khng ng k)

HDG: a.

Pht hin vn : Do sn phm cui cng khi cho hn hp tc dng vi HNO3

TR

c nng c Fe3+, SO42- nn c th coi hn hp ban u l Fe v S. Gi x v y l s

0B

mol ca Fe v S, s mol ca NO2 l a

10
0

Gii quyt vn :

N+5 + e
N+4

3x

2+
3

Fe
Fe+3 + 3e

S
S+6 + 6e
y

6y

-L

A tc dng vi Ba(OH)2

B
ID

TO

Fe3+ + 3OH-
Fe(OH)3 ;

56x + 32 y = 20,8

107x + 233y = 91,3

Ba2+ + SO42-
BaSO4

x = 0 ,2

y = 0 ,3

Theo nh lut bo ton electron : 3x + 6y = a = 3.0,2 + 6.0,3 = 2,4


V = 2,4.22,4 = 53,76 (lt)
Khi lng Fe = 0,3m (g); khi lng rn A = 0,75 m(g).

Fe d; Cu cha phn ng B cha Fe(NO3)2


Fe phn ng = 0,25m (g)
68

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nhn hpkh = 6,72/22,4= 0,3 mol, nHNO


3

50.1, 38.63
0, 69mol
100.63

NO3- + 3e
NO

Fe
Fe+2 + 2e

1
.0,39(56 62.2) 35,1( g )
2

mFe ( NO3 )2 =

n NO (to mui) = 0,69 0,3 = 0,39 (mol)

NO3- + e
NO2

T
N

V d 2: Cho m gam hn hp X gm Ca, MgO tc dng ht vi dd HNO3 d, thu

c dung dch Y cha a gam mui nitrat. Cho dung dch Na2CO3 n d vo dung

dch Y, thu c (a -32) gam kt ta Z. Xc nh gi tr m?

.Q

HDG: 1. S bi ton
Ca ( NO3 ) 2
CaCO3
Ca
du
3 du
Na
2CO
3

HNO


MgO
Mg ( NO3 ) 2
MgCO3

M (NO3)2

HNO du

(2)

du
Na
2CO
3

(a 32) gam
M CO3

a gam

m gam

TP

(1)

Pht hin vn : Ta thy M X = 40 vC (MCa = MMgO)

TR

Mun xc nh c m th cn phi xc nh c nX.

0B

Theo d kin ca bi th ta cha tm c s mol X

10
0

Gii quyt vn : Khi chuyn t mui nitrat thnh mui cacbonat


CO32-

2 mol

1 mol

m = 2. 62 60 = 64 gam

1 mol

0,5 mol

m = 32 gam

2+
3

Theo bi:

Theo PTHH:

2NO3-

m = 40. 0,5 = 20 gam

-L

nX 0,5 mol

B
ID

TO

2.7.1.3. S dng bi tp rn luyn nng lc t duy, tr thng minh


Ta c th s dng BTHH rn tr thng minh cho HS theo mt s hng sau:
S dng cc bi tp c cch gii nhanh thng minh.
S dng bi tp c nhiu cch gii.
S dng bi tp c nhiu kh nng xy ra

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V d 1(H Khi B - 2007): Nung m gam bt st trong oxi, thu c 3,0 gam hn
hp cht rn X. Ha tan ht hn hp X trong dung dch HNO3 (d) thot ra 0,56 lt

C. 2,62

D. 2,32

B. 2,22

A. 2,52

kh (ktc) NO (sp kh duy nht). Gi tr ca m l

H
T
N

Fe
FeO

HNO3
+ [O]
3,0 gam X

Fe3+ + NO (0,025 mol)


m gam Fe
Fe
O
2 3
Fe3O4

HDG: S bi ton

Cch 1: Quy hn hp X thnh: x mol Fe v y mol Fe2O3.

+5

+2

ne nhn = 3

N + 3e N

0,56
= 0,075 mol
22, 4

Qu trnh nhn e:

ne nhng = 3x

Qu trnh nhng e: Fe Fe3+ + 3e

TP

.Q

Ta c 56x + 160y = 3,0 (1)

Theo nh lut bo ton e: ne nhng = ne nhn 3x = 0,075 x= 0,025

Thay vo (1) y = 0,01

TR

Vy X gm 0,025 mol Fe v 0,01 mol Fe2O3


= nFe + 2nFe 2 O 3 = 0,025 + 2 0,01 = 0,045 mol

0B

Fe

10
0

Theo bo ton nguyn t:

2+
3

m = 0,045 56 = 2,52 gam

Cch 2: Quy hn hp X thnh x mol FeO v y mol Fe2O3

Cch 3: Quy hn hp X thnh FexOy

Cch 4: Quy hn hp thnh Fe; O

Lu : Trong qu trnh ging gii loi bi ny ta cng c th cho HS t chng minh

-L

cng thc tnh m lin h qua cc i lng trn ca s bi ton v p dng vo

cc trng hp tng t rn luyn kh nng t duy v tr thng minh cho HS.

B
ID

TO

mFe = 0,7.mhhX + 5,6 ne trao i

V d 2: Ha tan hon ton 25,6 gam cht rn X gm Fe, FeS, FeS2 v S bng dd
HNO3 d, thot ra V lt kh NO duy nht (ktc) v dd Y. Thm Ba(OH)2 d vo Y
thu c 126,25 gam kt ta. Gi tr ca V l
A. 17,92

B. 19,04

C. 24,64

D. 27,58

70

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Fe : x(mol )
56x + 88y = 25,6 (1)
FeS : y (mol )

HDG: Quy hn hp X v Fe v FeS vi X

NO: V lt(ktc)

S ha bi ton:

Fe : x(mol )
HNO3 d
FeS : y (mol )

Fe3

Fe(OH ) 3
BaSO4

Ba(OH)2 d

2
4

SO

T
N

dd Y

126,25 gam
Theo bo ton nguyn t: nFe(OH) 3 = nFe = x + y (mol); nBaSO 4 = nS = y (mol)

Vy m = 107(x + y) + 233y 107x + 340y = 126,25 (2)

.Q

T (1) v (2) x = -0,25 ; y = 0,45 X gm -0,25 mol Fe v 0,45 mol FeS

FeS Fe + S + 9e;

3V
22,4

4,05

0,45

V
22,4

-0,75

-0,25

N + 3e N

Fe Fe + 3e;

TP

Cc qu trnh nhng, nhn e:

3V
V = 26,64 (p n C)
22,4

TR

ne nhng = ne nhn -0,75 + 4,05 =

0B

Lu : GV c th khuyn khch HS lm theo cch hng quy i khc nh quy i

10
0

thnh (Fe, FeS) ; (Fe, FeS2) ; (FeS, S) hoc (FeS2, S)...

2+
3

V d 3: Trn CuO vi mt oxit kim loi M ho tr II vi s mol tng ng theo t

l mol 1: 2, c hn hp A. Cho mt lung H2 d i qua 2,4 gam A nung nng thu

c hn hp B. ho tan ht B cn 40ml dung dch HNO3 2,5M v thu c kh

NO duy nht. Xc nh kim loi M.

-L

HDG: Gi s mol CuO trong A l x s mol MO l 2x mol.


CuO

B
ID

TO

C th: MO

H2
+

H2

Cu

M +

H2O

(1)

H2O

(2)

3Cu + 8HNO3 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O

(3)

3M + 8HNO3 3 M(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O

(4)

C th: MO + 2HNO3 M(NO3)2 + 2H2O

(5)

Trng hp 1: Cc oxit b H2 kh hon ton, khng c (5)

71

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80 x ( M 16)2 x 2, 4

Ta c h:
x = 0,0125 mol; M = 40 Ca (loi)
8
8
x 2 x 0,1

3
2

N
B

T
N

80 x ( M 16).2 x 2, 4

x = 0,015 mol; M = 24 M l Mg
8
x 2.2 x 0,1

Ta c h:

Trng hp 2: MO khng b H2 kh, khng c (2,4)

V d 4 (HSG Thi Nguyn 2012): Ha tan hn hp rn X gm Zn, FeCO3, Ag

(s mol Zn bng s mol FeCO3) vi dung dch HNO3 d thu c hn hp A hai

kh khng mu c t khi so vi kh heli l 9,6 v dung dch B. Cho B phn ng vi

.Q

lng d KOH c cht rn Y. Lc Y nung trong khng kh n khi lng khng

TP

i c 2,82 gam cht rn Z. Bit mi cht trong X ch kh HNO3 xung mt s

oxi ha duy nht.

a. Hy lp lun tm hai kh trong A.

b. Tnh khi lng mi cht ban u trong X.

HDG: a. Trong hai kh chc chn c CO2 (M = 44). V Mhh = 38,4 < 44

TR

Kh cn li c M < 38,4 L N2 hoc NO. V Ag l kim loi yu nn khng

10
0

0B

th kh HNO3 xung N2 Kh cn li l NO.


b. Gi s mol Zn = x mol = s mol FeCO3, s mol Ag = y mol

2+
3

Trng hp: Zn kh HNO3 xung NO

Zn : x mol
Zn( NO3 ) 2 : x mol
NO

HNO3
+ H2O
Fe( NO3 )3 : x mol +
FeCO3 : x mol
CO

2
Ag : y mol
AgNO : y mol
3

N+5 +

-L

Ta c: Zn Zn2+ + 2e

B
ID

TO

2x

3e
3x + y

N+2
x + y/3

Fe2+ Fe3+ + 1e
x

Ag Ag+ + 1e
y

Kh to thnh c x mol CO2 v (x + y/3) mol NO


V Mhh = 38,4 s mol CO2 = 1,5 s mol NO x = 1,5 (x + y/3) y = -x (loi)

72

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Trng hp : Zn kh HNO3 xung NH4NO3


Zn( NO)3 : x mol
Zn : x mol
Fe( NO ) : x mol

3 3
HNO3

FeCO3 : x mol
AgNO
3 : y mol

Ag : y mol

NH 4 NO3

Fe2+ Fe3+ + 1e
x

x+y

H
N

(x + y)/3

Y
U
.Q

TP

N+2

3e

Ag Ag+ + 1e
y

x/4

N+5 +

2x

T
N

2x

N-3

8e

N+5 +

Ta c: Zn Zn2+ + 2e

NO
+ H2 O
CO2

Kh to thnh c (x+y)/3 mol NO v x mol CO2.

V s mol CO2 = 1,5 s mol NO x = y

Dung dch B + dung dch NaOH d Kt ta gm Ag2O v Fe(OH)3. Sau khi

nung nng thu c 2,82 gam cht rn gm: Fe2O3 v Ag.

TR

BTNT Fe v BTNT Ag 160.0,5x + 108y = 2,82. x = y = 0,015 (mol)

0B

mZn 0, 975 gam ; mFeCO3 1, 74 gam ; mAg 1, 62 gam

10
0

2.7.1.4. S dng bi tp rn luyn kh nng suy lun, din t logic, chnh xc.

2+
3

V d 1(HSG Vnh Phc 2013): Hp cht A c dng M3X2. Khi cho A vo nc,

thu c kt ta trng B v kh C l mt cht c. Kt ta B tan c trong dung

dch NaOH v dung dch NH3. t chy hon ton kh C ri cho sn phm vo

nc d, thu c dung dch axit D. Cho t t D vo dung dch KOH, phn ng

xong thu c dung dch E cha 2 mui. Dung dch E phn ng vi dung dch

-L

AgNO3 cho kt ta mu vng F tan trong axit mnh. Lp lun chn cng thc

B
ID

TO

ha hc ng cho cht A. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra. Bit M v X u


l nhng n cht ph bin.
+H O
HDG: M3X2
B (trng) + C (c)
2

B tan c trong dung dch NaOH v dung dch NH3


M l n cht ph bin B l Zn(OH)2.
Kt ta F mu vng tan trong dung dch axit mnh F l Ag3PO4 X l P A
l Zn3P2.
73

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PTHH: Zn3P2 + 6H2O


3Zn(OH)2 + 2PH3
(B)

(C)

(A)

Zn(OH)2 + 2NaOH
Na2[Zn(OH)4]

Zn(OH)2 + 4NH3
[Zn(NH3)4](OH)2
o

t
2PH3 + 4O2
P2O5 + 3H2O

T
N

P2O5 + 3H2O
2H3PO4

(D)

H3PO4 + 2KOH
K2HPO4 + 2H2O

H3PO4 + 3KOH
K3PO4 + 3H2O E cha: K2HPO4 v K3PO4

TP

.Q

K3PO4 + 3AgNO3
Ag3PO4 + 3KNO3

(F)

Ag2HPO4 + 2KNO3
K2HPO4 + 2AgNO3

V d 2(HSG Quc Gia - 2003):Kim loi A phn ng vi phi kim B to hp cht C

mu vng cam. Cho 0,1 mol hp cht C phn ng vi CO2 (d) to thnh hp cht

D v 2,4 gam B. Ha tan hon ton D vo nc, dung dch D phn ng ht 100 ml

0B

TR

dung dch HCl 1M gii phng 1,12 lt kh CO2 (ktc). Hy xc nh A, B, C, D v

10
0

vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra. Bit hp cht C cha 45,07 % B theo khi

2+
3

lng; hp cht D khng b phn tch khi nng chy.


HDG: nHCl 0,1mol , nCO 0, 05mol

= 0,1 : 0,05 = 2: 1 s Hp cht D l mui cacbonat kim loi. Hp cht D

nCO2

nH

Dung dch D phn ng ht 0,1 mol HCl gii phng kh CO2

B
ID

TO

-L

khng b phn tch khi nng chy, vy D l cacbonat kim loi kim.
2H+ + CO32-
CO2 + H2O

C + CO2
D + B C l peroxit hay superoxit, B l oxi.
t cng thc ho hc ca C l AxOy
Lng oxi trong 0,1 mol C l: 16 x 0,05 + 2,4 = 3,2 (g)
mC = 3,2.100/45,07 = 7,1 gam MC = 7,1 : 0,1 = 71 (g/mol).
mA trong C = 7,1 - 3,2 = 3,9 (g) x : y =

3,9 3, 2
:
M A 16

MA = 39 (g).

74

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Vy A l K ; B l O2; C l KO2; D l K2CO3.


V d 3(HSG Qung Ninh 2010): Cho 10,62 gam hn hp gm Fe, Zn vo 800 ml

dung dch hn hp X gm NaNO3 0,45M v H2SO4 0,9M. un nng cho phn ng

ktc). Dung dch Y ha tan ti a m1 gam bt Cu v thu c V lt kh NO (ktc, sn

xy ra hon ton thu c dung dch Y v 3,584 lt kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht, o

T
N

phm kh duy nht ca NO 3 ).

1. Tnh phn trm v khi lng tng kim loi trong hn hp ban u.

2. Tnh gi tr ca m1 v V.

3. Cho m2 gam Zn vo dung dch Y (to kh NO l sn phm kh duy nht

TP

.Q

ca NO 3 ), sau phn ng thu c 3,36 gam cht rn. Tnh gi tr ca m2.


HDG: 1. S mol NaNO3 = 0,36 mol

NO + 2H2O

NO3- + 4H+ + 3e

(1)

Ta c cc bn phn ng:

S mol H2SO4 = 0,72 mol s mol H+ = 1,44 mol

Mol : 0,16 0,64 0,48 0,16

S mol NO = 0,16 mol H+ v NO3- d, kim loi phn ng ht.

0B

Zn Zn2+ + 2e (2)

10
0

Fe Fe3+ + 3e (1)

TR

S mol NO3- phn ng = 0,16 mol; s mol H+ phn ng = 0,64 mol


Gi s mol Fe l x mol, s mol Zn l y mol

2+
3

Theo khi lng hn hp ban u ta c phng trnh : 56 x + 65 y = 10,62 (I)

Theo nh lut bo ton electron ta c phng trnh: 3x + 2y = 0,16.3

(II)

Gii h phng trnh (I), (II) ta c: x = 0,12 v y = 0,06 mol

mFe = 0,12.56 = 6,72 g % mFe = 63,28%

-L

% mZn =100% - 63,28 % = 36,72 %

B
ID

TO

2. Dung dch Y c 0,2 mol NO3-; 0,8 mol H+; 0,12 mol Fe3+; 0,06 mol Zn2+, khi
thm bt Cu vo dung dch Y:
3Cu + 8H+ + 2NO3- 3Cu2+ + 2NO + 4 H2O (3)
mol: 0,3 0,8

0,2

2Fe3+ + Cu 2Fe2+

0,2
+ Cu2+

(4)

0,12 0,06
T phn ng (3), (4) c tng s mol Cu = 0,36 mol

75

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m1 = 0,36.64 = 23,04 gam; VNO = 4,48 lt


3. Thm m2 gam Zn vo dung dch Y c 0,2 mol NO3-; 0,8 mol H+; 0,12 mol Fe3+;

0,06 mol Zn2+:

.Q

0,06 0,06

Fe2+ Zn2+ + Fe
0,06

TP

Zn +
Mol:

0,12

0,06 0,12

Mol:

2Fe3+ Zn2+ + 2Fe2+

0,3 0,8 0,2


Zn

T
N

Mol:

3Zn + 8H+ + 2NO3- 3Zn2+ + 2NO + 4 H2O

Nn trong 3,36 gam cht rn sau phn ng ch c Fe nFe = 3,36/56 = 0,06 mol

Do khi lng Fe3+ = 0,12.56 = 6,72 gam > khi lng cht rn bng 3,36 gam.

Tng s mol Zn phn ng bng 0,3 + 0,12 = 0,42 mol mZn = 27,3 gam

2.7.1.5. S dng bi tp rn luyn nng lc thc hnh ha hc

V d 1(HSG Vnh Phc 2010): Xc nh cc cht ng vi cc k hiu v hon

thnh cc phng trnh phn ng theo s sau.

TR

A + B + H2O
c kt ta v c kh thot ra

10
0

0B

C + B + H2O
c kt ta trng keo

2+
3

D + B + H2O
c kt ta v kh
A + E
c kt ta

E + B
c kt ta

D + Cu(NO3)2
c kt ta ( mu en)

Vi A, B, C, D, E l cc mui v c c gc axit khc nhau.

B
ID

TO

-L

HDG: Ta c th chn
A

Na2CO3

Al2 (SO4)3

NaAlO2

Na2S

BaCl2

PTHH:
3Na2CO3 + Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O
3Na2SO4 + 2Al(OH)3 + 3CO2
3Na2SO4 + 8Al(OH)3
6NaAlO2 + Al2(SO4)3 + 12H2O

3Na2S

+ Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O
3Na2SO4 + 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2S

76

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Na2CO3 + BaCl2
2NaCl + BaCO3

2NaNO3
+ Cu(NO3)2

Na2S

2AlCl3 + 3BaSO4
+ CuS

+ Al2(SO4)3

3BaCl2

V d 2: Nu hin tng, gii thch v vit PTHH cho cc trng hp sau:

a. Cho kim loi K vo dung dch FeCl2.

T
N

b. Cho kim loi Al vo dung dch Ba(OH)2 thu c dung dch X. Sc CO2 ti

d vo dung dch X.

c. Cho thanh Fe vo dung dch CuSO4 un nng.

d. Cho kim loi Cu vo dung dch H2SO4 long, sau sc lin tc kh O2 vo.

.Q

HDG: a. C kh bay ln v c kt ta trng xanh ha nu trong khng kh

TP

K + H2O KOH + 1/2H2

4Fe(OH)2 + O2 + 2H2O 4Fe(OH)3

2KOH + FeCl2 2KCl + Fe(OH)2

b. C si bt kh v kt ta keo trng xut hin

2Al + Ba(OH)2 + 6H2O Ba[Al(OH)4]2 + 3H2

TR

Ba[Al(OH)4]2 + 2CO2 Al(OH)3 + Ba(HCO3)2

0B

c. Khi un nng mu xanh ca dung dch nht dn v c kt ta mu bm vo


Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu

10
0

thanh Fe:

2+
3

d. Kim loi Cu tan v to dung dch mu xanh lam

2Cu + O2 + 2H2SO4 2CuSO4 + 2H2O

2.7.1.6. S dng bi tp ha hc vn dng gii quyt cc vn thc tin

V d 1: Trc y ngi ta thng dng hp cht ca Zn v P lm thuc chut.

-L

Vy thuc chut l g ? Ti sao nhng con chut sau khi n thuc chut li i tm

nc ung? Ci g lm cho chut cht? Nu sau khi n thuc m khng c nc

B
ID

TO

ung n cht mau hn hay lu hn ?


HDG: Thuc chut l Zn3P2 sau khi n Zn3P2 b thu phn rt mnh, hm lng
nc trong c th chut gim, n kht v i tm nc:
Zn3P2 + 6H2O 3Zn(OH)2 + 2PH3
Chnh PH3 git cht chut. Cng nhiu nc a vo PH3 thot ra cng nhiu
chut cng nhanh cht. Nu khng c nc chut cht lu hn.

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V d 2: V sao phn chua c dng nh trong nc?


HDG: - Phn chua l mui sunfat kp ca nhm v kali. dng tinh th ngm 24

phn t H2O nn c cng thc ho hc l K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O.

- Phn chua khng c, c v cht chua, t tan trong nc lnh nhng tan rt nhiu

trong nc nng nn rt d tinh ch bng kt tinh li trong nc.

T
N

- Kt ta Al(OH)3 to thnh khi khuy phn vo nc dnh kt cc ht t nh l

2+
H2O
+ H+
AlOH

Al3+ +

+ 3SO42-

2Al3+
Al2(SO4)3

lng trong nc c thnh ht t to hn, nng v chm xung lm trong nc.

.Q

+
+
Al(OH)2 + H
AlOH2+ + H2O

TP

+
Al(OH)2+ + H2O
Al(OH)3 + H

+
Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O
Al(OH)3 + 3H

V d 3: V sao vt bng Ag lu ngy thng b xm en? V sao dng vt

bng Ag ng thc n th thc n lu b i thiu hn?

HDG: Do Ag tc dng vi kh O2 v H2S trong khng kh to ta Ag2S (mu en)

TR

4Ag + O2 + 2H2S
2Ag2S + 2H2O

10
0

0B

Khi bc sunfua gp nc s c mt lng rt nh i vo nc thnh ion Ag+. Ion

2+
3

Ag+ c tc dng dit khun rt mnh, ch cn 1/5 t gam bc trong 1 lt nc cng


dit vi khun. Khng cho vi khun pht trin nn gi cho thc n lu b i thiu.

2.7.1.7. S dng bi tp ha hc nhm pht trin nng lc t hc v tip thu kin

thc

Vi cc phn kin thc mi khng c nhiu thi gian ging dy th kh nng t

-L

hc ca HS l rt cn thit, ng thi cng nh gi c nng lc tip thu kin thc ca

B
ID

TO

HS. pht hin kh nng v nng lc ny ca HS th GV c th dng hai cch sau:


Cch 1: S dng kiu bi tp m trong bi c cung cp mt s kin thc

mi, HS tip cn kin thc mi khi nghin cu bi.


Cch 2: HS t nghin cu l thuyt v trn c s t gii quyt cc bi tp
theo s hng dn ca GV.

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V d 1: Tinh th CsCl c cu to dng lp phng nh hnh v. Bit r+= 1,69 A v


0

r- = 1,81 A . Hy xc nh s n v cu trc; hng s mng (cnh a) theo bn knh

nguyn t (r); c kht ( )

N
B
H
H

1.[ 4 . .r 3 4 . .R 3 ]
3
3
0,683

3
a CsCl

- c kht:

2(r R)
4,04 A0
3

T
N

- Hng s mng: a

HDG: Ta c: - S n v cu trc: nCsCl = 1Cs+ + 1Cl- = 1CsCl

Khi gii bi tp ny, hc sinh gin tip c cung cp kin thc v cu trc

TP

.Q

mng tinh th ca CsCl.

V d 2: Al(OH)3 l mt hidroxit lng tnh c th tn ti 2 cn bng:

Al3+ + 3OH- Tt1 = 10-33


Al(OH)3

AlO2- + 2H2O

Al(OH)3 + OH-

Tt2 = 40

Vit biu thc biu th tan ton phn ca Al(OH)3 (S) = [Al3+] + [AlO2-] di

0B

HDG: Xt hai cn bng:

TR

dng mt hm ca [H+]. pH bng bao nhiu th S cc tiu? Tnh gi tr Smin?


T1 = [Al3+]. [OH-] = 10-33

10
0

Al3+ + 3OHAl(OH)3

2+
3

AlO2- + 2H2O
Al(OH)3 + OH-

Tt2 = [AlO2-] / [OH-] = 40

[Al3+] = (10-33 / [OH-]3) = [H+]3. (10-33 / (10-14)3) = 109.[H+]

[AlO2- ] = 40. [OH-] = 40.10-4 / [H+] = 4.10-3 / [H+]


S = 109.[H+]

+ 4.10-3 / [H+]

Theo bi: S = [Al3+] + [AlO2-]

[H+] = 3,4.10-6 pH = 5,5. Thay [H+] vo S Smin = 1,5.10-7

Qua bi ton ny HS c th hnh thnh v tch ly c phn kin thc v tan,


tch s tan, hng s cn bng,

B
ID

TO

-L

tan S s c cc tr khi o hm S = 0

s dng h thng bi tp ny c hiu qu, GV cn lu vi mi mt bi tp


c th c nhiu mc ch khc nhau ty theo tng thi im m GV s dng. Chng
hn, vi mt s bi, nu GV s dng ngay trong gi hc th n c tc dng pht

79

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hin c nng lc pht hin vn ca HS, nhng nu s dng n khi lm cc


bi tng t th n li c tc dng cng c v rn k nng gii bi tp cho HS.

2.7.2. S dng h thng bi tp t chc hot ng dy hc trn lp

T
N

phng php trao i, gm trao i gia GV vi HS, gia cc HS vi nhau.

ni dung ging dy, tuy nhin, phng php s dng thng xuyn v ch yu l

Mi GV s dng phng php dy hc sao cho hp l v ph hp vi tng

Khi nghin cu l thuyt GV khng ging li ton b kin thc pht trong

ti liu cho HS m ch tr li nhng cu hi HS thc mc. Sau GV t h thng

cu hi theo ni dung l thuyt pht trong ti liu, v ch nh HS tr li hoc

.Q

dnh thi gian cho HS trao i, tho lun trong khong thi thi gian thch hp ri

TP

tr li. Tr li c cc cu hi ny, HS s nm c h thng kin thc ca bi

ng thi t gii p c thc mc ca mnh. Mt khc, thng qua vic tr li cu

hi ca HS, GV cng s nh gi c kh nng t hc nh ca HS, cn c vo

m GV c th iu chnh khi lng kin thc yu cu HS t nghin cu nh.

2.7.3. S dng bi tp kim tra, nh gi

TR

nh gi mc nm vng kin thc ca cc em ngay sau mi bui hc,

0B

gio vin t chc cho HS lm bi trc nghim khch quan (dng nhiu la chn)

10
0

khong 10 - 15 cu (c trch t ni dung ca lun vn). Vic lm ny c tc dng

2+
3

ng vin, khuyn khch ng vin vic t hc nh ca HS. y chnh l ng lc

gip cc em khng ngng n lc, c gng trong hc tp.

Ngoi ra nh gi nng lc hc tp ca HS sau mt khong thi gian nht

nh, gio vin t chc cc bi kim tra theo nh k. Cn c vo im kim tra

hng ngy v im bi thi nh k gio vin c th nh gi mt cch chnh xc v

-L

nng lc hc tp ca mi HS trong i tuyn v trong cc lp hc.

B
ID

TO

2.7.4. S dng bi tp xy dng bi tp mi


2.7.4.1. Thay i mc yu cu (pht trin thm, lc bt, chia nh, thay th)
V d: Bi ton gc: Hn hp A gm cc kim loi Al, Fe, K. Cho m (g) A tc dng
vi lng d nc thu c 0,448 lit kh H2. Nu cho m (g) A tc dng vi 70 ml
dung dch NaOH 1M (d) th thu c 1,12 lit kh H2 v dung dch B. Mt khc nu

80

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cho m(g) A tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 long d th sau phn ng thu c 2,24
lit H2. Bit cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, cc th tch kh o ktc.

a. Tnh % khi lng ca mi kim loi trong hn hp A?

b. Tnh th tch dung dch H2SO4 1M cn cho tc dng vi dung dch B :

+ Thu c lng kt ta ln nht, tnh lng kt ta .

T
N

+ Thu c 0,78g kt ta.

Bi ton xy dng: Lc bt ni dung v thay th xy dng bi ton mi

Cho 3,84 (g) hn hp A gm cc kim loi Al, Fe, K tc dng vi lng d nc thu

c 0,448 lit kh H2. Nu cho 3,84 (g) A tc dng vi 70 ml dung dch NaOH 1M

.Q

(d) th thu c 1,12 lit kh H2 v dung dch B. Bit cc phn ng xy ra hon

TP

ton, cc th tch kh o ktc.

c. Tnh % khi lng ca mi kim loi trong hn hp A?

d. Tnh khi lng kt ta ln nht thu c khi cho dung dch B tc dng vi

dung dch H2SO4.

+ O2, t

(2)

B (rn)

0B

(1)

+ KMnO4 / H2SO4 l

+ dd H2SO4 l

2+
3

(7)

+ O2, t

Bi ton xy0 dng:

(8)

A(kh)

(2)

+ dd H2SO4 l

(3)

+ dd H2SO4 l

(3)

t0

(10)

(5)

+ O2 + H2O

(9)

+ Fe, t0

B (rn)

(4)

+ dd NaOH

pdd

(11)

pdd

(4)

(5)

(1)

+ dd H2S

+ Fe, t0

+F

(6)

+ dd H2S

A(kh)

10
0

FeS2

TR

V d: Bi ton
gc:
0

2.7.4.2. o chiu

+ KMnO4 / H2SO4 l

-L

+ dd H2SO4 l

(7)

(8)

+ dd NaOH

(9)

t0

+ O2 + H2O

(10)

(11)

Fe2O3

(6)

+F

B
ID

TO

2.7.4.3. Xy dng bi tp c nhiu cch gii


V d: Ngi ta d tnh ho tan 10-3 mol Mg(NO3)2 trong mt lt dung dch NH3
0,5M ; trnh s to thnh kt ta Mg(OH)2 phi thm vo dung dch ti thiu bao
nhiu mol NH4Cl?

Cho K NH = 1,8.10-5;
3

Tt Mg ( OH )2 = 1,0.10

-11

HDG: Cch 1: iu kin khng to kt ta Mg(OH)2 l [Mg2+].[OH -]2 10-11.


vi C0(Mg2+) = 10-3 th [OH -] 10-4
81

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NH3 +

NH 4

H2O

0,5 10-4

[ ]

OH

Kb = 1,8.10-5.

10-4

x + 10-4

Cn bng

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( x 104 ) 104
= 1,8.10-5 (coi 10-4<< 0,5 ) x = 0,0899
4
0,5 10

B
T
N

TP

.Q

Khi thm NH4Cl s c dung dch m baz (NH3 + NH4+)

NH 4
pHm baz = 14 pKb lg
.
NH 3

Cch 2 iu kin khng to kt ta Mg(OH)2 l [Mg2+].[OH-]2 10-11.


vi C0(Mg2+) = 10-3 th [OH-] 10-4 [H+] 10-10 pH 10

Vy phi thm ti thiu 0,0899 mol NH4Cl khng to c kt ta Mg(OH)2.

Thay pH = 10 ; pK = 4,74 ; [NH3] = 0,5 tnh c [NH 4 ] = 0,09

2.7.4.4. Thay i hnh thc ca bi tp

Thay i t hnh thc trc nghim thnh t lun

V d 1: Bi ton gc (H khi B - 2007): Nung m gam bt st trong oxi, thu c

TR

3,0 gam hn hp cht rn X. Ha tan ht hn hp X trong dung dch HNO3 (d)

0B

thot ra 0,56 lt kh (ktc) NO (sp kh duy nht). Gi tr ca m l


B. 2,22

C. 2,62

10
0

A. 2,52

D. 2,32

2+
3

Bi ton xy dng: Nung m gam bt st trong oxi, thu c 3,0 gam hn hp cht

rn X. Ha tan ht hn hp X trong dung dch HNO3 (d) thot ra 0,56 lt kh (ktc)

NO (sp kh duy nht). Hy tnh khi lng st ban u.

V d 2: Bi ton gc: Cho 6,3 gam hn hp X gm Mg v kim loi M (ha tr

khng i) tc dng vi Cl2, sau mt thi gian c 20,5 gam rn Y. Ha tan ht Y

-L

trong dung dch HCl sinh ra 2,24 lt H2 (ktc). Mt khc cho 0,1 mol M phn ng

B
ID

TO

vi dung dch HNO3 c, nng d th lng NO2 thot ra vt qu 5,04 lt (ktc).


a. Xc nh kim loi M.
b. Cho 12,6 gam X trn tc dng vi dung dch HNO3 long d, kt thc phn
ng thu c 2,24 lt (ktc) hn hp kh Z gm N2 v N2O c t khi hi so vi H2
l 18. Tnh khi lng mui thu c sau khi cc phn ng kt thc.
A:

a. M l Al;

b. Khi lng mui = 90 gam.

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Bi ton xy dng: Cho 6,3 gam h hp X gm Mg v kim loi M (ha tr khng


i) tc dng vi Cl2, sau mt thi gian thu c 20,5 gam cht rn Y. Ha tan ht

Y trong dung dch HCl sinh ra 2,24 lt H2(ktc). Mt khc, cho 0,1 mol M phn ng

Cho 12,6 gam X trn tc dng vi dung dch HNO3 long d, kt thc phn ng thu

vi dung dch HNO3 c, nng d th lng NO2 thot ra vt qu 5,04 lt(ktc).

T
N

c 2,24 lt (ktc) hn hp kh Z gm N2 v N2O c t khi hi so vi H2 l 18.


C. Zn; 45 gam.

D. Zn; 90 gam

B. Al; 90 gam.

A. Al; 45 gam.

Kim loi X v khi lng mui thu c khi phn ng kt thc l

TP

(1) Cho dung dch NaOH vo dung dch Ca(HCO3)2.

.Q

V d: Bi ton gc(A 11): Tin hnh cc th nghim sau:

2.7.4.5. Thay i yu cu

(2) Cho dung dch HCl ti d vo dung dch NaAlO2 (hoc Na[Al(OH)4]).

(3) Sc kh H2S vo dung dch FeCl2.

(4) Sc kh NH3 ti d vo dung dch AlCl3.

(5) Sc kh CO2 ti d vo dung dch NaAlO2 (hoc Na[Al(OH)4]).

TR

(6) Sc kh etilen vo dung dch KMnO4.

0B

Sau khi cc phn ng kt thc, c bao nhiu th nghim thu c kt ta?

10
0

A: 4

2+
3

Bi ton xy dng: Tin hnh cc th nghim sau:

(1) Cho dung dch NaOH vo dung dch Ca(HCO3)2.

(2) Cho dung dch HCl ti d vo dung dch NaAlO2 (hoc Na[Al(OH)4]).

(3) Sc kh H2S vo dung dch FeCl2.

(4) Sc kh NH3 ti d vo dung dch AlCl3.

-L

(5) Sc kh CO2 ti d vo dung dch NaAlO2 (hoc Na[Al(OH)4]).

B
ID

TO

(6) Sc kh etilen vo dung dch KMnO4.

Gii thch hin tng xy ra v vit cc phng trnh ha hc xy ra.


2.7.4.6. Xy dng bi tp tng t
V d: Bi ton gc: Nu hin tng, gii thch v vit PTHH khi:
a. Cho kim loi K vo dung dch FeCl2.

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b. Cho kim loi Al vo dung dch Ba(OH)2 thu c dung dch X. Sc CO2 ti
d vo dung dch X.

c. Cho Zn vo dung dch NH3 c.

e. Cho kim loi Cu vo dung dch H2SO4 long, sau sc lin tc kh O2 vo.

d. Cho thanh Fe vo dung dch CuSO4 un nng.

T
N

Bi ton xy dng: Da vo ni dung kin thc tng t ta c th xy dng h

Nu Nu hin tng, gii thch v vit PTHH cho cc trng hp sau:

thng cc cu hi tng t bi tp trn nh sau:

a. Cho kim loi Ba vo dung dch CuSO4.

.Q

b. Cho kim loi Zn vo dung dch Ba(OH)2 thu c dung dch X. Sc CO2 ti

TP

d vo dung dch X.

c. Cho Na2S vo dung dch AlCl3.

d. Nh t t ti d dung dch NH3 vo dung dch CuSO4.

e. Cho kim loi Cu vo dung dch HCl sau sc lin tc kh O2 vo.

f. Sc t t kh CO2 vo dung dch Ca(OH)2 ti d.

TR

2.7.4.7. Pht trin v m rng bi tp

0B

V d: Bi ton gc (HSG Qung Ninh 2010): Cho 10,62 gam hn hp gm Fe,

10
0

Zn vo 800 ml dung dch hn hp X gm NaNO3 0,45M v H2SO4 0,9M. un nng

2+
3

cho phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c dung dch Y v 3,584 lt kh NO (sn phm

kh duy nht, o ktc). Dung dch Y ha tan ti a m1 gam bt Cu v thu c V lt

kh NO (ktc, sn phm kh duy nht)

1. Tnh phn trm v khi lng tng kim loi trong hn hp ban u.

2. Tnh gi tr ca m1 v V.

-L

3. Cho m2 gam Zn vo dung dch Y (to kh NO l sn phm kh duy nht ca

B
ID

TO

NO 3 ), sau phn ng thu c 3,36 gam cht rn. Tnh gi tr ca m2.


Bi ton xy dng: Cho 10,62 gam hn hp gm Fe, Zn vo 800 ml dung dch hn
hp X gm NaNO3 0,45M v H2SO4 0,9M. un nng cho phn ng xy ra hon ton
thu c dung dch Y v 3,584 lt kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht, ktc). Dung dch Y
ha tan ti a m1 gam bt Cu v thu c V lt NO (ktc, sn phm kh duy nht)
1. Tnh phn trm v khi lng tng kim loi trong hn hp ban u.

84

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2. Tnh gi tr ca m1 v V.
3. Cho m2 gam Zn vo dung dch Y (to kh NO l sn phm kh duy nht ca

B
H

l ln nht. Tnh khi lng kt ta thu c v th tch Ba(OH)2 dng.

4. Cho t t dung dch Ba(OH)2 0,5M vo dung dch Y ti khi kt ta thu c

NO 3 ), sau phn ng thu c 3,36 gam cht rn. Tnh gi tr ca m2.

T
N

Tiu kt chng 2

Trong chng 2, chng ti thc hin c cc vn sau:

Phn tch ni dung chng trnh ha hc 12, phn kim loi

xut mt s phng php la chn v xy dng h thng bi tp BDHSG.

TP

.Q

Xy dng v tuyn chn h thng cc cu hi l thuyt v bi tp t lun (theo

cc dng bi) gm 104 bi v 100 cu hi trc nghim bi dng hc sinh gii

dnh cho cc trng THPT tnh Qung Ninh.

xut c mt s cch s dng h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp bi

dng cc nng lc cn thit cho hc sinh gii (c cc v d t cc bi tp trong h

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

thng bi tp ca ti).

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CHNG 3
THC NGHIM S PHM

3.1. Mc ch, nhim v thc nghim

- a ra h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp ha hc tuyn chn, xy dng

nhm nng cao cht lng dy hc trong BDHSG trngTHPT.

T
N

- Xc nh mc ph hp, tnh kh thi v hiu qu ca vic s dng h thng cu

hi l thuyt v BTHH phn kim loi trong cng tc pht hin v BDHSG trng

THPT.

3.2. Ni dung thc nghim s phm

.Q

- S dng h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp tuyn chn, xy dng pht hin

TP

v BDHSG HH lp 12.

- Xy dng bi kim tra chung cho c hai lp i chng v thc nghim nh gi

hiu qu, tnh kh thi ca h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp phn kim loi

tuyn chn v xy dng.

3.3. Phng php thc nghim s phm

TR

3.3.1. Phm vi thc nghim s phm

0B

- Trng THPT Hn Gai Qung Ninh

10
0

- Trng THPT Vn Lang Qung Ninh (Dn lp)

2+
3

- Trng THPT m H Qung Ninh

3.3.2. i tng v cch thc tin hnh thc nghim s phm

3.3.2.1. i tng thc nghim s phm

i tuyn HSG lp 12 khi THPT nm hc 2013 - 2014


S HS TN

S HS C

Gio vin dy

THPT Hn Gai

Nguyn Th Thy

THPT Vn Lang

L Khc Huynh

THPT m H

Xun Lc

B
ID

TO

-L

Trng

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3.3.2.2. Cch thc tin hnh


Ly i tuyn HSG ca 3 trng chia lm 2 nhm: Nhm thc nghim v

nhm i chng mi nhm mi trng l 6 HS, tng cng l 18 HS.

- Tin hnh trao i v vic BDHSG vi cc GV c nhiu kinh nghim, cc

3.3.2.3. Phng php thc nghim s phm

T
N

GV trc tip ph trch i tuyn ca 3 trng ng thi trao i trc tip vi HS

trong cc i tuyn, t nm bt tnh hnh hc tp thc t ca HS.

- ngh vi cc GV trc tip ph trch cc i tuyn HSG cho php o chng

trnh, dy i tuyn phn v c trc, hu c sau. Cn c vo , chng ti tin

.Q

hnh thc nghim s phm t 15/7/2014 10/2014.

TP

- Qu trnh dy i tuyn:

+ nhm i chng: GV dy hc theo h thng l thuyt, h thng bi tp

ca GV t xy dng.

+ nhm thc nghim: GV dy hc theo h thng l thuyt v h thng bi

tp c bin son theo ni dung ca lun vn.

TR

- Kim tra:

0B

+ Sau mi bui dy chng ti cho HS lm bi trc nghim khch quan dng

10
0

nhiu la chn (15 pht cho 10 cu hi).

2+
3

+ T chc cho HS lm 2 bi kim tra gia v sau thi gian thc nghim

mi trng vi thi gian lm bi 90 pht.

+ Chm bi theo p n xy dng v phn loi HS t cao ti thp.

+ Dng thng k ton hc x l, phn tch kt qu thc nghim s phm.

+ So snh kt qu kim tra gia nhm thc nghim v nhm i chng t

-L

rt ra kt lun v tnh kh thi ca ti.

B
ID

TO

3.4. Kt qu thc nghim s phm


3.4.1. X l kt qu thc nghim s phm
3.4.1.1. Tnh cc tham s c trng
* Trung bnh cng: Tham s c trng cho s tp trung ca s liu
X

n .X
n
i

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ni: S hc sinh t im xi
n: S hc sinh tham gia thc nghim

* Phng sai S2, lch chun S: Tham s o mc phn tn ca cc s liu

H
S S2

n 1

n (X X )

T
N

quanh gi tr trung bnh cng. S cng nh th s liu cng t b phn tn.

3.4.1.2. Bng kt qu thc nghim phn phi tn s cho nhm thc nghim v nhm

i chng

im

HS

.Q

TP

Bng 3.1. Bng kt qu kim tra tng ng ca cc bi kim tra

tng
3

10

18

TN

18

18

18

TN

TR

10
0

0B

2+
3

Bng 3.2. Bng im kim tra trung bnh v lch chun tng ng ca cc

bi kim tra
1

-L

TN

TN

im TB( X )

6,39

5,17

6,94

5,39

Phng sai (S2)

2,72

2,5

2,64

2,95

lch chun (S)

1,65

1,58

1,62

1,71

B
ID

TO

i tng

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Bng 3.3. Phn trm HS t im kh gii, trung bnh, yu km


2

1
C

TN

%Kh gii (7 10)

44,44

16,67

61,11

27,78

%Trung bnh (5 6)

44,44

50

33,33

%Yu km (< 5)

11,11

33,33

5,56

TN

T
N

i tng

27,78

.Q

44,44

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0B

0,00

5,56

0,00

5,56

5,56

11,11

5,56

16,67

5,56

16,67

11,11

33,33

16,67

16,67

27,78

50,00

27,78

33,33

55,56

83,33

16,67

11,11

72,22

94,44

16,67

5,56

88,89

100,00

11,11

0,00

100,00

100,00

10

0,00

0,00

100,00

100,00

Tng

18

18

10
0
2+
3

-L
N
TO

B
ID

TR

0,00

tr xung
TN

% HS t im xi

TN

TN

im

% HS t im xi

S HS t im xi

(sau tc ng)

TP

Bng 3.4. Bng phn phi tn s, tn sut v tn sut ly tch bi kim tra s 1

89

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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120

100

T
N

60

C
TN

80

40

20

10

TP

.Q

im xi

Hnh 3.1. th biu din ng ly tch bi kim tra s 1(sau tc ng)

Bng 3.5. Bng phn phi tn s, tn sut v tn sut ly tch bi kim tra s 2

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

5,56

0,00

5,56

0,00

11,11

0,00

16,67

5,56

11,11

5,56

27,78

16,67

22,22

22,22

50,00

16,67

22,22

38,89

72,22

22,22

16,67

61,11

88,89

22,22

11,11

83,33

100,00

11,11

0,00

94,44

100,00

10

5,56

0,00

100,00

100,00

Tng

18

18

2+
3

C
A

10
0

-L
N
TO
G
N

TN

tr xung

% HS t im xi

TN

TN

B
ID

% HS t im xi

0B

im

TR

S HS t im xi

(sau tc ng)

90

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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120

100

T
N

60

C
TN

80

40

20

TP

im xi

10

.Q

Hnh 3.2. th biu din ng ly tch bi kim tra s 2(sau tc ng)

3.4.2. Phn tch, nh gi kt qu thc nghim s phm

TR

- T s liu cc bng thc nghim:

3.4.2.1. Cc kt qu thu c t vic phn tch s liu thc nghim s phm

0B

T l % hc sinh TB, km (t 3 6 im) ca cc nhm TN lun thp hn

10
0

ca cc nhm C tng ng.

2+
3

T l % hc sinh kh, gii (t 7 10 im) ca cc nhm TN lun cao hn

khi C tng ng.

im trung bnh cng ca hc sinh khi lp TN tng dn v lun cao hn so

vi im trung bnh cng ca hc sinh khi lp C.

-L

lch chun ca cc gi tr im trung bnh cng ln kim tra 1 tng

i cao v lch chun ca nhm TN cao hn nhm C, chng t c s phn tn

B
ID

TO

s liu, ngha l kim tra HS ln 1 c tc dng phn ho r rt. lch chun


ca nhm C nh hn, do im HS tng i tp trung khong trung bnh, yu.
lch chun ca cc gi tr im trung bnh cng ln kim tra 2 tng
i cao v lch chun ca nhm TN thp hn so vi nhm C. Chng t ngoi
tc dng phn ho ca kim tra ln 2, ni dung dy hc v phng php dy hc
p dng cho nhm TN c tc dng tch cc n vic nng cao cht

91

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lng hc tp ca HS, th hin s chuyn dch v im s ca HS nhm TN


tp trung ch yu khong im 7 - 9 trong khi im s ca HS nhm C phn

tn hn v phn nhiu tp chung khong 5 - 6.

th cc ng ly tch ca cc nhm TN lun nm bn phi v pha di

- T th cc ng lu tch

hc v PPDH khi c p dng vo thc t cho kt qu hc tp cao hn.

T
N

cc ng ly tch ca cc nhm C tng ng. iu ny chng t ni dung dy

3.4.2.2. Nhn xt thu c t pha hc sinh

HS nghin cu ti liu t hc trc nh gip cho vic hc trn lp hiu

.Q

qu hn rt nhiu.

TP

Vic nghin cu bi trc khi n lp to cho hc sinh t th ch ng, t

tin hn rt nhiu, gip cc em c nhiu thi gian o su kin thc. Cc em c

nhiu thi gian rn luyn k nng gii cc dng bi tp kh, c iu kin trao i

trong nhm hc tp ln nhau v trao i vi GV.

K nng tm kim v x l thng tin t cc ti liu tham kho, qua mng

TR

internet c pht trin.

10
0

bi hc hn qua cc gi hc

0B

Khng kh lp hc si ni to tm l thoi mi, vui v gip HS d tip thu

2+
3

K nng hot ng nhm c nng cao; tng cng s on kt; bnh ng;

thn thin gia cc HS, gia cc HS vi GV; pht trin k nng giao tip v hc tp

hp tc.

HS u hng th, say m vi PPDH p dng trong cc gi hc.

-L

3.4.2.3. Nhn xt thu c t pha gio vin

Chng ti tin hnh trao i, thm d kin ca 15 thy c gio cc

B
ID

TO

trng: THPT Hn Gai, THPT Vn Lang, THPT m H v ni dung cc chuyn


kim loi xut (ni dung phiu thm d kin c trnh by ph lc 2).
Cc gio vin dy BDHSG u c kin thng nht rng:
H thng bi tp phn kim loi tng i y v r rng.

92

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Ni dung h thng bi tp xut trong lun vn tng i ph hp vi

chng trnh BDHSG ni chung v ca tnh Qung Ninh ni ring, gp phn

nng cao c nng lc t duy, sng to, kh nng t hc cho HS.

dng phng php hot ng nhm trong BDHSG gp phn hn ch tnh trng

Vic bin son ti liu cho HS nghin cu trc khi n lp kt hp vi s

T
N

c chp, gip HS tch cc v ch ng trong qu trnh lnh hi kin thc ng thi

gip GV c thi gian hng dn, t chc cc hot ng hc tp cho HS.

- Nm 2010 2011: 1 gii nh, 2 gii ba, 3 gii khuyn khch

3.4.2.4. Kt qu thi HSG trng THPT Vn Lang mt s nm gn y

.Q

- Nm 2011 2012: 1 gii nh, 3 gii ba, 2 gii khuyn khch

TP

- Nm 2012 2013: 2 gii nh, 3 gii ba, 1 gii khuyn khch

- Nm 2013 2014 (c s dng chuyn ca lun vn trong qu trnh bi

dng): 1 gii nht, 3 gii nh, 2 gii ba.

Nh vy qua vic s dng ni dung ca lun vn vo BDHSG thu c

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

phn no kt qu kh quan hn.

93

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Tiu kt chng 3
Trong chng 3, chng ti thc hin cc cng vic sau:

Tin hnh thc nghim s phm ti 3 trng: THPT Hn Gai, THPT Vn Lang

theo hnh thc hc tp truyn thng v 3 nhm dy hc theo h thng bi tp

v THPT m H vi 18 HS. Chng ti c 6 nhm, trong c 3 nhm hc tp

T
N

c bin son trong lun vn v PPDH c xut trong lun vn.

Kim tra:

+ Sau mi bui dy, chng ti cho HS lm bi kim tra (trc nghim khch

quan v trc nghim t lun).

.Q

+ T chc cho HS lm bi kim tra nh k 2 ln trong qu trnh thc nghim

TP

s phm mi trng.

+ Thng k v phn tch cc kt qu thc nghim theo nh tnh v nh

lng. T rt ra mt s nh gi v hiu qu ca vic s dng h thng l thuyt,

bi tp phn kim loi BDHSG.

+ Chng ti tin hnh trao i, thm d kin ca ca 15 thy c gio

TR

cc trng: THPT Hn Gai, THPT Vn Lang, THPT m H v ni dung chuyn

0B

kim loi xut trong lun vn cng nh phng php ging dy thng qua

10
0

chng ti c th kt lun rng vic s dng ti liu bin son cho ni dung

2+
3

chuyn kim loi trong vic bi dng i tuyn HSG ha hc cng vi vic s

dng ti liu t hc, PPDH thch hp theo nhm gp phn nng cao hiu qu ca

B
ID

TO

-L

qu trnh o to HSG ha hc v o to ngun nhn ti cho t nc.

94

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KT LUN V KHUYN NGH

1. Kt lun

i chiu vi nhim v ca ti, lun vn thc hin y nhng ni

H thng ha c s l lun v hot ng nhn thc ca HS, vai tr ca HSG

dung ra.

T
N

v c s l lun v HSG, cc bin php pht hin v BDHSG trong dy hc ho hc.

iu tra thc trng BDHSG tnh Qung Ninh lm c s thc tin ca

ti. Kh khn ln nht ca cng tc BDHSG l thiu ti liu hay, c gi tr.

Xy dng, tuyn chn h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp ha hc phn kim

TP

.Q

loi 12 BDHSG vi s lng 104 cu hi l thuyt v bi tp t lun v 100 bi

cu cu hi l thuyt v bi tp TNKQ.

Thc nghim s phm nh gi cht lng h thng cu hi l thuyt v

bi tp xy dng. Kt qu x l thng k 3 trng THPT ca tnh Qung Ninh

cho thy h thng cu hi l thuyt v bi tp c cht lng tt.

TR

Kt qu nghin cu ca ti khng nh s ng n ca gi thuyt khoa

0B

hc, tnh kh thi ca ti.

10
0

2. Khuyn ngh

2+
3

Qua qu trnh nghin cu ti v tin hnh thc nghim ti, chng ti c

mt s khuyn ngh sau:

rn luyn nng lc t duy sng to, hng th hc tp cho HS v to iu

kin pht trin HS c nng khiu nn b sung 1 - 2 bi tp kh sau mi bi hc.

-L

B sung, cp nht mt s ti liu hay, cn thit cho cng tc BDHSG nhm

B
ID

TO

phc v nhu cu ca HS ni chung v HSG ho hc ni ring.


To mi trng hc tp HS pht huy c kh nng t hc, kh nng din

t, kh nng lm vic theo nhm,


Khuyn khch hc sinh hc tp ch ng, t hc tp, nghin cu, su tm ti
liu t cc ngun khc nhau nh sch, ti liu n thi, mng internet,
Ngnh gio dc v nh trng cn c ch khch l hp l v ng vin
kp thi i vi cc HSG v GV tham gia cng tc BDHSG
95

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TI LIU THAM KHO

1. V Ngc Ban (2006), Phng php chung gii cc bi ton ho hc THPT.

NXB Gio dc.

2. Ban t chc k thi Olimpic 30 4, Tuyn tp thi Olympic 30 4, 2002,

2003, 2004, 2006, 2009.

T
N

3. B gio dc v o to (2007), Qu trnh xy dng, pht trin h thng cc

trng trung hc ph thng chuyn v mc tiu, gii php trong thi gian ti.

4. Trnh Vn Biu (2007), L lun dy hc ha hc, HSP Tp. H Ch Minh.

5. B Gio dc v o to, thi HSGQG cc nm 2003, 2007, 2009, 2012.

.Q

6. B Gio dc v o to, thi hc sinh gii duyn hi Min trung 2009.

TP

7. B Gio dc v o to, thi tuyn sinh i hc cc nm 2007 2014.

8. B Gio dc v o to, Ti liu hng dn ni dung thi HSGQG cc nm.

9. Nguyn Hi Chu, V Anh Tun (2007), Nhng vn chung v i mi gio

dc trung hc ph thng mn ho hc, NXB Gio dc.

10. Nguyn Cng (1999), Phng php dy ha hc. NXB Gio dc.

0B

Thnh ph H Ch Minh.

TR

11. Trn Th Thy Dung (2011), Lun vn thc s khoa hc gio dc, HSP

10
0

12. Li Th Qunh Dip (2013), Lun vn thc s khoa hc gio dc, H Gio dc

2+
3

HQGHN.

13. V Cao m (2003), Phng php lun nghin cu khoa hc. NXB KHKT.

14. Trn Th - ng Ngc Phch (2006), C s l thuyt cc phn ng ho

hc. NXB Gio dc.

15. V ng - Trnh Ngc Chu Nguyn Vn Ni (2003), Bi tp c s l

-L

thuyt cc qu trnh ho hc. NXB Gio dc.

B
ID

TO

16. V ng , Triu Th Nguyt (2009), Ha hc v c. NXB Gio dc.

17. Phm nh Hin - V Th Mai - Phm Vn T (2002), Tuyn chn thi


HSG cc tnh v quc gia. NXB Gio dc.
18. PGS. TS. L Kim Long. Mt s vn v tinh th
19. Nguyn Vn Mai (2012), Lun vn thc s khoa hc gio dc. i hc Gio
dc HQGHN.

96

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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20. Hong Nhm (2000), Ho hc v c. Tp 1, 2, 3. NXB Gio dc.


21. Phan Trng Ng (2002), Dy hc v PPDH trong nh trng. NXB S phm.

22. Nguyn Ngc Quang - Nguyn Cng Dng Xun Trinh (1982), L

23. PGS.TS. Nguyn Th Su (ch bin), TS.L Vn Nm (2009), Phng php

lun dy hc ho hc. Tp 1. NXB S phm.

T
N

dy hc ha hc 2. NXB Khoa hc K thut.

24. Th tng chnh ph. Chin lc pht trin gio dc nm 2011 - 2020

25. Thi Duy Tuyn (2008), PPDH truyn thng v i mi. NXB Gio dc.

26. Lm Ngc Thim (2008), C s l thuyt ha hc. NXB Gio dc.

.Q

27. V Anh Tun (2006), Lun n Tin s Gio dc hc, HSP H Ni

TP

28. Nguyn Xun Trng, ThS Phm Th Anh (2011), Ti liu bi dng hc

sinh gii mn ha hc trung hc ph thng. NXB HQGHN.

29. PGS.TS. Nguyn Xun Trng, ThS. Quch Vn Long, ThS. Hong Th

Thy Hng (2013), Cc chuyn BDHSG ha hc 10. NXB HQGHN.

30. PGS.TS. Nguyn Xun Trng, ThS. Quch Vn Long, ThS. Hong Th

TR

Thy Hng (2013), Cc chuyn BDHSG ha hc 11. NXB HQGHN.

0B

31. PGS.TS. Nguyn Xun Trng, ThS. Quch Vn Long, ThS. Hong Th

10
0

Thy Hng (2013), Cc chuyn BDHSG ha hc 12. NXB HQGHN.

2+
3

32. PGS.TS. Nguyn Xun Trng, PGS.TS. Nguyn Th Su, PGS.TS.

ng Th Oanh - TS. Trn Trung Ninh (2004), Ti liu bi dng thng xuyn

cho gio vin THPT chu k III (2004 2007). B GD&T.

33. o Hu Vinh, Phm c Bnh (2012), Bi dng hc sinh gii 12, NXB

tng hp Thnh ph H Ch Minh.

-L

34. http://download.com.vn/timkiem/ thi hc sinh gii mn ha 12

36. http://www.quangninh.gov.vn/viVN/So/sogiaoducdaotao/ thi HSG ha 12


37. http://123doc.vn/tags/1684115-day-hoc-theo-dinh-huong-phat-trien-nang-luc.
38. http://www.hoahoc.org/day hoc theo dinh huong phat trien nang luc hoc sinh.

B
ID

TO

35. http://dethi.violet.vn/present/show/entry_id/8882814/ thi hc sinh gii ha 12

97

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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PH LC
PH LC 1: KIM TRA V P N THC NGHIM

S 1: Thi gian lm bi 90 pht

Cu 1: Cho cc cht sau: dd HNO3, dd HCl (c mt oxi), kh O2, H2S (c mt oxi),

I. PHN TRC NGHIM (3 im)

T
N

kh O3, kh Cl2, thy ngn, dd KCN (c mt oxi), nc cng toan, dd FeCl3. S


C. 6.

D. 5.

B. 7.

A. 4.

cht phn ng vi bc l

Cu 2: Cho Zn vo dd HNO3 thu c hn hp kh E gm N2O, N2. Khi phn ng

.Q

kt thc, ta cho thm dd NaOH vo li thy thot ra hn hp kh F. Vy hn hp

B. NO v NH3.

C. H2 v NH3.

A. H2 v NO2.

TP

kh F gm c

Cu 3: Nhn xt no sau y khng ng?

D. H2 v N2O.

A. Khi in phn dung dch NaCl c mng ngn ta thu c kh H2 ant

B. Cu, Fe, Ni l nhm kim loi c th iu ch c theo c 3 phng php: thu

TR

luyn, nhit luyn, in phn.

0B

C. thu c hn hp c nhit nng chy thp, khi in phn nng chy

10
0

Al2O3 ngi ta ha tan Al2O3 vo 3NaF.AlF3 nng chy.

2+
3

D. S khc nhau v bn cht gia n mn ho hc v n mn in ho l cch

dch chuyn electron t kim loi n mn sang mi trng.

Cu 4: Pht biu khng ng khi ni v nguyn t kim loi l

A. Bn knh nguyn t tng i ln hn so vi phi kim trong cng mt chu k.

B. S electron ho tr thng t hn so vi phi kim.

-L

C. Nng lng ion ho ca kim loi ln.

B
ID

TO

D. Lc lin kt gia ht nhn vi cc electron ho tr tng i yu.

Cu 5: Cho dung dch Ba(HCO3)2 ln lt vo cc dung dch: CaCl2, Ca(NO3)2,


NaOH, Na2CO3, KHSO4, Na2SO4, Ca(OH)2, H2SO4, HCl. S trng hp ng thi
to ra kt ta v c kh bay ra l
A. 5.

B. 2.

C. 6.

D. 3.

98

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Cu 6: Ion M3+ c cu hnh electron phn lp ngoi cng l 3d3. Pht biu no sau
y khng ng?

A. M2O3 v M(OH)3 c tnh cht lng tnh.

B. Trong bng tun hon M nm chu k 4 ,nhm VIB.

C. Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t M l: [Ar]3d44s2.

T
N

D. ion M3+ va c tnh kh, va c tnh oxi ha.

Cu 7: Cho 0,01 mol mt hp cht ca st tc dng ht vi H2SO4 c, nng (d),


B. FeS2

D. FeO

C. FeCO3

A. FeS

thy thot ra 0,112 lt SO2 (sp kh duy nht, ktc). Cng thc ca hp cht st l

.Q

Bi 8: Dch v d dy thng c pH trong khong 2-3. Nu ngi no c pH ca

TP

dch v qu nh hn 2 th d b vim lot d dy. cha bnh ny, ngi bnh

thng ung trc ba n mt t:

A. Dung dch natri hirocacbonat (NaHCO3). B. Nc.


D. Nc ng.

C. Nc mm.

Cu 9: Chia hn hp hai kim loi A, B c ha tr khng i thnh hai phn bng

TR

nhau. Phn 1 ha tan ht trong dung dch HCl, thu c 1,792 lt kh H 2 (ktc).

0B

Phn 2 nung trong oxi thu c 2,84 gam hn hp cc oxit. Khi lng hn hp

B. 3,12 gam

C. 2,2 gam

2+
3

A. 1,56 gam

10
0

hai kim loi trong hn hp u l:

D. 1,8 gam

II. PHN T LUN (7 im)

Cu 1 (2 im): Mt s kim loi nh Li, Na, K, Fe, Cr, c cu to mng tinh th

lp phng tm khi.

a. Xc nh s n v cu trc trong mng lp phng tm khi.

B
ID

TO

-L

b. Xc nh hng s mng (cnh a) theo bn knh nguyn t (r).


c. Xc nh c kht ( )

Cu 2 (2 im): Sc kh A vo dung dch cha cht B ta c rn C mu vng v


dung dch D. Kh X c mu vng lc tc dng vi kh A to ra C v F. Nu X tc
dng vi kh A trong nc to ra Y v F, ri thm BaCl2 vo dung dch th c kt
ta trng. A tc dng vi dung dch cht G l mui nitrat kim loi to ra kt ta H

99

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mu en. t chy H bi oxi ta c cht lng I mu trng bc. Xc nh A, B, C,


F, G, H, I, X, Y v vit phng trnh ha hc ca cc phn ng.

Cu 3 (3 im): Cho hn hp A gm ba oxit ca st Fe2O3, Fe3O4 v FeO vi s

mt lung kh CO i qua ng, CO phn ng ht, ton b kh CO2 ra khi ng c

mol bng nhau. Ly m1 gam A cho vo mt ng s chu nhit, nung nng ri cho

T
N

hp th ht vo bnh ng lng d dung dch Ba(OH)2 thu c m2 gam kt ta

trng. Cht cn li trong ng s sau phn ng c khi lng l 19,20 gam gm Fe,

FeO v Fe3O4, cho hn hp ny tc dng ht vi dung dch HNO3 d un nng

c 2,24 lt kh NO duy nht ( ktc).

.Q

a. Vit phng trnh ha hc ca cc phn ng.

TP

b. Tnh khi lng m1, m2 v s mol HNO3 phn ng.

III. P N

Cu

TRC NGHIM

TR

T LUN

0B

Cu

p n

im

Cu to mng tinh th lp phng tm khi

10
0

1
8

0,5

2+
3

a. S n v cu trc: n 1 1. 2

ta c: BC = a 2 AC = a 3 = 4r a =

B
ID

4r 3
3

0,5

c. c kht ( ) :
Tng th tch cc qu cu trong mt hnh lp phng:
4
3

0,25

V = 2. . .r 3

TO

-L

b. Hng s mng (cnh a):

Th tch ca mt hnh lp phng: V = a3 =


Vy:

3
V
.100% = 68%.
.100% =
,
8
V

64r 3
3 3

0,25

0,5

100

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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A: H2S; B: FeCl3; C: S; F: HCl; G: Hg(NO3)2; H: HgS;

0,5

I: Hg; X: Cl2; Y : H2SO4

Cl2 + H2S S + 2HCl

(2)

0,25

4Cl2 + H2S + 4H2O 8HCl + H2SO4

(3)

0,25

BaCl2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + 2HCl

(4)

H2S + Hg(NO3)2 HgS + 2HNO3

(5)

T
N
N

0,25

.Q

t
CO + 3Fe2O3
2Fe3O4 + CO2 (1)

a.

0,25

TP

3.

(6)

0,25

t
HgS + O2
Hg + SO2

0,25

(1)

H2S + 2FeCl3 2FeCl2 + S + 2HCl

Phng trnh ha hc ca cc phn ng :

Fe

+ CO2

(3)

0,5

t
CO + FeO

t
CO + Fe3O4
3FeO + CO2 (2)

Sau phn ng (1, 2, 3) thu c hn hp gm Fe, FeO, Fe3O4

CO2 + Ba(OH)2
BaCO3 + H2O (4)

TR

3Fe3O4 + 28HNO3
9Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 14H2O (5)

0,5

Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 2H2O (7)


4HNO3

10
0

Fe

0B

3FeO + 10HNO3
3Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 5H2O (6)

2+
3

b. Ta c s phn ng sau:

0,25

Ba ( OH )2
CO2
BaCO3 (m2 gam )

CO
FeO, Fe2 O3 , Fe3 O4

Fe(NO3 )3
HNO3
19, 2 g( Fe, FeO, Fe3 O4 )
NO

l hn hp ch c (Fe, Fe2O3). Ta c:
S mol Fe = s mol NO = 2,24/22,4 = 0,1 mol
S mol Fe2O3 =

B
ID

TO

-L

S dng phng php qui i: Coi hn hp (Fe, FeO, Fe3O4)

19, 2 56.0,1
0, 085 (mol)
160

0,25

0,25

t s mol FeO = s mol Fe2O3 = s mol Fe3O4 = a mol


+ p dng nh lut bo ton nguyn t cho Fe ta c:
a + 2a + 3a = 0,1 + 0,085.2 a = 0,045 (mol)

0,25
0,25

101

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20,88 + 28.nCO = 19,2 + 44.nCO2 nCO2 = nBaCO3 = 0,105

0,25

0,25

+ p dng nh lut bo ton khi lng ta c:

m1 = 0,045. (72 + 232 + 160) = 20,88 gam

0,25

S mol HNO3 p = 3.nFe(NO3)3 + nNO = 3. (0,1 + 0,085.2) + 0,1

mol (v nCO=nCO2) m2= mBaCO3 = 0,105.197 = 20,685 gam

T
N

= 0,91 (mol)

S 2: Thi gian lm bi 90 pht

I. PHN TRC NGHIM (3 im)

.Q

Cu 1: Cho 3,2 gam Cu tc dng vi 100 ml dung cha hai axit HNO3 0,8M v

TP

H2SO4 0,2 M. Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton sinh ra V lt kh NO (ktc) l

B. 0,448

C. 1,792

D. 0,672

A. 0,746

sn phm kh duy nht. Gi tr ca V l

Cu 2: Hn hp A gm 3 kim loi: Cu, X, Fe. tch ri kim loi X ra khi hn

nitrat st. Vy X l
B. Pb.

C. Zn.

0B

A. Ag.

TR

hp A m khng lm thay i khi lng X ta dng 1 ha cht duy nht l mui

D. Al.

10
0

Cu 3: Cho y mol Mg vo dd hn hp cha a mol Zn(NO3)2 v b mol AgNO3

y vi a v b l

2+
3

khuy u phn ng hon ton thu c dd c cha mt mui. Mi quan h gia

B. 2y (a+2b).

C. 2y (2a+b).

D. y (a+b).

A. 2y >(b+2a).

Cu 4: T cc s phn ng sau:

-L

(a) X1 + X2
Ca(OH)2 + H2

B
ID

TO

(b) X3 + X4
CaCO3 + Na2CO3 + H2O

(c) X3 + X5
Fe(OH)3 + NaCl + CO2

(d) X6 + X7 + X2
Al(OH)3 + NH3 + NaCl
Cc cht thch hp vi X2, X3, X4, X5 tng ng l
A. Ca; Ca(OH)2; NaHCO3; FeCl3

B. H2O; NaHCO3; Ca(OH)2; FeCl3.

C. Ca; NaOH; Ca(HCO3)2; FeCl3.

D. H2O; Ca(HCO3)2; NaOH; FeCl3.

102

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Cu 5: Cho cc cht sau: K2S, H2S, HI, AgNO3, KSCN, Cu, NaOH, Cu(NO3)2,
Na2CO3, Ag, dd KMnO4/H2SO4. S cht tc dng vi dung dch FeCl3 l
C. 7.

D. 6.

B. 9.

A. 8.

v NaCl 0,5M (in cc tr, hiu sut in phn 100%) vi cng dng in 5A

Cu 6: in phn c mng ngn 500ml dung dch cha hn hp gm CuCl2 0,1M

T
N

trong 3860 giy. Dung dch thu c sau in phn c kh nng ha tan m gam Al.

C. 1,35

D. 5,4

B. 2,70

A. 4,05

Gi tr ln nht ca m l

Cu 7: Cho cc pht biu sau:

.Q

(1) Hn hp Na2O + Al2O3 (t l mol 1: 1) tan ht trong nc d.

TP

(2) Hn hp Fe2O3 + Cu (t l mol 1: 1) tan ht trong dung dch HCl d.

(3) Hn hp KNO3 + Cu (t l mol 1: 1) tan ht trong dung dch NaHSO4 d.

(4) Hn hp FeS + CuS (t l mol 1:1) tan ht trong dung dch H2SO4 long d.

B. 4.

C. 1.

D. 2.

A. 3.

S pht biu ng l

TR

Cu 8: Ha tan 25 gam hn hp X gm FeSO4 v Fe2(SO4)3 vo nc, thu c

0B

150 ml dung dch Y. Thm H2SO4 (d) vo 20ml dung dch Y ri chun ton b

10
0

dung dch ny bng dung dch KMnO4 0,1M th dng ht 30 ml dung dch chun.

2+
3

Phn trm khi lng FeSO4 trong hn hp X l


B. 68,4%

C. 9,12%

D. 31,6%

A. 13,68%

Cu 9: Ha tan hon ton hn hp X gm a mol FeS2 v b mol Cu2S trong HNO3

(va ) thu c dung dch Y ch cha hai mui sunfat v kh NO (sn phm kh

duy nht ktc). T s a/b l


B. 1,0.

C. 1,5.

D. 2,0

-L

A. 0,5.

B
ID

TO

II. PHN T LUN (7 im)


Cu 1(2 im): Hn hp A gm Fe3O4, Al, Fe, Al2O3. Cho A tan trong NaOH d
c hn hp cht rn A1 dung dch B1 v kh C1. Kh C1 (d) cho tc dng vi A
un nng c hn hp cht rn A2. Dung dch B1 cho tc dng vi dung dch
H2SO4 long, d c dung dch B2. Cht rn A2 tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4
c, nng c dung dch B3 v kh C2. Vit cc PTHH xy ra.

103

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Cu 2(2 im): Mt dung dch FeCl3 nng C mol/lt . Cation Fe3+ l axit

+ H2O

Fe(OH)2+ + H+ ; pKa = 2,2

Fe3+

Hi gi tr C l bao nhiu th bt u c kt ta Fe(OH)3 ? Tnh pH ca dung dch

thi im ny ? Bit tch s tan ca Fe(OH)3 l 10-38.

Cu 3(3 im): Chia 16,68 gam hn hp X gm Fe v kim loi R (ho tr khng i)

T
N

thnh ba phn bng nhau. Phn 1 cho vo dung dch HCl d, sau khi phn ng xy ra

hon ton ch thu c dung dch v 3,136 lt H2. Phn 2 cho vo dung dch HNO3

long, d sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c 2,688 lt kh NO (sn phm

kh duy nht). Cc th tch kh o ktc.

.Q

a. Xc nh kim loi R v tnh thnh phn phn trm khi lng mi kim loi

TP

trong hn hp ban u.

b. Cho phn 3 vo V lt dung dch CuSO4 1M, sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton

thu c 8,64 gam cht rn. Tnh V.

III. P N

TR

10
0

0B

Cu

TRC NGHIM

T LUN

2+
3

Cu

p n

im

Khi cho hn hp cht rn A tan trong NaOH d:

2Na[Al(OH)4] + 3H2

2Al + 2NaOH + 6H2O

0,25

B
ID

TO

-L

Al2O3 + 2NaOH + 3H2O 2Na[Al(OH)4]

0,25

Cht rn A1 gm Fe3O4 v Fe. Dung dch B1 c Na[Al(OH)4],


NaOH d. Kh C1 l H2. Kh C1 tc dng vi A.
Fe3O4 + 4H2 3Fe + 4H2O

0,25

Cht rn A2 gm Fe, Al, Al2O3.


Dung dch B1 cho tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 long d:
2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O

0,25

2Na[Al(OH)4] + 4H2SO4 Na2SO4 + Al2(SO4)3 + 8H2O

0,25

Cho A2 tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 c, nng:

104

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0,25

2Fe + 6H2SO4 c Fe2(SO4)3 + 3SO2 + 6H2O

0,25

2Al + 6H2SO4 c Al2(SO4)3 + 3SO2 + 6H2O

0,25

0,5

[] Cx

Ka = 10-2,2

Fe(OH)2+ + H+
Fe3+ + H2O

0,25

T
N
N

Kw = 10-14

OH-

3+
2
Ka = x2 / (C x)
[Fe ] = C x = x / Ka

H+
H2O

Al2O3 + 3H2SO4 Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O

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0,5

V Ka >> Kw [H+] = x [OH-] = 10-14/x

Khi bt u c kt ta Fe(OH)3 th : Ks = [Fe3+].[OH-]3 = 10-38

0,25

TP

.Q

x2/ Ka . (10-14 / x)3 = 10-38 x = [H+] = 10-1,8 M

0,5

pH = 1,8

C = x2/Ka + x = 0,0056.

a. Mi phn c khi lng 5,56 gam; gi trong mi phn c

3.

cha x mol Fe v y mol kim loi R

TR

Phn 1:

n
H2
2

n
. y = 0,14 (I)
2

0,25

Phn 2:
Fe + 4HNO3
Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 2H2O

3R + 4nHNO3
3R(NO3)n + nNO +2nH2O

(4)

0,25

n
.y
3

nNO = 0,12 (mol) x +

(3)

TO

-L

B
ID

0,25

(2)

n
.y
2

2+
3

R + nHCl
RCln +

nH 2 = 0,14 (mol) => x +

(1)

10
0

x (mol)

0B

Fe + 2HCl
FeCl2 + H2

n
.y = 0,12 (II)
3

0,25

105

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Gii h phng trnh (I), (II) ta c: x = 0,08 (mol); y =

0,12
n

MR = 9.n; n l ho tr

Theo khi lng hn hp ban u ta c: 56.x + MR.y = 5,56

0,25

n = 1 MR = 9

T
N

n = 2 MR = 18
n = 3 MR = 27 Kim loi R l Al; n = 3

0,25

x = 0,08 (mol); y = 0,04 (mol)

%mFe = 80,67% ; %mAl = 19,33%

.Q

b. Phn 3:

0,25

TP

Sau phn ng khi lng cht rn tng = 8,64 5,56 = 3,08 g

- Khi Al phn ng ht, khi lng cht rn tng

0,25

= 64.0,06 27.0,04 = 2,76 g < 3,08 g Al phn ng ht

- Khi Fe phn ng ht, khi lng cht rn tng

= 2,76 + 0,08(64-56) = 3,4 g > 3,08 g Fe phn ng cha

TR

ht.

0,25

0,25

0B

Vy Al phn ng ht, Fe phn ng mt phn, gi s mol Fe

10
0

phn ng l z (mol).

2+
3

Al2(SO4)3 + 3Cu
2Al + 3CuSO4

0,04 0,06

0,06(mol)

Fe + CuSO4
FeSO4 + Cu

(6)

0,25

z (mol) z

(5)

CuSO4

phn ng = 0,06 + 0,04 = 0,1 (mol) V = 0,1lt

-L

2,76 + (64-56).z = 3,08 z = 0,04 (mol)

B
ID

TO

0,25

106

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PH LC 2

P N TM TT H THNG CC CU HI L THUYT V BI TP

A. H thng cc cu hi l thuyt v i cng kim loi

4FeS2

+ 11O2

O2

T
N

Cl2

H2

H2O

+ iu ch Fe:

2K

pdd

pnc

2KCl

2Fe2O3

+ 8SO2

+ iu ch K:

Bi 2:

b. S 2: HS t vit PTHH

3H2

2Fe

TP

2HCl

+ H2O

dd HCl

HCl

Cl2

H2 +

+ 3H2O

.Q

Fe2O3

+ iu ch Mg:

(MgO, CaO)

MgO

H2O d

MgCO3.CaCO3

ddCa(OH)2

TR

MgO + 2HCl

0B

Ca(OH)2 +

MgCl2

2HCl

10
0
2+
3

Ca
t

+ iu ch Cu: Cu(OH)2.CuCO3

C
A

a.

-L
N

b.

FeCl2
2NaCl
4NaOH

TO

2Na2O
c.

t0

H2

Mg

pdd

Fe

MgCl2

2Fe + 3CO2

2Na

pnc

+ Cl2

4Na + O2 + 2H2O

pnc

4Na + O2

4AgNO3 + 2H2O

pdd

Cu + 2AgNO3
Ag2S +

O2

+ Fe

+ Cl2

t0

pnc

2CuO + CO2 + H2O

Cu + H2O

Fe2O3 + 3CO

B
ID

FeCl2

+ Cl2

CuO +

+ H2O

Mg + Cl2

pnc

CaCl2

+ H2

CaCl2

pnc

MgCl2

Bi 3:

Bi 1: a. S 1: A l AlCl3; B l Al(NO3)3; C l Al2O3; D l Na[Al(OH)4].

Dng 1: Hon thnh s chuyn ha, vit PTHH iu ch kim loi

t0

4Ag

+ O2

+ 4HNO3

Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag
2Ag

+ SO2

107

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Bi 4( HSG Vnh Phc 2010):


Ta c th chn
B

Na2CO3

Al2 (SO4)3

NaAlO2

Na2S

BaCl2

3Na2SO4 + 8Al(OH)3
6NaAlO2 + Al2(SO4)3 + 12H2O

T
N

3Na2CO3 + Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O


3Na2SO4 + 2Al(OH)3 + 3CO2

Phng trnh

+ Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O
3Na2SO4 + 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2S

3Na2S

+ Cu(NO3)2
2NaNO3 + CuS

Na2S

2AlCl3 + 3BaSO4

.Q

+ Al2(SO4)3

TP

3BaCl2

Na2CO3 + BaCl2
2NaCl + BaCO3

Bi 5(HSG Ngh An 2010): A : H2S; B : FeCl3; C : S; F : HCl; G : Hg(NO3)2; H

Phng trnh ha hc ca cc phn ng :

: HgS; I : Hg; X : Cl2; Y : H2SO4

(1)

Cl2 + H2S S + 2HCl

(2)

TR

H2S + 2FeCl3 2FeCl2 + S + 2HCl

10
0

0B

4Cl2 + H2S + 4H2O 8HCl + H2SO4


BaCl2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + 2HCl

(3)

2+
3

(4)

H2S + Hg(NO3)2 HgS + 2HNO3

t
HgS + O2
Hg + SO2

(5)

(6)

Bi 1:

Dng 2: Gii thch hin tng th nghim

B
ID

TO

-L

a. C kh bay ln v c kt ta trng xanh ha nu trong khng kh


b. C si bt kh v kt ta keo trng xut hin
c. C kt ta trng xut hin sau tan v c si bt kh
d. Khi un nng mu xanh ca dung dch nht dn v c kt ta mu bm

vo thanh Fe
e. Kim loi Cu tan v to dung dch mu xanh lam
Bi 2(HSG Qung Ninh 2004)
a. Na + dd NH4Cl

b. Zn + dd CuSO4

c. Fe + dd CuSO4

108

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d. Na + dd Cu(NO3)2

e. Ba + dd CuSO4

f. Al + dd NaOH

Bi 3: Khi cho hn hp cht rn A tan trong NaOH d:

2Na[Al(OH)4] + 3H2

2Al + 2NaOH + 6H2O

Cht rn A1 gm Fe3O4 v Fe. Dung dch B1 c Na[Al(OH)4], NaOH d. Kh C1 l

Al2O3 + 2NaOH + 3H2O 2Na[Al(OH)4]

T
N

H2. Kh C1 tc dng vi A.

Fe3O4 + 4H2 3Fe + 4H2O

Cht rn A2 gm Fe, Al, Al2O3.

Dung dch B1 cho tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 long d:

.Q

2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O

Cho A2 tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 c, nng:

TP

2Na[Al(OH)4] + 4H2SO4 Na2SO4 + Al2(SO4)3 + 8H2O

Al2O3 + 3H2SO4 Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O

2Fe + 6H2SO4 c Fe2(SO4)3 + 3SO2 + 6H2O

2Al + 6H2SO4 c Al2(SO4)3 + 3SO2 + 6H2O

TR

Bi 4: * Dung mi tt nht ca Au l nc cng toan (1VHNO3 c + 3VHCl c):

0B

Au + HNO3 + 4HCl H[AuCl4] + NO + 2H2O

10
0

* Ag khng tan trong nc cng toan v AgCl khng tan.

2+
3

Nc cng toan c tnh oxi ha mnh lit hn c HNO3 c, ng thi clo ha

cng mnh lit : 6HCl + 2HNO3 3Cl2 + 2NO + 4H2O


2Au + 3Cl2 2 AuCl3

Au v Pt tan c trong nc cng toan do i lc ca chng vi clo, do phn

ng khng to mui nitrat m to mui clorua.

-L

Khi Ag trong khng kh c cha hi nc, CO2 , H2S th mu trng ca Ag dn

B
ID

TO

tr ln xm xt v to nn mng Ag2S theo phn ng:


2Ag + H2S + O2 Ag2S + H2O
Bi 5: Phn ng ca Cu vi dung dch H2SO4 long khi c mt oxi khng kh.
2Cu + 2H2SO4 + O2 2CuSO4 + 2H2O
Phn ng ca Cu vi H2SO4 c nng.
Cu + 2H2SO4 (c, nng) CuSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O

109

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iu ch CuSO4 bng cch (b) khng hiu qu bng cch (a) do tiu tn H2SO4
hn, ng thi phi x l kh SO2 thot ra.

Bi 6: a. Cu(OH)2 d tan trong dung dch axit hn trong dung dch kim.

- C th coi Cu(OH)2 l cht lng tnh.

b. Phng trnh : Cu(OH)2 + 2NaOH(c) Na2[Cu(OH)4]

T
N

4Cu(OH)2 4CuO. H2O + 3H2O

Bi 7: Hin tng quan st c :

+ Kim loi Cu mu xut hin, lng mt st gim dn, dung dch thu c c

mu lc nht: Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu

.Q

+ Xut hin kt ta mu xanh, lng kt ta tng dn n cc i, sau lng kt

TP

ta gim dn v tan ht to ra dung dch mui cuprit c mu xanh:

Cu(OH)2 + 2NaOH Na2[Cu(OH)4]

CuSO4 + 2NaOH Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4

+ To ra kt ta baz mu xanh thm, kt ta ny tan trong NH3 d.

2CuSO4 + 2NH3 + 2H2O CuSO4.Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4

TR

CuSO4.Cu(OH)2 + 8NH3 [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 + [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2

0B

Bi 8: a. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 ; CaO + 3C CaC2 + CO;

10
0

CaC2 + N2 CaCN2 + C

trong k thut.

2+
3

Qu trnh trn c gi l qu trnh Frank Caro. Qu trnh ny rt quan trng

b. CaCN2 + 3H2O CaCO3 + 2NH3

c. Cng thc ca hai ng phn l: HN = C = NH ; N C NH2

-L

Hp cht u tin l axit ca anion cacbondiimit v hp cht th hai l xianamit.

B
ID

TO

Cn bng s chuyn dch v pha to thnh hp cht c tnh i xng cao hn.
Dng 3: Tch v nhn bit
Bi 1: - Dng nc: Na, Ba c si bt kh (I); Mg, Fe, Cu khng c hin tng (II).
- Dng dd H2SO4 tc dng vi (I) th vi Ba cho kt ta trng Na khng.
- Dng H2SO4 long tc dng vi (II) th Mg, Fe tan cn Cu khng tan.

110

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- Dng NaOH cho vo 2 dung dch mui MgSO4 v FeSO4 trn. Dd no cho kt
ta trng l MgSO4, dung dch no cho kt ta trng xanh ha nu trong khng kh

l FeSO4.

Bi 2: - Dng dd H2SO4 c ngui: Cu, Zn tan (I); Fe, Al khng tan (II).

- Dng dd HCl phn bit Cu v Zn.

T
N

- Dng dd NaOH phn bit Al v Fe.

Bi 3: - Dng H2O ch c Na2O to dung dch NaOH

- Cho NaOH vo 3 cht cn li th ch Al2O3 tan.

- Ha tan Fe2O3 v MgO vo dd HCl sau dng dd NaOH trn nhn bit

.Q

mu kt ta Fe(OH)3 m nu , Mg(OH)2 mu trng.

TP

Bi 4: - Dng dd H2SO4 nhn bit c Ba c kt ta trng v c kh bay ln. Cho

tip Ba d vo v lc kt ta thu c Ba(OH)2.

- Cho 3 kim loi cn li vo dd Ba(OH)2 nhn bit c Zn.

- Cho Ba(OH)2 vo cc dung dch mui thu c ca Mg, Fe v nhn bit mu

sc kt ta.

TR

Bi 5: - Cho 3 hn hp tc dng vi NaOH hn hp no sinh ra kh l (I).

10
0

cn li l hn hp (III).

0B

- Hai hn hp cn li cho tc dng vi dd HCl. Hn hp c kh sinh ra l (II)

2+
3

Bi 6(HSG Vnh Phc 2013): - Trn ln cc cp mu th ta thu c hin tng

nh sau :

NaOH

NaHSO4

Ba(OH)2

Na2CO3

Khng

Khng -

NaHSO4

Khng

trng

khng mu

Ba(OH)2

trng

Khng

trng

Na2CO3

khng mu

trng

Khng

NaCl

NaCl

B
ID

TO

-L

NaOH

B. H thng ha cc dng bi tp v i cng kim loi


1. Bi ton cu to tinh th kim loi
0

Bi 1: a. 4.

b. 3,63 A .

c. 2,55 A .

d. 8,88 g/cm3 .

111

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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Bi 2: nCsCl = 1, a = 4,04 A , 0,683

Bi 3: - S n v cu trc: nNaCl = 4Na+ + 4Cl- = 4NaCl.

- Hng s mng: aNaCl = 2(r + R) = 5,56 A .

T
N

4.[ 4 . .r 3 4 . .R 3 ]
3
3
- c kht:
0,667 .
3
a NaCl

Bi 4(HSG Casio Bc Ninh 2013): Al

H
N

b. 6,02386.1023.

Bi 6(HSGQG 2007): a. 25,946%

Bi 5: 1,965 108 cm

.Q

Bi 7(HSGQG - 2009): a. V1 = a3 = 4,7.10-23 cm3, 74%; b. M = 63,1vC; (Cu).


c. 19,4 g/cm3; d. 0,7405.

TP

Bi 8(HSG Qung Ninh 2013): a. 2,878 A ; b. 12;

2. Bi tp xc nh tn kim loi

Bi 1: Al

Bi 3: a. M l Mg; b. VNaOH = 1,72 lt.

Bi 2: a. A l Zn, B l Cu; b. V = 1,68 lt; c. a = 0,25M.

TR

Bi 4: a. M l Al; b. Khi lng mui = 90 gam.

0B

Bi 5: a. Hai kim loi kim l Na v K; b. VddHCl = 270 ml.


Ba2+ + SO42-
BaSO4

2+
3

a. PT ion thu gn:

10
0

Bi 6(HSG Qung Ninh Bng A - 2012)

B3+

+ 3OH-
B(OH)3

A2+ + 2OH-
A(OH)2

2A(OH)2 + 2OH-
AO2 + 2H2O

-L

BO2- + 2H2O
Hoc B(OH)2 + OH-

B
ID

TO

b. A l Mg v B l Al.

Bi 7(HSG Vnh Phc 2010): a. M l Cu; b. khi lng mui khan l 91,6 gam.
3. Bi tp kim loi tc dng vi phi kim
Bi 1: a. %Fe = 36,8%, %Cu = 63,2%; b. Khi lng kt ta = 72 gam.
Bi 2: a. mFe 16,8 gam; mCu 9, 6 gam. ;
b. C % Fe ( NO3 )3 22, 2%; C %Cu ( NO3 )2 8, 62%; C % HNO3 2,57%

112

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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Bi 3: %VCl 53,85% .
2

Bi 4(HSG Qung Ninh Bng A 2010)


4

2 2

%S = 50%, %Mg = 50%, C % H SO 9%, C % H O 1, 47%.

b. Khi lng kt ta l 10,7 gam.

Bi 4: b. A l Ag, B l Cu v C l Ag.

U
TP

.Q

Bi 6(HSG Qung Ninh Bng A 2011: a. NaNO3.


%Cu = 45,59%.

%Fe = 15,95%;

Bi 5(HSG Qung Ninh Bng B 2014): V = 23,52 lt.

b. %Al = 38,46%;

b = 0,24 gam.

T
N

Bi 2(HSG Qung Ninh Bng B 2013): a = 1,68 gam,


Bi 3: a. V = 14,56 lt.

b. Khi lng kt ta = 27,5 gam.

Bi 1: a. m = 20,8 gam.

4. Kim loi tc dng vi dung dch axit

Bi 7(HSG Ngh An 2010): a. V = 53,76 lt;

b. Khi lng mui khan = 35,1 gam.

Bi 8(HSG Vnh Phc 2007): M l Cu; mmui trong G = 91,6 gam.

Bi 9(HSG Bc Ninh 2012): b. %Fe(OH)3 = 96,17%; % S = 3,83%;

TR

c. dD/B = 1,25.

10
0

0B

Bi 10(HSG Qung Ninh 2010): 1. % mFe = 63,28% ; % mZn = 36,72 %;


2. m1 = 0,36.64 = 23,04 gam; VNO = 4,48 lt;

3. mZn = 27,3 gam.

2+
3

5. Kim loi, oxit kim loi tc dng vi nc v dung dch kim

Bi 1: a. 1,56g, A l Al, B l Mg ;

b. 19,9 gam;

c. 32,16%.

Bi 2: a. 0,4M, 2,4M ;

b. 931,12 ml.

Bi 3: a. A l Mg, B l Al

-L

Bi 4: %Fe = 42,1%; %Na = 17,3%; %Al = 40,6%.

B
ID

TO

Bi 5: a. %Al = 20,25%; %Fe = 70%; %K = 9,75%.


b. TH1: 40ml v mkt ta = 2,34 gam; TH2: 30ml v 70ml.
Bi 6(HSG Qung Ninh Bng A 2013): b. %Al = 45,38%; %Zn = 54,62%.
6. Kim loi tc dng vi dung dch mui dy in ha
Bi 1: m = 4,48 gam.
Bi 2: a. M l Mg; a = 0,5 mol/l
b. Vi dung dch FeSO4 l 40 gam v vi dung dch CuSO4 l 44 gam.

113

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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Bi 3: a. %Fe = 52,24%; %Cu = 47,76%; b. CM ( AgNO ) 0, 32M ; c. 0 < %mD < 8,48
3

Bi 4: a. M l Al; %Fe = 77,56%; %Al = 22,44%.


3 2

b. CM ( AgNO ) 0,3M ; CM (Cu ( NO ) ) 0,5M .

Bi 5: a. %Al = 15,08%; %Fe = 31,3%; %Cu = 53,62%; b. a = 1M.

Bi 6: a = 6,25 gam.

T
N

Bi 7: CM = 0,4M.

7. Phn ng nhit luyn

Bi 1(HSG Bc Ninh 2013):

b. M1 = 20,88 gam; m2 = 20,685 gam; nHNO 0,91mol .

TP

3 4

.Q

Bi 2: b. Hn hp A: mFe O 13,92 gam; mFeCO 2, 32 gam; mFe 0, 56 gam.


Hn hp D: mFe 5, 6 gam; mFe O 2,32 gam; mFeO 5, 76 gam.

3 4

Bi 3: m = 48,3gam.

b. %MgO = 12,34%; %CuO = 24,69%; %Al2O3 = 62,97%.

Bi 4: a. M l Cu.

TR

b. mNaOH = 8,8 gam hoc 5,6 gam.

Bi 5: a. Oxit st l Fe2O3; m = 9,1 gam hoc FeO; m = 11,34 gam.

0B

8. Bi ton in phn

10
0

Bi 1 (HSG Vng Tu 2010)

a. CM ( HCl ) 0,8M ; CM (Cu ( NO ) ) 0,32M . ; t = 10808 giy.

2+
3

3 2

b. m = 56,96 gam; V = 4,48 lt

Bi 2(HSG H Tnh 2010):

TH1: Nu nNaCl < 2 nCuSO ; m = 5,97 gam; mcatot tng = 1,92 gam; mdd gim = 2,95 gam.

TH2: Nu nNaCl > 2 nCuSO ; m = 2,627 gam; mcatot tng = 0,427 gam;mdd gim = 2,33 gam.

-L

B
ID

TO

Bi 3(Olympic 30/4 2002): a. M l Ni; R l Zn;

CM(HCl) = 0,2M.

Bi 4: pH tng dn.
a. Khi bt u in phn n ht HCl: pH = -lg(0,01 0,1t).
t(h)
pH

0
2

0,01
2,0457

0,02
2,0969

0,03
21549

0,04
2,2218

0,05
2,3010

0,1
7

b. Khi bt u in phn NaCl n ht: pH = 13 + lgt2 = 13 + lg(t 0,1)

114

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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0,2
12

0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
12,3010 12,4771 12,6021 12,6990

1,1
13

1,2
13

1,3
13

t(h)
pH

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9. Bi ton v pin in ha, G; H; E; Ka; Kp; Kc; pH, tan, tch s tan

Bi 1(HSG Tuyn Quang 2011): Fe(OH)3 to thnh trc

T
N

Fe(OH)3 tch khi dung dch th 3 < pH < 9,699.


Bi 2(HSG Qung Ngi 2011): pH = 5,15

Bi 3(HSG ng Nai 2000): [NH4+] > (1,75.10-5.0,01)/ (8,43.10-5) = 2,08.10-3 M

Bi 4(HSG Quc Gia 2003): a. [S2-] = 1,3.10-17

c. mPbS = 30,3 mg

.Q

b. Khng c kt ta MnS, c kt ta CoS, c kt ta Ag2S

-5

1,12.1010 = 1,095.10 , BaSO4 tan

TP

Bi 5(Duyn Hi Min Trung 2009): S =

thm.

Bi 6: S = 109.[H+] + 4.10-3 / [H+]; Smin = 1,5.10-7

Bi 7: pH = 1,8; C = 0,0056.

Bi 8: -414,48 kJ/mol.

TR

Bi 9: a. Vit s pin () Pt | Fe2+, Fe3+ || Ag+ | Ag (+)

2+
3

b. Xt: E opin E (o ) E o( )

10
0

Fe 2 Ag Fe3 Ag

0B

Vit phn ng xy ra mi bn in cc, ri t hp c:

E opin 0,8 0, 77 0, 03(V)

E opin 0 G o nFE opin 0

Vy phn ng t xy ra trong iu kin chun theo chiu phn ng trn

B
ID

TO

-L

0, 059
o
c. Tnh li Epin: E pin E pin

lg
n

[Fe3 ]
0, 029V 0
[Fe 2 ][Ag ]

Vy phn ng xy ra theo chiu ngc li: Fe3 Ag Fe 2 Ag

10. Cc cu hi v bi tp thc tin v kim loi v hp cht ca kim loi


Bi 1: Thuc chut l Zn3P2 sau khi n Zn3P2 b thu phn rt mnh, hm lng
nc trong c th chut gim, n kht v i tm nc:
Zn3P2 + 6H2O 3Zn(OH)2+ 2PH3
Chnh PH3 git cht chut.
115

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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Cng nhiu nc a vo PH3 thot ra cng nhiu chut cng nhanh

cht. Nu khng c nc chut cht lu hn.

Bi 2: - Phn chua l mui sunfat kp ca nhm v kali. dng tinh th ngm 24

Phn chua khng c, c v cht chua, t tan trong nc lnh nhng tan rt

phn t H2O nn c cng thc ho hc l K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O.

T
N

nhiu trong nc nng nn rt d tinh ch bng kt tinh li trong nc.

Cng do to ra kt ta Al(OH)3 khi khuy phn vo nc dnh kt cc ht

H
N
U

2+
H2O
+ H+
AlOH

.Q

Al3+ +

+ 3SO42-

2Al3+
Al2(SO4)3

t nh l lng trong nc c v chm xung lm trong nc.

TP

+
+
AlOH2+ + H2O
Al(OH)2 + H

Al(OH)3 + H+
Al(OH)2+ + H2O

+
Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O
Al(OH)3 + 3H

Bi 3: Do Ag tc dng vi kh O2 v H2S trong khng kh to ta Ag2S (mu en)

4Ag + O2 + 2H2S
2Ag2S + 2H2O

TR

Khi bc sunfua gp nc s c mt lng rt nh i vo nc thnh ion Ag+. Ion

10
0

0B

Ag+ c tc dng dit khun rt mnh, ch cn 1/5 t gam bc trong 1 lt nc cng

2+
3

dit vi

khun. Khng cho vi khun pht trin nn gi cho thc n lu b i thiu.

Bi 4: CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O Ca(HCO3)2

Ca(HCO3)2 CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O

Bi 5: B

-L

Bi 8: Rc bt S ln Hg + S

Bi 6: 663 kg

Bi 7: C

HgS

B
ID

TO

Bi 9: 1. 3,75 tn; 2. 300 tn


Bi 10: 4Au + 8NaCN + O2 + 2H2O 4Na[Au(CN)2] + 4NaOH.
Zn + 2Na[Au(CN)2] Na2[Zn(CN)4] + 2Au
Bi 11: A
Bi 12: Zn l cht kh mnh hn Fe khi gn vo b mt tu v nhng trong nc
bin l dung dch in li nn Zn b n mn in ha.

116

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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Bi 13: a. Xy ra hin tng n mn ha hc, st b n mn.


b. V tn bn hn, nh hn..

Bi 14: 23415,47 tn qung vng

2MgO + C
Bi 15: 2Mg + CO2

Cacbon sinh ra li tip tc chy: C + O2


CO2

10

11

12

13

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

76

77

78

79

80

91

92

93

94

14

28

29

30

41

42

43

44

45

55

56

57

58

59

60

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

TR

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

95

96

97

98

99

100

.Q

TP

0B

2+
3

10
0

15

B
ID

TO

-L

T
N

C. H thng cc cu hi v bi tp trc nghim khch quan

117

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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PH LC 3 : PHIU IU TRA THC TRNG CNG TC BDHSG HH


TRNG PH THNG TNH QUNG NINH

Phiu iu tra thc trng v cng tc bi dng hc sinh gii lp 12 (GV)

N
B

Tn trng: S nm cng tc:

H v tn gio vin: Tui:..

T
N

tm hiu thc trng v cng tc bi dng hc sinh gii hin nay, xin thy c vui

lng tr li cc cu hi di y: (nh du x vo la chn).

Ni dung iu tra

.Q

TT

1. Nhng kh khn ca gio vin trong cng tc bi dng hc sinh gii.

ng

Khng
ng

TP

Gio vin cha xc nh c vng kin thc cn ging

1.

dy cho hc sinh.

phn phi trong chng trnh.

Dung lng kin thc qu ln so vi thi gian c

2.

Gio vin cha tuyn chn, xy dng c h thng bi

3.

TR

tp ph hp pht hin v bi dng hc sinh gii


Ti liu tham kho cn hn ch

5.

Cha i mi phng php hc cho HS

6.

Phng php s dng bi tp trong ging dy cn hn ch

2+
3

10
0

0B

4.

Ni dung kin thc ha hc cn tru tng nn khng gy

7.

c hng th, tnh cm cho HS.

Gio vin cn thiu kinh nghim trong vic la chn HS c


nng khiu ha hc.

-L

8.

S hc sinhc nng khiu ha hc cha nhiu.

10.

Cc nguyn nhn khc

B
ID

TO

9.

2. nh gi v vic s dng thit b dy hc (my tnh, my chiu, th nghim,)


trong dy hc ha hc.
.Tit kim c thi gian cho hot ng ca GV.
. Bi ging sinh ng hn.
. HS hng th hc tp hn.
118

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. Cc hot ng dy hc c c th ha.

. Khng th thiu c trong ging dy mn Ha hc.

3. Bi tp ha hc thng c cc thy c s dng trong dy hc

. Bi tp hnh thnh khi nim mi.

. Bi tp thc nghim, thc tin.

T
N

. Bi tp cng c kin thc, rn k nng.

. Bi tp rn luyn tr thng minh.

. Bi tp dng kim tra nh gi.

. Bi tp khc

TP

.Q

kin ng gp thm:...

Phiu iu tra v v nhng kh khn trong cng tc bi dng hc sinh gii (HS)

H v tn: .........................................................Nam (n).....................................

Lp: ........................Trng: .................................................................................

tm hiu kh khn trong cng tc bi dng hc sinh gii hin, cc em tr li

TR

cc cu hi di y: (nh du x vo la chn).
Ni dung iu tra

S lng

(%)

0B

TT

Hc sinh cha xc nh c kin thc cn hc tp.

10
0

1.

Dung lng kin thc qu ln so vi thi gian hc

2+
3

2.

tp ca hc sinh.

Hc sinh cha c h thng bi tp ph hp

4.

Ti liu tham kho cn hn ch

5.

Phng php hc cn hn ch

-L

3.

7.

Ni dung kin thc ha hc cn tru tng nn khng


gy c hng th, tnh cm cho hc sinh.

Cc nguyn nhn khc

B
ID

TO

6.

kin ng gp thm:.........

119

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