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A Modular Multilevel Inverter Using Single DC Voltage Source for Static Var Compensators

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17-19 July 2011, Bandung, Indonesia

DC Voltage Source for Static Var Compensators

Firman Sasongko1, Hadyan Nur Buwana2, Riko Iswara3, and Pekik Argo Dahono4

School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Institute of Technology Bandung

Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia

1

firman@konversi.ee.itb.ac.id

hadyan-nur.buwana@total.com

3

r_iswara@yahoo.com

4

pekik@konversi.ee.itb.ac.id

2

power converter for high power applications. Many efforts have

been done to obtain the best performance of multilevel inverter

to provide the need of power converter for high-power mediumvoltage applications. Multilevel inverter using modular-cascaded

topology with single dc voltage source is presented in this

manuscript. Inverter topology, features and control method will

be discussed. Simulation results for static var compensator

application are included to verify the effectiveness of the

proposed method.

with a fast control response for high-power applications.

The concept of multilevel converters has been introduced

since 1975. Since then, various multilevel converter

topologies were proposed [7], [8]. These converters are

suitable for high-power medium-voltage applications. The

main advantage of multilevel converter is that high output

voltage can be obtained without series connection of

switching devices. Moreover, better output waveforms can be

obtained without the need of high switching frequency

Keywords Multilevel inverter, modular cascade inverter, static operation with the associated high switching losses.

In this paper, a new modular multilevel inverter topology

var compensator.

based on cascaded H-bridge cells is proposed. Neither

complicated transformer nor separate dc sources are required.

I. INTRODUCTION

Reactive power compensation has become an indispensable A single dc source is used for the whole single-phase H-bridge

requirement to provide a better power system performance [1], cells. High output voltage is accomplished by the use of

[2]. Var compensator system has three major roles: improving identical single-phase transformer connected in series at the ac

the transient stability, damping the power oscillation, and side. Each cell output voltage can be controlled using phase

supporting the grid voltage to prevent voltage instability. In difference between each leg. The output voltage harmonics

recent years, static var compensators are preferable to their are minimized by controlling the phase differences of Htraditional counterpart of using rotating synchronous bridge cells. By using fundamental switching frequency, all

condenser and mechanically switched capacitors or inductors H-bridge cells have identical device rating and utilization

[3], [4]. Static var compensator provides faster time response factor. The use of identical power cells leads to a modular

to absorb or generate the reactive power. The advances of structure, which is an effective means for cost reduction. The

power electronic devices, analytical tools, and micro- proposed inverter topology and also control scheme for static

computer technologies has create the more sophisticated var compensator are presented. Simulated results show the

power converter to be used for static var compensator and effectiveness of the proposed multilevel inverter for static var

compensator application.

other high-power applications.

Multilevel system is especially important in high-power

applications such as Flexible AC Transmission System

(FACTS). At present, most of FACTS controllers that have

been installed worldwide are using conventional two-level

inverter modules that are interconnected by using a special

design multipulse transformer [5], [6]. In order to reduce the

switching losses, the inverter switching devices are switched

at the fundamental frequency. The transformer is configured

in such a way so that certain low-frequency harmonics are

eliminated. The output voltage is controlled by adjusting the

dc voltage of the inverter with the consequence of slow

control response. Thus, a multilevel inverter may become an

Multilevel inverter can be considered as a series connection

of several ac voltage sources as shown in Fig. 1. In most

applications, the resultant of the voltage must be adjustable in

magnitude and low in harmonic contents. In high-power

applications, PWM switching operation is avoided because of

switching losses problem. Thus, the inverter switching devices

must be operated at fundamental frequency. To comply with

these constraints, the following methods can be chosen:

i) Controlling the dc voltage and using a special

connection transformer to reduce the harmonics.

staircase waveform which control the output voltage

and reduce harmonic contents.

The first method is simple but the response is slow because

of large time constant of dc circuit. Moreover, a special

transformer connection is necessary. The second method is

more promising because of faster control response by using

controlled switching of inverter legs. Separate dc sources are

necessary if no galvanic isolation provided in the ac side.

Using many large dc electrolytic capacitors is prone to failure.

Therefore, using single dc capacitors with galvanic isolated

system is preferable here.

Several choices are available to use transformer as a

galvanic means. A special connected transformer can be used

to reduce the harmonics, which however, different

transformers have to be used if the number of levels is

changed. Thus, modularity of the system cannot be achieved.

V1

V1

V2

V3

Vout

V2

Vout

V3

V3

V5

output voltage can be obtained as

~

cos

cos

(3)

7.45

V4

V5

(2)

transformer ratio of 1 : r, the phase-to-phase effective

fundamental output voltage is

V4

V4

22

V1

V2

Inverter cell output voltage of the proposed multilevel

inverter is determined by phase difference of each leg. Each

single-phase H-bridge inverter is operated under quasi squarewave mode as shown in Fig. 3, ensuring the same utilization

factors of each level. The effective output voltage is controlled

by adjusting the angle. The effective fundamental voltage of

each cell can be defined as

cos

It can be seen from (2) and (4) that the output voltage varies

linearly to cosines of 2. This feature has the advantage to

generate a simple switching control scheme.

V5

transformer. An ordinary transformer can be used to reduce

the harmonic contents by controlling the gating signals of the

inverters. Reference [8] proposes the gating pattern by

controlling switching angle for each level which produced a

staircase waveform. However, utilization factor of each level

is different and so does the losses of each level and cooling

system requirements.

A. Circuit Arrangement

Fig. 2 shows the topology of the proposed modular

multilevel inverter discussed in this paper. All single-phase Hbridge inverter and transformer are identical, therefore, can be

considered as one module for each level. A single large dc

capacitor is connected in parallel on dc side. IGCTs or IGBTs

can be used as the switching devices. In practice, a small LCL

filter is usually connected on the ac side to reduce high-order

harmonics. As the output voltage levels increase, the filter

may be omitted.

The proposed method produces a staircase waveform by

controlling the phase angle differences among inverter levels.

In general, for N H-bridge cells, the optimum phase angle

difference is 60o/N which associated with the order of

harmonic contents of

6

(4)

(1)

C

C

(6)

where is system frequency; the subscript d and q are daxis and q-axis voltage/current component respectively.

Because the grid voltage vector is always aligned with daxis voltage component vgd, the q-axis component of grid

voltage vgq is always zero. The instantaneous active and

reactive power in dq synchronous reference frame can be

expressed as

Fig. 3. Signal waveform of each inverter leg in each cell.

C. Comparative Evaluation

In order to clarify the performance of the proposed modular

multilevel inverter system, a conceptual design of static var

compensator with 10 MVAR rating is used. It is assumed that

the static var compensator is designed to operate on mediumvoltage of distribution system (20 kV). The proposed

multilevel inverter design is then compared to the ones using

quad-series [6] and cascaded [8] inverter systems. Using the

most advanced power switching devices with rating up to

6kV/6kA, the dc source voltage can be as high as 3.1 kV.

Table I shows performance comparison among the three types

of static var compensator.

III. CONTROL METHOD

A static var compensator can be considered as voltage

source converter which connected in parallel to the power grid

through series inductance as shown in Fig. 4. The line

resistance is usually very small and can be neglected. The

objective of multilevel inverter control system is to ensure dc

voltage and reactive power flow at a desired command. When

the inverter voltage vi is higher than grid voltage vg, inverter

current will lead the voltage by 90o (reactive power injection).

On the contrary if the inverter voltage vi is smaller than grid

voltage vg, then inverter current will lag the voltage by 90o

(reactive power absorption). Thus, controlling the inverter

voltage magnitude means controlling the reactive power flow.

Although theoretically var compensator does not exchange

active power to the grid, the inverter internal losses will cause

the capacitor voltage to deviate from its nominal value. By

adjusting the phase angle between inverter and grid voltages,

the active current will flow in/out to keep the dc voltage

constant.

The circuit equation for three-phase system as in Fig. 4 can

be written as

C

(7)

TABLE I

COMPARISON SUMMARY

Aspects

Voltage level

Capacitor

DC voltage

Transformer

Converter

construction

Utilization

factor

Power switch

Control

strategies

DC

unbalance

problem

Response

time

THD

Inverter Topology

Quad-series

Cascade

Proposed

11

21

21

1

15

1

3100 V

3100 V

3100 V

Complex

15

configuration

single phase

S P = 1:2

1:1

S YP = 3:2

Identical but not

Identical

Identical

modular

and modular and modular

equal

unequal

equal

24

60

angle and

MI

60

and

angle

No

Yes

No

Medium

Fast

Fast

8.7%

6.6 7.2%

3.6 7.6%

angle

(5)

written as follows:

Fig. 4. Static var compensator model and its operation modes.

From (7), the active and reactive power control can directly

be determined by active and reactive current provided a

constant grid voltage. Therefore, controlling the reactive

current iiq alone is sufficient to control reactive power to the

grid. Moreover, to keep a constant dc voltage by controlling

active power flow, only the active current iid need to be

controlled. Thus, a fast current controller is desirable in this

method to achieve the system with fast dynamic time response.

A. Static Var Compensator with Proposed Multilevel Inverter

The complete control system and block diagram of the

proposed static var compensator is shown in Fig. 5. There are

two reference values in this system, which are the dc voltage

and q-axis current reference

which

reference

proportional to reactive power q. The control system will then

produce * and * commands, which will control the active

and reactive power respectively. The *and * angle can be

obtained from d- and q-axis voltage references as

the desired d-axis and q-axis inverter output voltages. By

using a look up table, the required and angle can be

determined.

B. Decoupled Current Control

The plant block diagram as shown in Fig. 5 implies that the

d- and q-axis currents cannot be controlled independently. To

solve the coupling problem, a feed-forward technique as

shown in current controller block diagram of Fig. 5 is used.

The actual output currents Iid and Iiq are multiplied by the line

reactance LC to produce additional signals to cancel out the

coupling effects. By using this method, the d-axis currents can

be controlled independently as shown in Fig. 6. The control

method for q-axis current has the same approach. The inverter

is assumed to have a unity gain, so the inverter output voltage

Vid is equal to the voltage reference Vid*.

From Fig. 6, the transfer function of d-axis current can be

determined as

(8)

2cos

tan

(9)

transformer ratio. The K value will be unique for each cell

numbers as in (3) with h = 1. For N = 5, K is equal to 7.45,

while for N = 3, K is equal to 4.49.

The inverter output voltage must be synchronized to the

power grid voltage. For this purpose, a phase locked loop

(PLL) circuit is used to obtain the grid voltage angle . This

angle will be used for all dq transformation process.

is compared to the actual dc

The dc voltage reference

which then will be processed by a PI

capacitor voltage

. The

controller to generate the d-axis current reference

actual d- and q-axis currents, which obtained from inverter

currents using dq transformation, are then compared to the

reference values and the PI current controllers will

C C

C C

(10)

can be obtained as follows:

1

C C

(11)

(12)

C C

ratio is C = 1 and the current control gain KC and time

constant TC can be determined as

C

4000

C V/A

Fig. 5. Proposed static var compensator system and its control block diagram.

with

1 ms

(13)

are given by

Single dc capacitor is used in the proposed system. A

simple control system is required to maintain dc voltage level.

By avoiding the resonance condition between dc capacitor and

line reactor, reduction of the dc voltage fluctuation can be

achieved. A simple right-hand rule can be used to determine

the required capacitance for single capacitor circuit with

nominal reactive power of QVAR [8] as follows:

2

VAR

(19)

(14)

(15)

regulation factor of 10% in the 10 MVAR of static var

compensator system connected to 20 kV of distribution

system, the required capacitance C is 8.28 mF for 3.1 kV

nominal dc voltage.

If the total system losses can be expressed as D, then the

inverter active power flow can be defined as

(16)

The instantaneous dc capacitor voltage can be written as

(17)

(18)

ripple. From Fig. 5, (16) and (18), the block diagram for dc

voltage control can be depicted as in Fig. 7 assuming an ideal

current control with unity gain.

(20)

(21)

By using critically damped control response, the damping

ratio is dc =1, leading to control system parameters as follows:

800

value because of overall losses in the inverter. The regulation

factor of dc voltage is defined as

A/V with

5 ms

(22)

To verify the proposed multilevel inverter topology as

static var compensator, the simulation using 7-level inverter

was carried out. The system configuration and system

parameters are shown in Fig. 5 and Table II. The system is

connected to low-voltage distribution system of 380 V and

controlling a 5 kvar of reactive power flow. The utility voltage

is assumed to be balanced three-phase system with constant

magnitude and frequency.

The simulation results of the proposed static var

compensator can be seen from Figs. 89. The system has the

capability to inject/absorb 5 kvar of reactive power. Fig. 8

shows the phase voltage and current of the proposed

multilevel inverter when the reactive power is change from 2

kvar leading to 5 kvar leading and finally to 5 kvar lagging.

The inverter voltage reacts instantaneously whenever the

reactive power reference is changed suddenly. Although the

reactive power reference changes from injecting to absorbing

mode, the inverter voltage can adapt the reactive power

demand with fast time response.

TABLE II

SIMULATION PARAMETERS

System Voltage VG

Var Rating QVAR

DC Voltage Vdc

Interface Inductance LC

Source Impedance LS

Cell Number N

DC Capacitor C

Regulation Factor

Transformer Turn Ratio r

380 V 50 Hz

5 kvar

97.7V

12% (11 mH)

2% (1.8 mH)

3

8.337 mF

5%

1:1

processed and run in DS1104 via PCI card slot. The GUI

platform will provide the inpuut references such as reactive

power and capacitor voltage reeferences, and also shows the

system parameters continuoussly, e.g. the system voltage,

inverter voltage and current, phase

p

angle, injected reactive

power and dc capacitor voltage.

via

iia

vdc

VI. CONC

CLUSION

This paper has proposed a modular cascaded multilevel

witching pattern and control

inverter. Inverter topology, sw

system for static var compensator have been presented in

detail. The simulation resultts show that the proposed

multilevel inverter has a fast dynamic response to

t

the system. With the

inject/absorb reactive power to/from

proposed control system schem

me, the control response can be

adjusted as desired. Moreovver, the dc voltage can be

maintained at a constant level unnder dynamic condition.

In general, the proposed topoology has the advantages of its

modularity, equal utilization factors

f

among inverter blocks

and simple control procedure. As

A a single dc capacitor is used,

neither unbalance problem nor complex

c

controllers are existed.

Thus, the proposed modular muultilevel inverter provides some

features with which very appliicable to low-cost high-power

applications.

step changed.

a

97.7

V and only a small distortion occurs when the reactive power

is changed, as can be seen from Fig. 9.. The selection of

regulation factor will affect the distortioon in the capacitor

voltage.

V. EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM

M

To further validate the proposed systeem and its control

strategy as a static var compensator, a protootype of seven-level

modular inverter is being built and will

w

carry out the

experiment based on Table II parameters. The

T control system

will be implemented in dSPACE (DS1104) platform which

has MPC8240 250 MHz core processor with DSP

p

a powerful

TMS320F240 as slave. The controller can provide

system for floating point numbers calculatioon.

For real time evaluation of the control system, a Graphical

User Interface (GUI) will be designed using MATLAB/

s

in Fig. 10. The

Simulink and dSPACE platform as can be seen

previously explained control scheme willl be automatically

REFEREENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

compensators, in Proc. IEEE, vool. 76, no. 4, pp. 483-494, Apr. 1988.

J. Dixon, L. Moran, J. Rodriguuez and R. Domke, Reactive power

compensation technologies: statee-of-the-art review, in Proc. IEEE, vol.

93, no. 12, pp. 2144-2164, Dec. 2005.

2

E. Larsen, et.al., Benefits of GTO-based

G

compensation systems for

electric utility applications, IEE

EE Trans. Power Del., vol. 7, pp. 20562064, Oct. 1992.

A. E. Hammad, Comparing the voltage control capabilities of present

and future var compensating techniques

t

in transmission systems,

IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 11, pp. 475-484, Jan. 1996.

C. Schauder, et al., Developmennt of a 100 Mvar static condenser for

voltage control of transmission syystems, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol.

10, pp. 1486-1496, July 1995.

H. Fujita, S. Tominaga, and H.

H Akagi, Analysis and design of an

advanced static var compensattor using quad-series voltage-source

inverters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appplicat., vol. 32, pp. 970-978, July/Aug.

1996.

J. Rodriguez, J. S. Lai, and F. Z.. Peng, Multilevel inverters: A survey

of topologies, controls, and appliications, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electr., vol.

49, pp. 724-738, Aug. 2002.

F. Z. Peng, et al., A multilevell voltage-source inverter with separate

dc sources for static var generattion, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol.

32, pp. 1130-1138, Sept. /Oct. 19996.

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