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AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA

RAN14.0

Feature Parameter Description

Issue

04

Date

2013-05-10

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2013. All rights reserved.


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WCDMA RAN
AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA

Contents

Contents
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................1-1
1.1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................ 1-1
1.2 Intended Audience......................................................................................................................... 1-1
1.3 Change History.............................................................................................................................. 1-1

2 Overview......................................................................................................................................2-1
3 Technical Description ..............................................................................................................3-1
3.1 AMR Speech Encoding and Decoding .......................................................................................... 3-1
3.2 AMR Speech Decoding Using the Viterbi Algorithm ...................................................................... 3-2
3.3 AMR Speech Decoding Using the PLVA ....................................................................................... 3-3

4 Impact on the Network.............................................................................................................4-1


5 Related Features .......................................................................................................................5-1
5.1 Prerequisite Features .................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.2 Mutually Exclusive Features ......................................................................................................... 5-1
5.3 Impacted Features ........................................................................................................................ 5-1

6 Engineering Guidelines ...........................................................................................................6-2


6.1 When to Use AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA .................................................. 6-2
6.2 Network Planning .......................................................................................................................... 6-2
6.2.1 RF Planning .......................................................................................................................... 6-2
6.2.2 Network Topology ................................................................................................................. 6-2
6.2.3 Hardware Planning ............................................................................................................... 6-2
6.3 Feature Deployment ...................................................................................................................... 6-2
6.3.1 Deployment Requirements ................................................................................................... 6-2
6.3.2 Feature Activation ................................................................................................................. 6-3
6.3.3 Activation Check ................................................................................................................... 6-3
6.3.4 Feature Deactivation ............................................................................................................ 6-3
6.4 Monitoring ...................................................................................................................................... 6-3
6.5 Parameter Optimization ................................................................................................................ 6-4
6.6 Troubleshooting ............................................................................................................................. 6-5

7 Parameters..................................................................................................................................7-1
8 Counters ......................................................................................................................................8-1
9 Glossary ......................................................................................................................................9-1
10 References Documents .......................................................................................................10-1

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WCDMA RAN
AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA

1 Introduction

1 Introduction
1.1 Scope
This document describes the feature WRFD-140201 AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA.

1.2 Intended Audience


This document is intended for:

Personnel who work with Huawei WCDMA products or systems

System operators who need to understand this feature

1.3 Change History


This section provides information about the changes in different document versions.
There are two types of changes, which are defined as follows:

Feature change: refers to a change in the AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA feature of
a specific product version.

Editorial change: refers to a change in wording or the addition of information that was not described in
the earlier version.

Document Issue
The document issue is as follows:

04 (2013-05-10)

03 (2012-11-30)

02 (2012-07-20)

01 (2012-04-30)

Draft A (2012-02-15)

04 (2013-05-10)
This is the fourth official release of RAN14.0.
Compared with issue 03 (2012-11-30) of RAN14.0, this issue incorporates the changes described in the
following table.
Change Change Description
Type

Parameter Change

Feature
change

None

None

Editorial Added the chapter 5 "Related Features."


change

None

03 (2012-11-30)
This is the third official release of RAN14.0.

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WCDMA RAN
AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA

1 Introduction

Compared with issue 02 (2012-07-20) of RAN14.0, this issue incorporates the changes described in the
following table.
Change Change Description
Type

Parameter Change

Feature
change

None

None

Editorial Optimized engineering guidelines. For details, see 6


change "Engineering Guidelines."

None

02 (2012-07-20)
This is the second official release of RAN14.0.
Compared with issue 01 (2012-04-30) of RAN14.0, this issue incorporates the changes described in the
following table.
Change Change Description
Type

Parameter Change

Feature
change

None.

None.

Editorial Added the information about how to deploying AMR Voice None.
change Quality Improvement Based on PLVA. For details, see 6.4
"Monitoring."

01 (2012-04-30)
This is the first official release of RAN14.0.
Compared with issue Draft A (2012-02-15) of RAN14.0, this issue incorporates the changes described
in the following table:
Change Type

Change Description

Parameter Change

Feature change

None

None

Editorial change Added the simulation result for PLVA. For details, see 6.3
"Feature Deployment."

None

Draft A (2012-02-15)
This is the first draft of the document for RAN14.0.
This is a new document.

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WCDMA RAN
AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA

2 Overview

2 Overview
Adaptive Multi-rate(AMR) audio codec is a patented speech coding scheme adopted by the 3GPP as
the standard codec for UMTS. Channel encoding for AMR voice services uses convolutional codes. In
RAN14.0, Huawei introduces the Parallel List Viterbi Algorithm (PLVA) to decode convolutional codes.
The PLVA outperforms the Viterbi algorithm used by most vendors and previous Huawei production,
and it improves the voice service quality without affecting power control or compromising system
capacity. The feature introduces more robustness to the voice service which is more noticeable in poor
radio condition.
AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA does not depend on any other feature and can be
used with any other feature.

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3 Technical Description

3 Technical Description
3.1 AMR Speech Encoding and Decoding
At the UMTS physical layer, convolutional codes are used to perform channel encoding for AMR voice
services and power control is used to ensure AMR voice quality. Figure 3-1 shows channel encoding
and power control for UMTS AMR voice services in the uplink.
Figure 3-1 Channel encoding and power control for UMTS AMR voice services in the uplink

As shown in Figure 3-1, the UE uses convolutional codes to encode AMR voice data and sends the
encoded data to the NodeB. The NodeB decodes the received data and performs a cyclic redundancy
check (CRC) on the decoded data. The NodeB then sends the decoded data and a CRC indicator
(CRCI) to the RNC. The RNC calculates the block error rate (BLER) for outer-loop power control based
on all the CRCIs received. The RNC also sends the decoded data and the CRCI to the Core Network
(CN) for AMR voice data decoding (source decoding).
The RNC calculates the BLER for outer-loop power control based on the ratio of CRCIs indicating CRC failures to all
CRCIs.

AMR voice services include narrowband and wideband AMR voice services. There are three classes of
narrowband AMR voice services: A, B, and C. There are two classes of wideband AMR voice services:
A and B. The Viterbi algorithm and PLVA apply to both narrowband and wideband AMR voice services.
The following description is based on narrowband AMR voice services. Of the three classes of
narrowband AMR voice services, class A is of high importance and includes a 12-bit number used for
CRC. The other classes are of low importance and CRC is not performed on them. Figure 3-2 shows
the separate channel encoding for classes A, B, and C of narrowband AMR services.

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WCDMA RAN
AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA

3 Technical Description

Figure 3-2 Channel encoding for classes A, B, and C of narrowband AMR services

3.2 AMR Speech Decoding Using the Viterbi Algorithm


The Viterbi algorithm is adopted by most vendors to decode convolutional codes. Figure 3-3 shows the
working mechanism of the Viterbi algorithm.
Figure 3-3 Working mechanism of the Viterbi algorithm

The Viterbi algorithm selects the optimal path based on the maximum likelihood theory and exports the
data decoded on the optimal path. If the data decoded on the optimal path fails the CRC, the AMR
speech codec discards the data. As a result, voice quality deteriorates.
Figure 3-4 shows the narrowband AMR speech decoding using the Viterbi algorithm.
Figure 3-4 Narrowband AMR speech decoding using the Viterbi algorithm

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WCDMA RAN
AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA

3 Technical Description

As shown in Figure 3-4, the three AMR voice classes are separately decoded by the Viterbi decoder,
and the CRC is performed only on the decoded data of class A. The CRCI is used as a reference for
outer-loop power control and is also sent as a bad frame indication (BFI) to the AMR speech codec on
the CN. If a BFI indicates that a speech frame is erroneous, the AMR speech codec on the CN discards
the speech frame to prevent noise.

3.3 AMR Speech Decoding Using the PLVA


The Huawei PLVA is an enhanced CRC-assisted Viterbi algorithm. Figure 3-5 shows the working
mechanism of the PLVA.
Figure 3-5 Working mechanism of the PLVA

Instead of selecting only the most optimal path, the PLVA selects the top N optimal paths and performs
CRC on the data decoded on these paths. The PLVA only exports data that passes the CRC. If the data
decoded on these paths fails the CRC, the PLVA exports the data decoded on the optimal path, which is
the same path selected by the Viterbi algorithm. The PLVA outperforms the Viterbi algorithm because it
chooses the data decoded on multiple paths, which include the optimal one selected by the Viterbi
algorithm. Therefore, when the data decoded by the Viterbi algorithm is correct, the data decoded by
the PLVA is also correct. However, when the data decoded by the PLVA is correct, the data decoded by
the Viterbi algorithm is not necessarily correct because there are occasions when the data decoded on
the optimal path is incorrect whereas the data decoded on other paths selected by the PLVA is correct.
In simulations where the PLVA selects four paths, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 0.2 to 0.8 dB better
than that produced by the Viterbi algorithm.
Figure 3-6 shows the narrowband AMR speech decoding using the PLVA.
Figure 3-6 Narrowband AMR speech decoding using the PLVA

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3 Technical Description

As shown in Figure 3-6, CRC is performed on the AMR voice data of class A and therefore the data can
be decoded using the PLVA. The mean opinion score (MOS) of class A AMR voice data is improved by
reducing the BLER. CRC is not performed on classes B and C AMR voice data and therefore classes B
and C AMR voice data can only be decoded by using the Viterbi algorithm. The PLVA exports and
sends the decoded data, Viterbi CRCI, and PLVA CRCI to the RNC. The Viterbi CRCI is used for outerloop power control. The PLVA CRCI serves as the BFI, indicating whether a speech frame is erroneous.
The Viterbi CRCI is used for outer-loop power control and the PLVA CRCI serves as the BFI. This dualCRCI mechanism does not affect power control. Note that this feature decreases the uplink BLER and
improves the MOS of AMR voice service by using PLVA, it has no impact on the downlink.

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WCDMA RAN
AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA

4 Impact on the Network

4 Impact on the Network


System Capacity
No impact.

Network Performance
This feature improves the MOS of AMR voice services, especially the MOS of AMR voice services in
weak coverage areas.

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WCDMA RAN
AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA

5 Related Features

5 Related Features
5.1 Prerequisite Features
None

5.2 Mutually Exclusive Features


None

5.3 Impacted Features


None

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AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA

6 Engineering Guidelines

6 Engineering Guidelines
6.1 When to Use AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on
PLVA
This feature can improve the AMR voice quality in the uplink, so it can be applied in any scenario that
meets the deployment requirements. For details about deployment requirements, see section 6.3.1
"Deployment Requirements."

6.2 Network Planning


6.2.1 RF Planning
RF planning is not required.

6.2.2 Network Topology


Network topology is not required.

6.2.3 Hardware Planning


This feature sets the following requirements on NodeB hardware:

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EULPd board.

The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBCd board.

The 3900 series base station must be configured with the WBBPd or WBBPf board.

The BTS3902E supports this feature.


Currently, for baseband boards, only the EULPd, EBBCd, WBBPd and WBBPf boards support the PLVA feature. When
the EULPd, EBBCd, WBBPd or WBBPf board is inserted together with the other types of baseband boards, AMR
services cannot obtain the PLVA gain if the AMR services are set up on the other types of baseband boards.

6.3 Feature Deployment


6.3.1 Deployment Requirements

Operating environment and hardware requirements

This feature depends on NodeB hardware. For details, see section 6.2.3 "Hardware Planning."

The uplink resource group of the cell must contain a baseband board that supports this feature. To
check whether such a baseband board is contained, perform the following steps:

1. Run the LST ULOCELL command to check UL BB Resource Group No. to obtain the uplink
resource group of the cell.
2. Run the LST ULGROUP command to check UL BB Resource Group No., Cabinet No. of UL
Process Unit, Subrack No. of UL Process Unit, and Slot No. of UL Process Unit to obtain the
target baseband board.
3. Check that the baseband board meet the requirements specified in section 6.2.3 "Hardware
Planning."

Dependencies on Other Features


None

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AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA

6 Engineering Guidelines

License
The license has been activated. For details about how to activate the license, see License
Management Feature Parameter Description.

Feature ID

Feature Name

License Control Item Name

NE

Dimension

AMR Voice Quality Improvement


Based on PLVA (Per Cell)

NodeB

Per Cell

WRFD-140201

AMR Voice Quality


Improvement Based
on PLVA

Requirements for other devices


None.

6.3.2 Feature Activation


After the license is activated, this feature has been activated.

6.3.3 Activation Check


The VS.PLVA.User counter informs operators of the number of UEs using this feature. If the value of
VS.PLVA.User counter is not 0, this feature is effective.

6.3.4 Feature Deactivation


This feature can be disabled after the license for this feature has been deactivated.

6.4 Monitoring
The gain produced by this feature is reflected by a noticeable increase in the MOS. Take 12.2 kbit/s
AMR voice services as an example. In the uplink simulations, if the BLER is 1%, the MOS is increased
by about 0.08; if the BLER is greater than 10%, the MOS is increased by about 0.35. (The BLER
increase is generally caused by UE power limitation, fast channel change, or strong interference.) In
addition, the MOS increase is generally the same under different channel fading conditions.
Figure 6-1 describes the MOS comparison for AMR 12.2k voice (Simulation Result in the uplink).

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6 Engineering Guidelines

Figure 6-1 MOS comparison for AMR 12.2k voice (Simulation Result in the uplink)

The MOS gain produced by this feature needs to be tested using the MOS test instrument. End-to-end
MOS tests can be performed for this feature. However, this feature provides uplink gains. In this case,
the test is recommended only for uplink MOS.
Fixed-point test in the lab and drive test are available, which are described as follows:

Fixed-point test in the lab

To conduct a fixed-point test in the lab, perform the following steps:


1. Deactivate this feature and calculate the MOS.
2. Under the same conditions, reactivate this feature and calculate the MOS in the same way.
The MOS gain is obtained by the average value calculated in step 2 minus that calculated in step 1.
The MOS gain is about 0.2.

Drive test

To conduct a drive test in the lab, perform the following steps:


3. Determine a test route, deactivate this feature, and calculate the MOS.
4. Under the same conditions, reactivate this feature and calculate the MOS in the same route.
The MOS gain is obtained by the average value calculated in step 2 minus that calculated in step 1.
The MOS gain is over 0.1.
In a drive test, the BLER fluctuates significantly. Therefore, the MOS gain obtained in a drive test is different from that
obtained in a fixed-point test in the lab.

6.5 Parameter Optimization


Parameter optimization is not required.
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6 Engineering Guidelines

6.6 Troubleshooting
None.

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7 Parameters

7 Parameters
There are no specific parameters associated with this feature.

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8 Counters

8 Counters
Table 8-1 Counter description
Counter ID

Counter Name Counter


Description

50332258

VS.PLVA.User

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NE

Numbers of plva NodeB


user in one cell

Feature ID

Feature Name

WRFD-140201 AMR Voice


Quality
Improvement
Based on PLVA

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9 Glossary

9 Glossary
For the acronyms, abbreviations, terms, and definitions, see the Glossary.

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10 References Documents

10 References Documents
[1] 3GPP TS 25.101, "User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception (FDD)"
[2] 3GPP TS 25.212, "Channel Coding and Multiplexing"
[3] 3GPP TS 26.090v900: "AMR Speech Codec; Speech transcoding," December 2009

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