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Momentum

UNIT 4

1) Determine the momentum of a Pacific leatherback turtle of mass 8.6 3 *10 2 kg, swimming at a

velocity of 1.3 m/s [forward]. (The Pacific leatherback turtle is the worlds largest species of turtle.)

2) Calculate the momentum of each of the following:

(a) A 7.0 3 103-kg African elephant running at 7.9 m/s [E]

(b) A 19-kg mute swan flying at 26 m/s [S]

(c) An electron of mass 9.1 3 10231 kg moving at 1.0 3 107 m/s [forward]

3. A personal watercraft and its rider have a combined mass of 405 kg, and a momentum of 5.02 3 10 3

4. A bullet travelling at 9.0 3 102 m/s [W] has a momentum of 4.5 kg.m/s [W]. What is its mass?

5. (a) By estimating your top running speed, estimate the magnitude of your momentum when you are

(b) How fast would a typical compact car have to be moving to reach the same momentum? State

your assumptions and show your calculations.

6) A baseball of mass 0.152 kg, travelling horizontally at 37.5 m/s [E], collides with a baseball bat.

The collision lasts for 1.15 m/s. immediately after the collision, the baseball travels horizontally at

49.5 m/s [W] (Figure 3).

(a) Determine the initial momentum of the baseball.

(b) What is the average force applied by the bat to the baseball?

(c) Determine the ratio of the magnitude of this force to the

magnitude of the force of Gravity on the baseball

7) A 57-g tennis ball is thrown upward and then struck just as it comes to rest at the top of its motion.

The racket exerts an average horizontal force of magnitude 4.2 3 102 N on the tennis ball.

(a) Determine the speed of the ball after the collision if the average force is exerted on the ball for 4.5

m/s.

(b) Repeat the calculation, assuming a time interval of 5.3 m/s.

8) Show that the units of impulse and change in momentum are equivalent.

9) A snowball of mass 65 g falls vertically toward the ground where it breaks apart and comes to rest.

Its speed just before hitting the ground is 3.8 m/s. Determine

(a) The momentum of the snowball before hitting the ground

(b) The momentum of the snowball after hitting the ground

(c) The change in momentum

10). A trucks initial momentum is 5.8 104 kg?m/s [W]. An average force of 4.8 103 N [W]

increases the trucks momentum for the next 3.5 s.

(a) What is the impulse on the truck over this time interval?

(b) What is the final momentum of the truck?

TurnOver

CAM

Momentum

UNIT 4

11). A 0.27-kg volleyball, with an initial velocity of 2.7m/s horizontally, hits a net, stops, and then

drops to the ground. The average force exerted on the volleyball by the net is 33 N [W]. How long, in

milliseconds, is the ball in contact with the net?

12). In its approach to an airport runway, an airplane of mass 1.24 105 kg has a velocity of 75.5 m/s

[11.1 below the horizontal]. Determine the horizontal and vertical components of its momentum

13) A 0.16-kg hockey puck is sliding along a smooth, flat section of ice at 18 m/s when it encounters

some snow. After 2.5 s of sliding through the snow, it returns to smooth ice, continuing at a speed of

11 m/s.

(a) What is the change in the momentum of the puck?

(b) What impulse does the snow exert on the puck?

14) A 0.61-kg basketball is thrown vertically downward. Just before it hits the floor, its speed is 9.6

m/s. It then rebounds upward with a speed of 8.5 m/s just as it leaves the floor. The basketball is in

contact with the floor for 6.5 ms.

(a) Determine the basketballs change in momentum.

(b) Determine the average force exerted on the basketball

15) A vacationer of mass 75 kg is standing on a stationary raft of mass 55 kg. The vacationer then

walks toward one end of the raft at a speed of 2.3 m/s relative to the water. What are the magnitude

and direction of the resulting velocity of the raft relative to the water? Neglect fluid friction between

the raft and the water.

16) During a football game, a fullback of mass 108 kg, running at a speed of 9.1 m/s, is tackled headon by a defensive back of mass 91 kg, running at a speed of 6.3 m/s. What is the speed of this pair just

after the collision?

TurnOver

CAM

Momentum

UNIT 4

18)The graph in

Figure 6 shows velocity as a function of time for a system of two carts that undergo an experimental

collision on a horizontal, frictionless surface. The mass of cart A is 0.40 kg. The mass of cart B is 0.80

kg.

(a) If you were conducting this experiment, describe what you would observe based on the graph.

(b) Determine the momentum of the system of carts before the collision.

(c) Assuming momentum is conserved, determine the velocity of cart A after the collision is complete

19) A child rolls a superball of mass 2.5 3* 1022 kg along a table at a speed of 2.3 m/s to collide headon with a smaller stationary superball of mass 2.0 3* 1022 kg. The collision is elastic. Determine the

velocity of each ball after the collision.

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UNIT 4

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