You are on page 1of 62

Lecture 4:

Gas-Liquid Flows
16.0 Release

Multiphase Modeling using


ANSYS Fluent
1

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Outline
Introduction
Conservation equations
Modelling strategies : Euler-Lagrangian and Eulerian
Interfacial Forces
Drag
Non-Drag Forces
Turbulence Interaction

Mixture Model

Validation example
2

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Introduction
Gasliquid flows occur in many
applications. The motion of bubbles in a
liquid as well as droplets in a conveying
gas stream are examples of gasliquid
flows

Rain/Hail
Stones

Combustion

Spray Drying

Bubble Column

Bubble columns are commonly used in


several process industries

Atomization to generate small droplets


for combustion is important in power
generation systems

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

Distillation
Process

Boiling
Process

Absorption
Process

ANSYS Confidential

Why Study Gas-Liquid Flows


The main interests in studying gas-liquid flows, in devices like bubble columns or
stirred tank reactors, are:
Design and scale-up
Fluid dynamics and regime analysis
Hydrodynamic parameters

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Bubble Columns
To design bubble column reactors, the following hydrodynamic parameters are required:
Specic gasliquid interfacial area ( )
Sauter mean bubble diameter, ( )

Axial and radial dispersion coefcients of the gas and liquid, ( )


Heat and mass transfer coefcients, (, )
Gas holdup, ( )
Physicochemical properties of the liquid medium, (, )

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Regime Analysis
Two types of ow regimes are commonly observed in
bubble columns:

The bubbly flow regime,


Gas velocity < 5cm/s
Bubbles are of relatively uniform small sizes (db =
2 to 6 mm)
Rise velocity does exceed 0.025m/s
Holdup shows linear dependence with the flow

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

< .
< . /

Regime Analysis

> .
> . /

The churn turbulent flow regime


Gas velocity > 5cm/s
Bubble are Large bubbles ( > ) and show wide
size distribution
Rise velocity is in the range of 1-2m/s

Most frequently
observed flow
regime in industrialsize, large diameter
columns
7

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Photographic Representation of Bubbly and


Churn-Turbulent Flow Regimes

Bubbly Flow Regime

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

Churn Turbulent Flow Regime

ANSYS Confidential

Design and Scale-up of Bubble Column Reactors


Bubble have significant effect on hydrodynamics well as heat and mass transfer

coefcients in a bubble columns


The average bubble size and rise velocity in a bubble column is found to be affected by:

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Euler-Lagrangian Method
In this approach, a single set of
conservation equations is solved for a
continuous phase

Eulerian Cell
Gravity

The dispersed phase is explicitly tracked


by solving an appropriate equation of
motion in the lagrangian frame of
reference through the continuous phase
flow field

The interaction between the continuous


and the dispersed phase is taken into
account with separate models for drag,
and non-drag forces
10

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

Buoyancy
Liquid Flow

ANSYS Confidential

Eulerian Approach
In the Eulerian approach, both the continuous and dispersed phases are
considered to be interpenetrating continua

The Eulerian model describes the motion for each phase in a macroscopic sense
The flow description therefore consists of differential equations describing the
conservation of mass, momentum and energy for each phase separately

11

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Conservation Equations
Continuity equation:

q q q q v q m pq mqp Sq
t
p 1

source
mass transfer

Momentum equation:
Forces
Drag

q q v q q q v q q p

q q q g K pq v p v q m pq v pq mqp v qp

p 1

t
Interfacial Force

Friction
Pr essure
Bouyancy
mass transfer

Drag Forces
Non


Fq F
F wl,q
F vm,q
F td,q
lift,q

external Lift
Wall Lubrication
Virtual Mass
Turbulent Dispersion
Force
Force
Force
Force
Force

12

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Interphase Momentum Exchange


A key question is how to model the inter-phase
momentum exchange
Drag

This is the force that acts on the bubble and takes into
Virtual
Mass

account:

Interphase
Momentum
Exchange

Effect of multi-bubble interaction


Gas holdup
Turbulent modulation
Turbulent Dispersion
Turbulent Interaction

13

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

Lift

Turbulent
Interaction

ANSYS Confidential

Turbulent
Dispersion

Drag Force
We can think of drag as a hydrodynamic
friction between the liquid phase and the
dispersed phase

We can also think of drag as a


hydrodynamic resistance to the motion of
the particle through the water. The
source of this drag is shape of particle

14

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Drag Force
For a single spherical bubble, rising at steady state, the drag force is given by:
FD

C
D

Ap

drag coefficient

vp

vq v p vq
2 slip
velocity

For a swarm of bubbles the drag, in absence of bubble-bubble interaction, is given by:

6 p
q

FD , swarm NFD
C A
v p vq v p vq
d 3 D p 2
p

q
3 p
v p vq v p vq

CD

4
dp

15

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Drag Force
In order to ensure that the interfacial force vanishes in absence any dispersed phase, the
drag force needs to multiplied by as shown:
FD , swarm

3 p q
4

In Fluent

q
CD
d
p

v p vq v p vq

18 q d p

FD , swarm K pq v p v q p p
Ai f v p v q

d 2
p p 6
18 q d p C D Re

p p
Ai
v p vq

d 2
p p 6 24

= Interfacial Area Density, m2/m3


16

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Drag Force
To estimate the drag force bubble diameter, ,is needed
The is often taken as the mean bubble size
For bubble columns operating at low gas superficial velocities (< 5 cm/s) works
reasonably well

For bubble columns operating at higher gas superficial velocities (> 5 cm/s), bubble
breakup and coalesce dominate and bubble size is no longer uniform and mean bubble
size approach may not be adequate

17

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Glycerol

Drag Coefficient
The drag coefficient is likely to be different for a

single bubble and a bubble swarm. This is because the


shape and size of a bubble in a swarm is different than
that of an isolated bubble

When the bubble size is small ( < 1mm in water):


bubble is approximately spherical

When the bubble size is large ( > 18mm in water):


bubble is approximately a spherical cap

When the bubble of intermediate size: bubbles exhibit


complex shapes
18

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Water /

Bubble Shape
We can use the Eotvos number () together with
the Morton number () to characterize the
shape of bubbles or drops moving in a surrounding
fluid or continuous phase

Eo

Number

gd p2

Ratio of bouncy force and surface tension force and


essentially gives a measure of the volume of the
bubble

Number

Mo

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

Lorond Eotvos

gq4

q
Ratio of physical properties
Constant for a given incompressible two-phase system.
Water has a Morton number of .

19

3mm air bubble rising in tap water

ANSYS Confidential

Bubble Regime Map

Drag Laws for Small and Constant Bubble Sizes


At low flow rates bubbles assume an approximately spherical shape while they rise in a

rectilinear path
Schiller and Naumann (1978)

CD

24
1 0.15 Re 0.687
Re
0.44

CD

for : Re 1000
for : Re 1000

Morsi and Alexander (1972)


C D a1

Symmetric Drag Model:

a
a2
32
Re Re

Re

q v p vq d p
q

When Reynolds number is


small ( < 1) these
correlations essentially
reduce to the well known
Stokes drag law = 24

The density and the viscosity are calculated from volume averaged properties and is given by
Schiller Naumann model
20

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Drag Laws for Variable Bubble Sizes


For all other flow rate, bubble size and shapes varies

Larger bubbles - ellipsoidal

with the flow

Consequently, different drag correlations are needed


Several drag correlation are found in literature
Grace drag law
Tomiyama drag law
Universal drag law

As bubble size increases,


spherical caps may be formed
21

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Terminal Rise Velocity for Bubbles


The drag correlations for
large bubbles are very
different from those for
spherical particles

Spherical
Bubble
Correlation

Grace Correlation

22

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Bubble Regimes

Viscous
Regime

Viscous and inertial forces are


important
the function is given by an
empirical correlation e.g. SN

Distorted
Bubble Regime

Bubbles follow zig-zag paths


is proportional to the size
of bubble
is independent of viscosity

Cap Regime
23

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

24

CD max
1 0.15 Re0 .687 ,0.44
Re

The drag coefficient on the Reynolds number decreases with


increasing values of the Reynolds number

C D ,

Drag coefficient Reaches a


constant value

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

CD

2
dp
3

8
3

Automatic Regime Detection


Flow regime automatically determined from
continuity of drag coefficient
3cm/s
C D ,viscous C D , distorted C D ,viscous

C D ,viscous C D , distorted C D min C D ,viscous , C D , distorted

The determined by
choosing minimum of
vicious regime and capped
regime

24

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

35cm/s

ANSYS Confidential

Drag Laws for Variable Bubble Sizes


Universal Drag Law (for Bubbly Flow)
Viscous regime
CD

q v q v p d p
q
24
1 0.1 Re 0 .75 ; Re
;e
Re
e
1 p

Distorted regime
CD

2
dp
3

g 1 17.67 f

18.67 f

6/7

f (1 p )1.5

Capped regime
As the bubble size increases the bubble become spherical caped shaped
CD
25

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

8
1 - p 2
3
ANSYS Confidential

Drag Laws for Variable Bubble Sizes


Grace Drag Law
The flow regime transitions between the viscous and distorted particle flow and can
expressed as follows.
Viscous regime
Distorted regime

CD

24
1 0.15 Re 0.687
Re

CD

4
g
dp
2
3
vt

q
vt
d
q p

0.757

,
0.94 H
J
0.441

,
3.42 H

26

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

CD
April 24, 2015

Mo 0.149 ( J 0.857)

2 H 59.3
H 59.3

q
4
H EoMo 0.149

3
ref

Capped regime

- 0.14

, ref 9 x10 4 kg / ms

8
3
ANSYS Confidential

Drag Laws for Variable Bubble Sizes


Tomiyama Model (1998)

24
72 8 Eo

C D max min
(1 0.15 Re 0.687 ),
,

Re
Re p
3 Eo 4

Viscous
Regime

Distorted
Regime

Cap
Regime

Like the Grace et al model and universal drag model the Tomiyama model is well suited to gasliquid flows in which the bubbles can have a range of shapes

27

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Non-Drag Forces
For gasliquid flows, non-drag forces have a profound influence on the flow characteristics,

especially in dispersed flows


Bubbles rising in a liquid can be subject to a additional forces including:

Lift Force
Wall Lubrication Force

Virtual Mass Force


Turbulence Dispersion Force

28

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Lift Force
When the liquid flow is non-uniform or rotational, bubbles experience a lift force
This lift force depends on the bubble diameter, the relative velocity between the phases, and the vorticity
and is given by the following form

Flift CL p q v q v p v q

The lift coefficient, , often is approximately constant


in inertial flow regime ( < < ),

Following the recommendations Drew and Lahey, it is


set to 0.5

Lift forces are primarily responsible for inhomogeneous


radial distribution of the dispersed phase holdup and
could be important to include their effects in CFD
simulations

29

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Lift Coefficients: Saffman Mei Model


Saffman and Mei developed an expression for lift force
constant by combining the two lift forces:
Classical aerodynamics lift force resulting from interaction
between bubble and liquid shear
Lateral force resulting from interaction between bubbles and
vortices shed by bubble wake
Shear Lift Force

q d p2
3
'
CL
CL ; Re
q
q
2 Re

1 - 0.3314 1 Re


2 Re

'
C L 6.46

Re

0.0524
;

30

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

( 0.1Re)
1 Re
e
0.3314
;

2
Re

April 24, 2015

for : 40 Re 100

for : Re 40

ANSYS Confidential

Vorticity induced
Lift Force

Suitability

Mainly spherical rigid particles


Could be applied to small liquid
drops

Lift Coefficients: Moraga et al Model


Moraga et al. (1999) proposed an al alternative expression for the lift coefficient that correlated with
the product of bubble and shear Reynolds numbers

0.0767

Re Re
Re Re

7

C L 0.12 0.2e 36000 e 3e


-0.6353

31

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

for Re Re 6000
for 6000

Re Re 5 107

for Re Re 5 107

ANSYS Confidential

Suitability

Mainly spherical rigid particles


Could be applied to small liquid
drops

Lift Coefficients: Legendre and Magnaudet Model


Legendre and Magnaudet proposed an expression for the lift coefficient that is a

function of bubble Reynolds number and dimensionless shear rate


This model accounts of induced circulation inside bubbles
C L C L2,low Re C L2,high Re ,

for 0.1 Re 500 , Sr 2 1

6
0.5 '

Re
Sr
J
2

1 1 16 Re 1
C L ,high Re
2 1 29 Re 1
C L ,low Re

J
'

2.255

1 0.1
2

32

q d p2
2
1 Re
,
,
, Re
q
3
Re
2 Re
q
2

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Suitability

Mainly small spherical bubbles


and liquid drops

Lift Coefficients Tomiyama Model


Tomiyama et al correlated the lift coefficient for larger
bubbles with a modified Etvs number and accounts
for bubble deformation

min 0.288 tanh 0.121 Re, f Eo '

C L f Eo '
0.27

'
f Eo 0.00105 Eo '3 - 0.0159 Eo ' 2 0.474

for Eo ' 4
for Eo ' 10
10 Eo '

Eo '

g q p d H2

d H d p 1 0.163Eo 0.757

1
3

Eo

g q p d p2

Suitability

All shape and size of bubble


and drops
Dependence of lift coefficient on bubble diameter

33

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Wall Lubrication Force


This is a force that prevents the bubbles from
touching
The main effect of this force is to ensure zero void
fraction (found experimentally) near vertical walls
Wall lubrication force is normally correlated with slip
velocity and can be expressed as force is defined as:
gas void fraction

FWL CWL p q v p v q n w
||

Slip velocity component parallel to the wall


34

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Wall Lubrication Coefficient: Antal et al Model


Antal et al. (1991) proposed a wall lubrication force coefficient according to:
C
C
CWL max 0, W 1 W 2
d
yw
p

CW 1 0.01
CW 2 0.05
yw distance to nearest wall

Only active in thin region near wall where:


CW 2
yw
C
W1

d b 5d b

Suitability

Mainly small bubbles


Requires Fine Mesh

As a result, the Antal model will only be active on a sufficiently fine mesh

35

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Wall Lubrication Coefficient: Tomiyama Model


Modified the Antal model for special case of pipe flow and accordingly:
CWL CW

dp 1
1
2

2 yw D yw 2

0.47
0 .933 Eo 0 .179
e
CW
0.00599 Eo 0.0187
0.179
D Pipe Diameter

for Eo 1
for 1 Eo 5
for 5 Eo 33
for 33 Eo

Coefficients were developed on a single air bubble in a glycerol solution but results have

been extrapolated to air-water system


Depends on Eotvos number, hence accounts for dependence of wall lubrication force on
bubble shape
Suitability

36

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

Viscous Fluids and all bubble size and shapes


Could be used for low air-water system

ANSYS Confidential

Wall Lubrication Coefficient: Frank Model


Generalised Tomiyama model to be geometry independent
Model constants calibrated and validated for bubbly flow in vertical pipes

yw

CWC d b
1
CWL CW max 0,

m 1
yw
CWD

yw

C
d
WC b

for Eo 1
0.47
0 .933Eo 0 .179
for 1 Eo 5
e
CW
for 5 Eo 33
0.00599 Eo 0.0187
0.179
for 33 Eo

Suitability

CWD Distance to nearest wall 6.8

m 1.7
37

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Viscous Fluids and all bubble size and


shapes in vertical pipe flows
Could be used for low air-water system

Wall Lubrication Coefficient: Hosokawa Model


Hosokawa et al. (2002) investigated the influence of the Morton number and developed a
new correlation for the coefficient:

CWL max 1.9 ,0.0217 Eo


Re

Includes the effects of Eotvos number and bubble relative Reynolds number on the lift
coefficient

Suitability

38

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

All bubble size and shapes


Could be used for low air-water system

Turbulent Dispersion forces


The turbulent dispersion force accounts for an

interaction between turbulent eddies and particles


Results in a turbulent dispersion and homogenization
of the dispersed phase distribution
The simplest way to model turbulent dispersion is to
assume gradient transport as follows:

turb.
dispersion
force
gas void fraction

FTD CTD q k q p

fluid vel.

39

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Turbulent Dispersion Models


Lopez de Bertodano Model, Default CTD = 1
CTD = 0.1 to 0.5 good for medium sized bubbles in ellipsoidal flow regime. However, C TD up to 500
required for small bubbles

Burns et al. Model Default CTD = 1


The defaults value of CTD are appropriate for bubbly flows

Simonin Model Default CTD = 1


Same as Burns et al. Model

Diffusion in VOF Model


Instead of modelling the turbulent dispersion as an interfacial momentum force in the phase
momentum equations, we can model it as a turbulent diffusion term in the phasic continuity
equation

40

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Turbulent Interaction
Turbulence in bubbly flows are very complex due:
Bubble-induced turbulence
Interaction between bubble-induced and shearinduced
turbulences
Direct interaction between bubbles and turbulence eddies
and

Turbulence Dispersion Models in Fluent


Sato
Simonin
Only available when dispersed and per phase turbulence
models are enabled
Troshko and Hassan
Alternative to Simonin Model
41

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Virtual Mass Force


The virtual mass force represents the force due to
inertia of the dispersed phase due to relative
acceleration
f vm

Dv q
Dv p

; CVM 0.5
CVM p q

Dt
Dt

Large continuous-dispersed phase density ratios, e.g.


bubbly flows
Transient Flows can affect period of oscillating bubble
plume.
Strongly Accelerating Flows e.g. bubbly flow through
narrow constriction.

42

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Dip your palms into the water and slowly


bring them together. Such a movement will
require small effort. Now try to clap your
hands frequently. The speed of hands now is
low and will require considerable effort

Mixture Multiphase Model

43

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Introduction
The mixture model, like the Eulerian model, allows the phases to be interpenetrating. It
differs from the Eulerian model in three main respects:
Solves one set of momentum equations for the mass averaged velocity and tracks volume fraction
of each fluid throughout domain
Particle relaxation times < 0.001 - 0.01 s

Local equilibrium assumption to model algebraically the relative velocity

This approach works well for flow fields where both phases generally flow in the same
direction and in the absence of sedimentation

44

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Underlying Equations of the Mixture Model


Solves one equation for continuity of mixture

m
mum 0
t
Solves one equation for the momentum of the mixture

T
r r
um

mumum p eff um um m g F k k uk uk
t
k 1

Solves for the transport of volume fraction of each secondary phase

( p p ) .( p p um ) .( p p u p )
t
45

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Constitutive Equations
n

Average density


k k
k 1

Mass weighted average velocity

n
k 1 k k uk
um
m

Drift velocity


ukr uk um

Slip Velocity


u pq u p uq

Relation between drift and slip velocities

46

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

n
r

uk u pq k k uqk
k 1 m

Relative Velocity
If we assume the particles follows the mixture flow path, then, the slip velocity between
the phases is

um
a g um um

a v p m
u pq
f drag p

In turbulent flows, the relative velocity should contain a diffusion term in the momentum
equation for the disperse phase. FLUENT adds this dispersion to the relative velocity as
follows:

u pq
47

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

a p p m

fdrag

ANSYS Confidential

m
q
p D

Validation of the Multiphase Flow in


Rectangular Bubble Column
16.0 Release

48

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Objectives
Investigate air-water bubbly flow in a rectangular
bubble column as investigated at HZDR by Krepper et
al., Experimental and numerical studies of void
fraction distribution in rectangular bubble columns,
Nuclear Engineering and Design Vol. 237, pp. 399-408,
2007

Validation of Momentum Exchange Models for


disperse bubbly flows accounting:

49

Drag force
Lift force
Turbulent dispersion
Turbulence Interaction
Turbulence models
2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Computational Geometry
Duct Dimensions:

Outlet:
Degassing or Pressure
Outlet

Height: 1.0 m
Width: 0.1 m
Depth: 0.01 m

Bubbles are introduced at the bottom


LW 0.020.01 m
Inlet:
Velocity or mass
inlet

50

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Fluid Materials and Phase Setup


Materials Setups
Gas Bubble

FLUENT Fluid Materials:

air

Water

FLUENT Fluid Materials:

water-liquid (h2o<l>)

Phases Setup

51

Phase Specification

Primary Phase:
Secondary Phase:

water (Material: water)


gas bubble (diameter: 3mm with Material: air)

Phase Interaction

Drag:
Lift:
Wall Lubrication:
Turbulent Dispersion
Turbulent Interaction
Surface Tension Coeff.:

Grace Drag Force


Tomiyama lift force
Antal et al (default coeff.)
Burns et al. (cd=0.8)
Sato Model (default coeff.)
0.072

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Boundary Conditions
Boundary Patch
Inlet

Properties
Type:
Gas Bubble:

Water:

52

Outlet

Type:
Degassing outlet:

Walls

No Slip

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

Mass flow inlet


2.37E-05 kg/s
Gas Volume Fraction (VF): 1.0
Turbulence Intensity 10%
Viscosity Ratio 10
mass flow rate: 0 kg/s
Water VF: 0.0

Degassing
Symmetry for water
Sink for air

ANSYS Confidential

Solution Methods and Control


Solution Methods
Pres.-Vel. Coupling

Coupled Scheme

Spatial Discretization

Gradient:
Momentum:
Volume Fraction:
TKE:

Least Squared Cell Based


QUICK
QUICK
1st Order Upwind
Bounded 2nd Order Implicit

Transient Formulation
Solution Controls
Courant No.

53

200

Explicit Relax. Factors

Momentum:

Under-Relax. Factors

Density:
1
Body Forces:
Volume Fraction:
0.5 TKE:
Specific. Diss. Rate: 0.8 Turb. Viscosity:

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

0.75 Pressure:

ANSYS Confidential

0.75
0.5
0.8
0.5

Instantaneous Gas Volume Fraction


k- Troshko-Hassan

k-SST-Sato

Gas volume fraction at 25s, 35s, 45s


54

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Gas volume fraction at 20s, 30s

Turbulence Validation, Sato Model

Mean gas volume fraction


distribution at plane y=0.63m
55

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

Mean gas volume fraction


distribution at plane y=0.08m
ANSYS Confidential

Turbulence Validation, Troshko-Hassan Model

Mean gas volume fraction


distribution at plane y=0.63m
56

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

Mean gas volume fraction


distribution at plane y=0.08m
ANSYS Confidential

Summary and Conclusions


It was found that the most appropriate drag which is in good accordance with the

57

measurements is the Grace Drag law


The k- turbulence model combined with the Sato Model reproduced well the
experiments with no fundamental differences to the k- SST plus the Sato Model. This
may indicate that the bubble induced turbulence is quite significant in this bubble column
The Troshko-Hassan k- turbulence model performed well, particularly near the injection
point, a region of interest as it seemed to be problematic when the validations were
carried out with ANSYS CFX using k- SST plus the Sato Model

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Numerical Schemes and Solution Strategies

58

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Numerical schemes for multiphase flows


Three algorithms available for solving the pressure-velocity coupling
Phase coupled SIMPLE (PC-SIMPLE)
Pressure Coupled (Volume Fraction solved in a segregated manner)
Full multiphase coupled (Volume Fraction solved along with pressure and momentum)

A possibility of solving all primary and secondary phase volume fractions directly rather
than solving only the secondary phases directly

Ability to use the Non-Iterative Time Advancement (NITA)

59

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Multiphase coupled solver


Simultaneous solution of the equations of a multiphase system offers a more robust
alternative to the segregated approach

Can be extended to volume fraction correction (Full multiphase coupled)


For steady state problems the coupled based methodology is more efficient than
segregated methodology

For transient problems the efficiency is not as good as for steady, particularly for small
time steps. Solver efficiency increases with increase in time steps used for discretization
of the transient terms.

60

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Solution Strategies
Solution controls for PC-SIMPLE
Conservative solution control settings are shown
If convergence is slow, try reducing URFs for volume
fraction and turbulence

Tighten the multi-grid settings for pressure (lower it by


two orders of magnitude). Default is 0.1
Use gradient stabilization (BCGSTAB)

Try using F (or W) cycle for pressure

61

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential

Solution Strategies
For steady state problems using coupled multiphase

solver is effective
Use lower courant numbers for steady state and higher
URFs for momentum and pressure
Recommended values
Courant number = 20
URF pressure and momentum = 0.5 - 0.7
URF volume fraction = 0.2 - 0.5

For transient problems the efficiency of coupled not as

62

good as for steady, particularly for small time steps.


Use larger time steps and high courant numbers (1E7)
for coupled solvers and high URFs (> 0.7)

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

April 24, 2015

ANSYS Confidential