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# Lecture 4:

Gas-Liquid Flows
16.0 Release

ANSYS Fluent
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## April 24, 2015

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Outline
Introduction
Conservation equations
Modelling strategies : Euler-Lagrangian and Eulerian
Interfacial Forces
Drag
Non-Drag Forces
Turbulence Interaction

Mixture Model

Validation example
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Introduction
Gasliquid flows occur in many
applications. The motion of bubbles in a
liquid as well as droplets in a conveying
gas stream are examples of gasliquid
flows

Rain/Hail
Stones

Combustion

Spray Drying

Bubble Column

## Bubble columns are commonly used in

several process industries

## Atomization to generate small droplets

for combustion is important in power
generation systems

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Distillation
Process

Boiling
Process

Absorption
Process

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## Why Study Gas-Liquid Flows

The main interests in studying gas-liquid flows, in devices like bubble columns or
stirred tank reactors, are:
Design and scale-up
Fluid dynamics and regime analysis
Hydrodynamic parameters

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Bubble Columns
To design bubble column reactors, the following hydrodynamic parameters are required:
Specic gasliquid interfacial area ( )
Sauter mean bubble diameter, ( )

## Axial and radial dispersion coefcients of the gas and liquid, ( )

Heat and mass transfer coefcients, (, )
Gas holdup, ( )
Physicochemical properties of the liquid medium, (, )

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Regime Analysis
Two types of ow regimes are commonly observed in
bubble columns:

## The bubbly flow regime,

Gas velocity < 5cm/s
Bubbles are of relatively uniform small sizes (db =
2 to 6 mm)
Rise velocity does exceed 0.025m/s
Holdup shows linear dependence with the flow

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< .
< . /

Regime Analysis

> .
> . /

## The churn turbulent flow regime

Gas velocity > 5cm/s
Bubble are Large bubbles ( > ) and show wide
size distribution
Rise velocity is in the range of 1-2m/s

Most frequently
observed flow
regime in industrialsize, large diameter
columns
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## Photographic Representation of Bubbly and

Churn-Turbulent Flow Regimes

## Churn Turbulent Flow Regime

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## Design and Scale-up of Bubble Column Reactors

Bubble have significant effect on hydrodynamics well as heat and mass transfer

## coefcients in a bubble columns

The average bubble size and rise velocity in a bubble column is found to be affected by:

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Euler-Lagrangian Method
In this approach, a single set of
conservation equations is solved for a
continuous phase

Eulerian Cell
Gravity

## The dispersed phase is explicitly tracked

by solving an appropriate equation of
motion in the lagrangian frame of
reference through the continuous phase
flow field

## The interaction between the continuous

and the dispersed phase is taken into
account with separate models for drag,
and non-drag forces
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Buoyancy
Liquid Flow

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Eulerian Approach
In the Eulerian approach, both the continuous and dispersed phases are
considered to be interpenetrating continua

The Eulerian model describes the motion for each phase in a macroscopic sense
The flow description therefore consists of differential equations describing the
conservation of mass, momentum and energy for each phase separately

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Conservation Equations
Continuity equation:

q q q q v q m pq mqp Sq
t
p 1

source
mass transfer

Momentum equation:
Forces
Drag

q q v q q q v q q p

q q q g K pq v p v q m pq v pq mqp v qp

p 1

t
Interfacial Force

Friction
Pr essure
Bouyancy
mass transfer

Drag Forces
Non

Fq F
F wl,q
F vm,q
F td,q
lift,q

external Lift
Wall Lubrication
Virtual Mass
Turbulent Dispersion
Force
Force
Force
Force
Force

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## Interphase Momentum Exchange

A key question is how to model the inter-phase
momentum exchange
Drag

This is the force that acts on the bubble and takes into
Virtual
Mass

account:

Interphase
Momentum
Exchange

## Effect of multi-bubble interaction

Gas holdup
Turbulent modulation
Turbulent Dispersion
Turbulent Interaction

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Lift

Turbulent
Interaction

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Turbulent
Dispersion

Drag Force
We can think of drag as a hydrodynamic
friction between the liquid phase and the
dispersed phase

## We can also think of drag as a

hydrodynamic resistance to the motion of
the particle through the water. The
source of this drag is shape of particle

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Drag Force
For a single spherical bubble, rising at steady state, the drag force is given by:
FD

C
D

Ap

drag coefficient

vp

vq v p vq
2 slip
velocity

For a swarm of bubbles the drag, in absence of bubble-bubble interaction, is given by:

6 p
q

FD , swarm NFD
C A
v p vq v p vq
d 3 D p 2
p

q
3 p
v p vq v p vq

CD

4
dp

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Drag Force
In order to ensure that the interfacial force vanishes in absence any dispersed phase, the
drag force needs to multiplied by as shown:
FD , swarm

3 p q
4

In Fluent

q
CD
d
p

v p vq v p vq

18 q d p

FD , swarm K pq v p v q p p
Ai f v p v q

d 2
p p 6
18 q d p C D Re

p p
Ai
v p vq

d 2
p p 6 24

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Drag Force
To estimate the drag force bubble diameter, ,is needed
The is often taken as the mean bubble size
For bubble columns operating at low gas superficial velocities (< 5 cm/s) works
reasonably well

For bubble columns operating at higher gas superficial velocities (> 5 cm/s), bubble
breakup and coalesce dominate and bubble size is no longer uniform and mean bubble
size approach may not be adequate

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Glycerol

Drag Coefficient
The drag coefficient is likely to be different for a

## single bubble and a bubble swarm. This is because the

shape and size of a bubble in a swarm is different than
that of an isolated bubble

## When the bubble size is small ( < 1mm in water):

bubble is approximately spherical

## When the bubble size is large ( > 18mm in water):

bubble is approximately a spherical cap

complex shapes
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Water /

Bubble Shape
We can use the Eotvos number () together with
the Morton number () to characterize the
shape of bubbles or drops moving in a surrounding
fluid or continuous phase

Eo

Number

gd p2

## Ratio of bouncy force and surface tension force and

essentially gives a measure of the volume of the
bubble

Number

Mo

## April 24, 2015

Lorond Eotvos

gq4

q
Ratio of physical properties
Constant for a given incompressible two-phase system.
Water has a Morton number of .

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## 3mm air bubble rising in tap water

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## Drag Laws for Small and Constant Bubble Sizes

At low flow rates bubbles assume an approximately spherical shape while they rise in a

rectilinear path
Schiller and Naumann (1978)

CD

24
1 0.15 Re 0.687
Re
0.44

CD

for : Re 1000
for : Re 1000

C D a1

a
a2
32
Re Re

Re

q v p vq d p
q

## When Reynolds number is

small ( < 1) these
correlations essentially
reduce to the well known
Stokes drag law = 24

The density and the viscosity are calculated from volume averaged properties and is given by
Schiller Naumann model
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## Drag Laws for Variable Bubble Sizes

For all other flow rate, bubble size and shapes varies

## Consequently, different drag correlations are needed

Several drag correlation are found in literature
Grace drag law
Tomiyama drag law
Universal drag law

## As bubble size increases,

spherical caps may be formed
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## Terminal Rise Velocity for Bubbles

The drag correlations for
large bubbles are very
different from those for
spherical particles

Spherical
Bubble
Correlation

Grace Correlation

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Bubble Regimes

Viscous
Regime

## Viscous and inertial forces are

important
the function is given by an
empirical correlation e.g. SN

Distorted
Bubble Regime

is proportional to the size
of bubble
is independent of viscosity

Cap Regime
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24

CD max
1 0.15 Re0 .687 ,0.44
Re

## The drag coefficient on the Reynolds number decreases with

increasing values of the Reynolds number

C D ,

constant value

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CD

2
dp
3

8
3

## Automatic Regime Detection

Flow regime automatically determined from
continuity of drag coefficient
3cm/s
C D ,viscous C D , distorted C D ,viscous

## C D ,viscous C D , distorted C D min C D ,viscous , C D , distorted

The determined by
choosing minimum of
vicious regime and capped
regime

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35cm/s

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## Drag Laws for Variable Bubble Sizes

Universal Drag Law (for Bubbly Flow)
Viscous regime
CD

q v q v p d p
q
24
1 0.1 Re 0 .75 ; Re
;e
Re
e
1 p

Distorted regime
CD

2
dp
3

g 1 17.67 f

18.67 f

6/7

f (1 p )1.5

Capped regime
As the bubble size increases the bubble become spherical caped shaped
CD
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8
1 - p 2
3
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## Drag Laws for Variable Bubble Sizes

Grace Drag Law
The flow regime transitions between the viscous and distorted particle flow and can
expressed as follows.
Viscous regime
Distorted regime

CD

24
1 0.15 Re 0.687
Re

CD

4
g
dp
2
3
vt

q
vt
d
q p

0.757

,
0.94 H
J
0.441

,
3.42 H

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## 2015 ANSYS, Inc.

CD
April 24, 2015

Mo 0.149 ( J 0.857)

2 H 59.3
H 59.3

q
4
H EoMo 0.149

3
ref

Capped regime

- 0.14

, ref 9 x10 4 kg / ms

8
3
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## Drag Laws for Variable Bubble Sizes

Tomiyama Model (1998)

24
72 8 Eo

C D max min
(1 0.15 Re 0.687 ),
,

Re
Re p
3 Eo 4

Viscous
Regime

Distorted
Regime

Cap
Regime

Like the Grace et al model and universal drag model the Tomiyama model is well suited to gasliquid flows in which the bubbles can have a range of shapes

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Non-Drag Forces
For gasliquid flows, non-drag forces have a profound influence on the flow characteristics,

## especially in dispersed flows

Bubbles rising in a liquid can be subject to a additional forces including:

Lift Force
Wall Lubrication Force

## Virtual Mass Force

Turbulence Dispersion Force

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Lift Force
When the liquid flow is non-uniform or rotational, bubbles experience a lift force
This lift force depends on the bubble diameter, the relative velocity between the phases, and the vorticity
and is given by the following form

Flift CL p q v q v p v q

## The lift coefficient, , often is approximately constant

in inertial flow regime ( < < ),

set to 0.5

## Lift forces are primarily responsible for inhomogeneous

radial distribution of the dispersed phase holdup and
could be important to include their effects in CFD
simulations

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## Lift Coefficients: Saffman Mei Model

Saffman and Mei developed an expression for lift force
constant by combining the two lift forces:
Classical aerodynamics lift force resulting from interaction
between bubble and liquid shear
Lateral force resulting from interaction between bubbles and
vortices shed by bubble wake
Shear Lift Force

q d p2
3
'
CL
CL ; Re
q
q
2 Re

1 - 0.3314 1 Re

2 Re

'
C L 6.46

Re

0.0524
;

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( 0.1Re)
1 Re
e
0.3314
;

2
Re

## April 24, 2015

for : 40 Re 100

for : Re 40

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Vorticity induced
Lift Force

Suitability

## Mainly spherical rigid particles

Could be applied to small liquid
drops

## Lift Coefficients: Moraga et al Model

Moraga et al. (1999) proposed an al alternative expression for the lift coefficient that correlated with
the product of bubble and shear Reynolds numbers

0.0767

Re Re
Re Re

7

C L 0.12 0.2e 36000 e 3e

-0.6353

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for Re Re 6000
for 6000

Re Re 5 107

for Re Re 5 107

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Suitability

## Mainly spherical rigid particles

Could be applied to small liquid
drops

## Lift Coefficients: Legendre and Magnaudet Model

Legendre and Magnaudet proposed an expression for the lift coefficient that is a

## function of bubble Reynolds number and dimensionless shear rate

This model accounts of induced circulation inside bubbles
C L C L2,low Re C L2,high Re ,

6
0.5 '

Re
Sr
J
2

1 1 16 Re 1
C L ,high Re
2 1 29 Re 1
C L ,low Re

J
'

2.255

1 0.1
2

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q d p2
2
1 Re
,
,
, Re
q
3
Re
2 Re
q
2

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Suitability

and liquid drops

## Lift Coefficients Tomiyama Model

Tomiyama et al correlated the lift coefficient for larger
bubbles with a modified Etvs number and accounts
for bubble deformation

## min 0.288 tanh 0.121 Re, f Eo '

C L f Eo '
0.27

'
f Eo 0.00105 Eo '3 - 0.0159 Eo ' 2 0.474

for Eo ' 4
for Eo ' 10
10 Eo '

Eo '

g q p d H2

d H d p 1 0.163Eo 0.757

1
3

Eo

g q p d p2

Suitability

## All shape and size of bubble

and drops
Dependence of lift coefficient on bubble diameter

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## Wall Lubrication Force

This is a force that prevents the bubbles from
touching
The main effect of this force is to ensure zero void
fraction (found experimentally) near vertical walls
Wall lubrication force is normally correlated with slip
velocity and can be expressed as force is defined as:
gas void fraction

FWL CWL p q v p v q n w
||

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## Wall Lubrication Coefficient: Antal et al Model

Antal et al. (1991) proposed a wall lubrication force coefficient according to:
C
C
CWL max 0, W 1 W 2
d
yw
p

CW 1 0.01
CW 2 0.05
yw distance to nearest wall

CW 2
yw
C
W1

d b 5d b

Suitability

## Mainly small bubbles

Requires Fine Mesh

As a result, the Antal model will only be active on a sufficiently fine mesh

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## Wall Lubrication Coefficient: Tomiyama Model

Modified the Antal model for special case of pipe flow and accordingly:
CWL CW

dp 1
1
2

2 yw D yw 2

0.47
0 .933 Eo 0 .179
e
CW
0.00599 Eo 0.0187
0.179
D Pipe Diameter

for Eo 1
for 1 Eo 5
for 5 Eo 33
for 33 Eo

Coefficients were developed on a single air bubble in a glycerol solution but results have

## been extrapolated to air-water system

Depends on Eotvos number, hence accounts for dependence of wall lubrication force on
bubble shape
Suitability

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## Viscous Fluids and all bubble size and shapes

Could be used for low air-water system

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## Wall Lubrication Coefficient: Frank Model

Generalised Tomiyama model to be geometry independent
Model constants calibrated and validated for bubbly flow in vertical pipes

yw

CWC d b
1
CWL CW max 0,

m 1
yw
CWD

yw

C
d
WC b

for Eo 1
0.47
0 .933Eo 0 .179
for 1 Eo 5
e
CW
for 5 Eo 33
0.00599 Eo 0.0187
0.179
for 33 Eo

Suitability

m 1.7
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## Viscous Fluids and all bubble size and

shapes in vertical pipe flows
Could be used for low air-water system

## Wall Lubrication Coefficient: Hosokawa Model

Hosokawa et al. (2002) investigated the influence of the Morton number and developed a
new correlation for the coefficient:

## CWL max 1.9 ,0.0217 Eo

Re

Includes the effects of Eotvos number and bubble relative Reynolds number on the lift
coefficient

Suitability

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## All bubble size and shapes

Could be used for low air-water system

## Turbulent Dispersion forces

The turbulent dispersion force accounts for an

## interaction between turbulent eddies and particles

Results in a turbulent dispersion and homogenization
of the dispersed phase distribution
The simplest way to model turbulent dispersion is to

turb.
dispersion
force
gas void fraction

FTD CTD q k q p

fluid vel.

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## Turbulent Dispersion Models

Lopez de Bertodano Model, Default CTD = 1
CTD = 0.1 to 0.5 good for medium sized bubbles in ellipsoidal flow regime. However, C TD up to 500
required for small bubbles

## Burns et al. Model Default CTD = 1

The defaults value of CTD are appropriate for bubbly flows

## Simonin Model Default CTD = 1

Same as Burns et al. Model

## Diffusion in VOF Model

Instead of modelling the turbulent dispersion as an interfacial momentum force in the phase
momentum equations, we can model it as a turbulent diffusion term in the phasic continuity
equation

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Turbulent Interaction
Turbulence in bubbly flows are very complex due:
Bubble-induced turbulence
Interaction between bubble-induced and shearinduced
turbulences
Direct interaction between bubbles and turbulence eddies
and

## Turbulence Dispersion Models in Fluent

Sato
Simonin
Only available when dispersed and per phase turbulence
models are enabled
Troshko and Hassan
Alternative to Simonin Model
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## Virtual Mass Force

The virtual mass force represents the force due to
inertia of the dispersed phase due to relative
acceleration
f vm

Dv q
Dv p

; CVM 0.5
CVM p q

Dt
Dt

## Large continuous-dispersed phase density ratios, e.g.

bubbly flows
Transient Flows can affect period of oscillating bubble
plume.
Strongly Accelerating Flows e.g. bubbly flow through
narrow constriction.

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## Dip your palms into the water and slowly

bring them together. Such a movement will
require small effort. Now try to clap your
hands frequently. The speed of hands now is
low and will require considerable effort

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Introduction
The mixture model, like the Eulerian model, allows the phases to be interpenetrating. It
differs from the Eulerian model in three main respects:
Solves one set of momentum equations for the mass averaged velocity and tracks volume fraction
of each fluid throughout domain
Particle relaxation times < 0.001 - 0.01 s

## Local equilibrium assumption to model algebraically the relative velocity

This approach works well for flow fields where both phases generally flow in the same
direction and in the absence of sedimentation

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## Underlying Equations of the Mixture Model

Solves one equation for continuity of mixture

m
mum 0
t
Solves one equation for the momentum of the mixture

T
r r
um

mumum p eff um um m g F k k uk uk
t
k 1

## Solves for the transport of volume fraction of each secondary phase

( p p ) .( p p um ) .( p p u p )
t
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Constitutive Equations
n

Average density

k k
k 1

n
k 1 k k uk
um
m

Drift velocity

ukr uk um

Slip Velocity

u pq u p uq

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n
r

uk u pq k k uqk
k 1 m

Relative Velocity
If we assume the particles follows the mixture flow path, then, the slip velocity between
the phases is

um
a g um um

a v p m
u pq
f drag p

In turbulent flows, the relative velocity should contain a diffusion term in the momentum
equation for the disperse phase. FLUENT adds this dispersion to the relative velocity as
follows:

u pq
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a p p m

fdrag

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m
q
p D

## Validation of the Multiphase Flow in

Rectangular Bubble Column
16.0 Release

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Objectives
Investigate air-water bubbly flow in a rectangular
bubble column as investigated at HZDR by Krepper et
al., Experimental and numerical studies of void
fraction distribution in rectangular bubble columns,
Nuclear Engineering and Design Vol. 237, pp. 399-408,
2007

## Validation of Momentum Exchange Models for

disperse bubbly flows accounting:

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Drag force
Lift force
Turbulent dispersion
Turbulence Interaction
Turbulence models
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Computational Geometry
Duct Dimensions:

Outlet:
Degassing or Pressure
Outlet

Height: 1.0 m
Width: 0.1 m
Depth: 0.01 m

LW 0.020.01 m
Inlet:
Velocity or mass
inlet

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Materials Setups
Gas Bubble

air

Water

## FLUENT Fluid Materials:

water-liquid (h2o<l>)

Phases Setup

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Phase Specification

Primary Phase:
Secondary Phase:

## water (Material: water)

gas bubble (diameter: 3mm with Material: air)

Phase Interaction

Drag:
Lift:
Wall Lubrication:
Turbulent Dispersion
Turbulent Interaction
Surface Tension Coeff.:

## Grace Drag Force

Tomiyama lift force
Antal et al (default coeff.)
Burns et al. (cd=0.8)
Sato Model (default coeff.)
0.072

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Boundary Conditions
Boundary Patch
Inlet

Properties
Type:
Gas Bubble:

Water:

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Outlet

Type:
Degassing outlet:

Walls

No Slip

## Mass flow inlet

2.37E-05 kg/s
Gas Volume Fraction (VF): 1.0
Turbulence Intensity 10%
Viscosity Ratio 10
mass flow rate: 0 kg/s
Water VF: 0.0

Degassing
Symmetry for water
Sink for air

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## Solution Methods and Control

Solution Methods
Pres.-Vel. Coupling

Coupled Scheme

Spatial Discretization

Momentum:
Volume Fraction:
TKE:

## Least Squared Cell Based

QUICK
QUICK
1st Order Upwind
Bounded 2nd Order Implicit

Transient Formulation
Solution Controls
Courant No.

53

200

## Explicit Relax. Factors

Momentum:

Under-Relax. Factors

Density:
1
Body Forces:
Volume Fraction:
0.5 TKE:
Specific. Diss. Rate: 0.8 Turb. Viscosity:

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0.75 Pressure:

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0.75
0.5
0.8
0.5

## Instantaneous Gas Volume Fraction

k- Troshko-Hassan

k-SST-Sato

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## Mean gas volume fraction

distribution at plane y=0.63m
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## Mean gas volume fraction

distribution at plane y=0.08m
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## Mean gas volume fraction

distribution at plane y=0.63m
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## Mean gas volume fraction

distribution at plane y=0.08m
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## Summary and Conclusions

It was found that the most appropriate drag which is in good accordance with the

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## measurements is the Grace Drag law

The k- turbulence model combined with the Sato Model reproduced well the
experiments with no fundamental differences to the k- SST plus the Sato Model. This
may indicate that the bubble induced turbulence is quite significant in this bubble column
The Troshko-Hassan k- turbulence model performed well, particularly near the injection
point, a region of interest as it seemed to be problematic when the validations were
carried out with ANSYS CFX using k- SST plus the Sato Model

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## Numerical schemes for multiphase flows

Three algorithms available for solving the pressure-velocity coupling
Phase coupled SIMPLE (PC-SIMPLE)
Pressure Coupled (Volume Fraction solved in a segregated manner)
Full multiphase coupled (Volume Fraction solved along with pressure and momentum)

A possibility of solving all primary and secondary phase volume fractions directly rather
than solving only the secondary phases directly

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## Multiphase coupled solver

Simultaneous solution of the equations of a multiphase system offers a more robust
alternative to the segregated approach

## Can be extended to volume fraction correction (Full multiphase coupled)

For steady state problems the coupled based methodology is more efficient than
segregated methodology

For transient problems the efficiency is not as good as for steady, particularly for small
time steps. Solver efficiency increases with increase in time steps used for discretization
of the transient terms.

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Solution Strategies
Solution controls for PC-SIMPLE
Conservative solution control settings are shown
If convergence is slow, try reducing URFs for volume
fraction and turbulence

## Tighten the multi-grid settings for pressure (lower it by

two orders of magnitude). Default is 0.1

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Solution Strategies
For steady state problems using coupled multiphase

solver is effective
Use lower courant numbers for steady state and higher
URFs for momentum and pressure
Recommended values
Courant number = 20
URF pressure and momentum = 0.5 - 0.7
URF volume fraction = 0.2 - 0.5

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## good as for steady, particularly for small time steps.

Use larger time steps and high courant numbers (1E7)
for coupled solvers and high URFs (> 0.7)

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