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You are on page 1of 62

Gas-Liquid Flows

16.0 Release

ANSYS Fluent

1

ANSYS Confidential

Outline

Introduction

Conservation equations

Modelling strategies : Euler-Lagrangian and Eulerian

Interfacial Forces

Drag

Non-Drag Forces

Turbulence Interaction

Mixture Model

Validation example

2

ANSYS Confidential

Introduction

Gasliquid flows occur in many

applications. The motion of bubbles in a

liquid as well as droplets in a conveying

gas stream are examples of gasliquid

flows

Rain/Hail

Stones

Combustion

Spray Drying

Bubble Column

several process industries

for combustion is important in power

generation systems

Distillation

Process

Boiling

Process

Absorption

Process

ANSYS Confidential

The main interests in studying gas-liquid flows, in devices like bubble columns or

stirred tank reactors, are:

Design and scale-up

Fluid dynamics and regime analysis

Hydrodynamic parameters

ANSYS Confidential

Bubble Columns

To design bubble column reactors, the following hydrodynamic parameters are required:

Specic gasliquid interfacial area ( )

Sauter mean bubble diameter, ( )

Heat and mass transfer coefcients, (, )

Gas holdup, ( )

Physicochemical properties of the liquid medium, (, )

ANSYS Confidential

Regime Analysis

Two types of ow regimes are commonly observed in

bubble columns:

Gas velocity < 5cm/s

Bubbles are of relatively uniform small sizes (db =

2 to 6 mm)

Rise velocity does exceed 0.025m/s

Holdup shows linear dependence with the flow

ANSYS Confidential

< .

< . /

Regime Analysis

> .

> . /

Gas velocity > 5cm/s

Bubble are Large bubbles ( > ) and show wide

size distribution

Rise velocity is in the range of 1-2m/s

Most frequently

observed flow

regime in industrialsize, large diameter

columns

7

ANSYS Confidential

Churn-Turbulent Flow Regimes

ANSYS Confidential

Bubble have significant effect on hydrodynamics well as heat and mass transfer

The average bubble size and rise velocity in a bubble column is found to be affected by:

ANSYS Confidential

Euler-Lagrangian Method

In this approach, a single set of

conservation equations is solved for a

continuous phase

Eulerian Cell

Gravity

by solving an appropriate equation of

motion in the lagrangian frame of

reference through the continuous phase

flow field

and the dispersed phase is taken into

account with separate models for drag,

and non-drag forces

10

Buoyancy

Liquid Flow

ANSYS Confidential

Eulerian Approach

In the Eulerian approach, both the continuous and dispersed phases are

considered to be interpenetrating continua

The Eulerian model describes the motion for each phase in a macroscopic sense

The flow description therefore consists of differential equations describing the

conservation of mass, momentum and energy for each phase separately

11

ANSYS Confidential

Conservation Equations

Continuity equation:

q q q q v q m pq mqp Sq

t

p 1

source

mass transfer

Momentum equation:

Forces

Drag

q q v q q q v q q p

q q q g K pq v p v q m pq v pq mqp v qp

p 1

t

Interfacial Force

Friction

Pr essure

Bouyancy

mass transfer

Drag Forces

Non

Fq F

F wl,q

F vm,q

F td,q

lift,q

external Lift

Wall Lubrication

Virtual Mass

Turbulent Dispersion

Force

Force

Force

Force

Force

12

ANSYS Confidential

A key question is how to model the inter-phase

momentum exchange

Drag

This is the force that acts on the bubble and takes into

Virtual

Mass

account:

Interphase

Momentum

Exchange

Gas holdup

Turbulent modulation

Turbulent Dispersion

Turbulent Interaction

13

Lift

Turbulent

Interaction

ANSYS Confidential

Turbulent

Dispersion

Drag Force

We can think of drag as a hydrodynamic

friction between the liquid phase and the

dispersed phase

hydrodynamic resistance to the motion of

the particle through the water. The

source of this drag is shape of particle

14

ANSYS Confidential

Drag Force

For a single spherical bubble, rising at steady state, the drag force is given by:

FD

C

D

Ap

drag coefficient

vp

vq v p vq

2 slip

velocity

For a swarm of bubbles the drag, in absence of bubble-bubble interaction, is given by:

6 p

q

FD , swarm NFD

C A

v p vq v p vq

d 3 D p 2

p

q

3 p

v p vq v p vq

CD

4

dp

15

ANSYS Confidential

Drag Force

In order to ensure that the interfacial force vanishes in absence any dispersed phase, the

drag force needs to multiplied by as shown:

FD , swarm

3 p q

4

In Fluent

q

CD

d

p

v p vq v p vq

18 q d p

FD , swarm K pq v p v q p p

Ai f v p v q

d 2

p p 6

18 q d p C D Re

p p

Ai

v p vq

d 2

p p 6 24

16

ANSYS Confidential

Drag Force

To estimate the drag force bubble diameter, ,is needed

The is often taken as the mean bubble size

For bubble columns operating at low gas superficial velocities (< 5 cm/s) works

reasonably well

For bubble columns operating at higher gas superficial velocities (> 5 cm/s), bubble

breakup and coalesce dominate and bubble size is no longer uniform and mean bubble

size approach may not be adequate

17

ANSYS Confidential

Glycerol

Drag Coefficient

The drag coefficient is likely to be different for a

shape and size of a bubble in a swarm is different than

that of an isolated bubble

bubble is approximately spherical

bubble is approximately a spherical cap

complex shapes

18

ANSYS Confidential

Water /

Bubble Shape

We can use the Eotvos number () together with

the Morton number () to characterize the

shape of bubbles or drops moving in a surrounding

fluid or continuous phase

Eo

Number

gd p2

essentially gives a measure of the volume of the

bubble

Number

Mo

Lorond Eotvos

gq4

q

Ratio of physical properties

Constant for a given incompressible two-phase system.

Water has a Morton number of .

19

ANSYS Confidential

At low flow rates bubbles assume an approximately spherical shape while they rise in a

rectilinear path

Schiller and Naumann (1978)

CD

24

1 0.15 Re 0.687

Re

0.44

CD

for : Re 1000

for : Re 1000

C D a1

a

a2

32

Re Re

Re

q v p vq d p

q

small ( < 1) these

correlations essentially

reduce to the well known

Stokes drag law = 24

The density and the viscosity are calculated from volume averaged properties and is given by

Schiller Naumann model

20

ANSYS Confidential

For all other flow rate, bubble size and shapes varies

Several drag correlation are found in literature

Grace drag law

Tomiyama drag law

Universal drag law

spherical caps may be formed

21

ANSYS Confidential

The drag correlations for

large bubbles are very

different from those for

spherical particles

Spherical

Bubble

Correlation

Grace Correlation

22

ANSYS Confidential

Bubble Regimes

Viscous

Regime

important

the function is given by an

empirical correlation e.g. SN

Distorted

Bubble Regime

is proportional to the size

of bubble

is independent of viscosity

Cap Regime

23

24

CD max

1 0.15 Re0 .687 ,0.44

Re

increasing values of the Reynolds number

C D ,

constant value

ANSYS Confidential

CD

2

dp

3

8

3

Flow regime automatically determined from

continuity of drag coefficient

3cm/s

C D ,viscous C D , distorted C D ,viscous

The determined by

choosing minimum of

vicious regime and capped

regime

24

35cm/s

ANSYS Confidential

Universal Drag Law (for Bubbly Flow)

Viscous regime

CD

q v q v p d p

q

24

1 0.1 Re 0 .75 ; Re

;e

Re

e

1 p

Distorted regime

CD

2

dp

3

g 1 17.67 f

18.67 f

6/7

f (1 p )1.5

Capped regime

As the bubble size increases the bubble become spherical caped shaped

CD

25

8

1 - p 2

3

ANSYS Confidential

Grace Drag Law

The flow regime transitions between the viscous and distorted particle flow and can

expressed as follows.

Viscous regime

Distorted regime

CD

24

1 0.15 Re 0.687

Re

CD

4

g

dp

2

3

vt

q

vt

d

q p

0.757

,

0.94 H

J

0.441

,

3.42 H

26

CD

April 24, 2015

Mo 0.149 ( J 0.857)

2 H 59.3

H 59.3

q

4

H EoMo 0.149

3

ref

Capped regime

- 0.14

, ref 9 x10 4 kg / ms

8

3

ANSYS Confidential

Tomiyama Model (1998)

24

72 8 Eo

C D max min

(1 0.15 Re 0.687 ),

,

Re

Re p

3 Eo 4

Viscous

Regime

Distorted

Regime

Cap

Regime

Like the Grace et al model and universal drag model the Tomiyama model is well suited to gasliquid flows in which the bubbles can have a range of shapes

27

ANSYS Confidential

Non-Drag Forces

For gasliquid flows, non-drag forces have a profound influence on the flow characteristics,

Bubbles rising in a liquid can be subject to a additional forces including:

Lift Force

Wall Lubrication Force

Turbulence Dispersion Force

28

ANSYS Confidential

Lift Force

When the liquid flow is non-uniform or rotational, bubbles experience a lift force

This lift force depends on the bubble diameter, the relative velocity between the phases, and the vorticity

and is given by the following form

Flift CL p q v q v p v q

in inertial flow regime ( < < ),

set to 0.5

radial distribution of the dispersed phase holdup and

could be important to include their effects in CFD

simulations

29

ANSYS Confidential

Saffman and Mei developed an expression for lift force

constant by combining the two lift forces:

Classical aerodynamics lift force resulting from interaction

between bubble and liquid shear

Lateral force resulting from interaction between bubbles and

vortices shed by bubble wake

Shear Lift Force

q d p2

3

'

CL

CL ; Re

q

q

2 Re

1 - 0.3314 1 Re

2 Re

'

C L 6.46

Re

0.0524

;

30

( 0.1Re)

1 Re

e

0.3314

;

2

Re

for : 40 Re 100

for : Re 40

ANSYS Confidential

Vorticity induced

Lift Force

Suitability

Could be applied to small liquid

drops

Moraga et al. (1999) proposed an al alternative expression for the lift coefficient that correlated with

the product of bubble and shear Reynolds numbers

0.0767

Re Re

Re Re

7

C L 0.12 0.2e 36000 e 3e

-0.6353

31

for Re Re 6000

for 6000

Re Re 5 107

for Re Re 5 107

ANSYS Confidential

Suitability

Could be applied to small liquid

drops

Legendre and Magnaudet proposed an expression for the lift coefficient that is a

This model accounts of induced circulation inside bubbles

C L C L2,low Re C L2,high Re ,

6

0.5 '

Re

Sr

J

2

1 1 16 Re 1

C L ,high Re

2 1 29 Re 1

C L ,low Re

J

'

2.255

1 0.1

2

32

q d p2

2

1 Re

,

,

, Re

q

3

Re

2 Re

q

2

ANSYS Confidential

Suitability

and liquid drops

Tomiyama et al correlated the lift coefficient for larger

bubbles with a modified Etvs number and accounts

for bubble deformation

C L f Eo '

0.27

'

f Eo 0.00105 Eo '3 - 0.0159 Eo ' 2 0.474

for Eo ' 4

for Eo ' 10

10 Eo '

Eo '

g q p d H2

d H d p 1 0.163Eo 0.757

1

3

Eo

g q p d p2

Suitability

and drops

Dependence of lift coefficient on bubble diameter

33

ANSYS Confidential

This is a force that prevents the bubbles from

touching

The main effect of this force is to ensure zero void

fraction (found experimentally) near vertical walls

Wall lubrication force is normally correlated with slip

velocity and can be expressed as force is defined as:

gas void fraction

FWL CWL p q v p v q n w

||

34

ANSYS Confidential

Antal et al. (1991) proposed a wall lubrication force coefficient according to:

C

C

CWL max 0, W 1 W 2

d

yw

p

CW 1 0.01

CW 2 0.05

yw distance to nearest wall

CW 2

yw

C

W1

d b 5d b

Suitability

Requires Fine Mesh

As a result, the Antal model will only be active on a sufficiently fine mesh

35

ANSYS Confidential

Modified the Antal model for special case of pipe flow and accordingly:

CWL CW

dp 1

1

2

2 yw D yw 2

0.47

0 .933 Eo 0 .179

e

CW

0.00599 Eo 0.0187

0.179

D Pipe Diameter

for Eo 1

for 1 Eo 5

for 5 Eo 33

for 33 Eo

Coefficients were developed on a single air bubble in a glycerol solution but results have

Depends on Eotvos number, hence accounts for dependence of wall lubrication force on

bubble shape

Suitability

36

Could be used for low air-water system

ANSYS Confidential

Generalised Tomiyama model to be geometry independent

Model constants calibrated and validated for bubbly flow in vertical pipes

yw

CWC d b

1

CWL CW max 0,

m 1

yw

CWD

yw

C

d

WC b

for Eo 1

0.47

0 .933Eo 0 .179

for 1 Eo 5

e

CW

for 5 Eo 33

0.00599 Eo 0.0187

0.179

for 33 Eo

Suitability

m 1.7

37

ANSYS Confidential

shapes in vertical pipe flows

Could be used for low air-water system

Hosokawa et al. (2002) investigated the influence of the Morton number and developed a

new correlation for the coefficient:

Re

Includes the effects of Eotvos number and bubble relative Reynolds number on the lift

coefficient

Suitability

38

ANSYS Confidential

Could be used for low air-water system

The turbulent dispersion force accounts for an

Results in a turbulent dispersion and homogenization

of the dispersed phase distribution

The simplest way to model turbulent dispersion is to

assume gradient transport as follows:

turb.

dispersion

force

gas void fraction

FTD CTD q k q p

fluid vel.

39

ANSYS Confidential

Lopez de Bertodano Model, Default CTD = 1

CTD = 0.1 to 0.5 good for medium sized bubbles in ellipsoidal flow regime. However, C TD up to 500

required for small bubbles

The defaults value of CTD are appropriate for bubbly flows

Same as Burns et al. Model

Instead of modelling the turbulent dispersion as an interfacial momentum force in the phase

momentum equations, we can model it as a turbulent diffusion term in the phasic continuity

equation

40

ANSYS Confidential

Turbulent Interaction

Turbulence in bubbly flows are very complex due:

Bubble-induced turbulence

Interaction between bubble-induced and shearinduced

turbulences

Direct interaction between bubbles and turbulence eddies

and

Sato

Simonin

Only available when dispersed and per phase turbulence

models are enabled

Troshko and Hassan

Alternative to Simonin Model

41

ANSYS Confidential

The virtual mass force represents the force due to

inertia of the dispersed phase due to relative

acceleration

f vm

Dv q

Dv p

; CVM 0.5

CVM p q

Dt

Dt

bubbly flows

Transient Flows can affect period of oscillating bubble

plume.

Strongly Accelerating Flows e.g. bubbly flow through

narrow constriction.

42

ANSYS Confidential

bring them together. Such a movement will

require small effort. Now try to clap your

hands frequently. The speed of hands now is

low and will require considerable effort

43

ANSYS Confidential

Introduction

The mixture model, like the Eulerian model, allows the phases to be interpenetrating. It

differs from the Eulerian model in three main respects:

Solves one set of momentum equations for the mass averaged velocity and tracks volume fraction

of each fluid throughout domain

Particle relaxation times < 0.001 - 0.01 s

This approach works well for flow fields where both phases generally flow in the same

direction and in the absence of sedimentation

44

ANSYS Confidential

Solves one equation for continuity of mixture

m

mum 0

t

Solves one equation for the momentum of the mixture

T

r r

um

mumum p eff um um m g F k k uk uk

t

k 1

( p p ) .( p p um ) .( p p u p )

t

45

ANSYS Confidential

Constitutive Equations

n

Average density

k k

k 1

n

k 1 k k uk

um

m

Drift velocity

ukr uk um

Slip Velocity

u pq u p uq

46

ANSYS Confidential

n

r

uk u pq k k uqk

k 1 m

Relative Velocity

If we assume the particles follows the mixture flow path, then, the slip velocity between

the phases is

um

a g um um

a v p m

u pq

f drag p

In turbulent flows, the relative velocity should contain a diffusion term in the momentum

equation for the disperse phase. FLUENT adds this dispersion to the relative velocity as

follows:

u pq

47

a p p m

fdrag

ANSYS Confidential

m

q

p D

Rectangular Bubble Column

16.0 Release

48

ANSYS Confidential

Objectives

Investigate air-water bubbly flow in a rectangular

bubble column as investigated at HZDR by Krepper et

al., Experimental and numerical studies of void

fraction distribution in rectangular bubble columns,

Nuclear Engineering and Design Vol. 237, pp. 399-408,

2007

disperse bubbly flows accounting:

49

Drag force

Lift force

Turbulent dispersion

Turbulence Interaction

Turbulence models

2015 ANSYS, Inc.

ANSYS Confidential

Computational Geometry

Duct Dimensions:

Outlet:

Degassing or Pressure

Outlet

Height: 1.0 m

Width: 0.1 m

Depth: 0.01 m

LW 0.020.01 m

Inlet:

Velocity or mass

inlet

50

ANSYS Confidential

Materials Setups

Gas Bubble

air

Water

water-liquid (h2o<l>)

Phases Setup

51

Phase Specification

Primary Phase:

Secondary Phase:

gas bubble (diameter: 3mm with Material: air)

Phase Interaction

Drag:

Lift:

Wall Lubrication:

Turbulent Dispersion

Turbulent Interaction

Surface Tension Coeff.:

Tomiyama lift force

Antal et al (default coeff.)

Burns et al. (cd=0.8)

Sato Model (default coeff.)

0.072

ANSYS Confidential

Boundary Conditions

Boundary Patch

Inlet

Properties

Type:

Gas Bubble:

Water:

52

Outlet

Type:

Degassing outlet:

Walls

No Slip

2.37E-05 kg/s

Gas Volume Fraction (VF): 1.0

Turbulence Intensity 10%

Viscosity Ratio 10

mass flow rate: 0 kg/s

Water VF: 0.0

Degassing

Symmetry for water

Sink for air

ANSYS Confidential

Solution Methods

Pres.-Vel. Coupling

Coupled Scheme

Spatial Discretization

Gradient:

Momentum:

Volume Fraction:

TKE:

QUICK

QUICK

1st Order Upwind

Bounded 2nd Order Implicit

Transient Formulation

Solution Controls

Courant No.

53

200

Momentum:

Under-Relax. Factors

Density:

1

Body Forces:

Volume Fraction:

0.5 TKE:

Specific. Diss. Rate: 0.8 Turb. Viscosity:

0.75 Pressure:

ANSYS Confidential

0.75

0.5

0.8

0.5

k- Troshko-Hassan

k-SST-Sato

54

ANSYS Confidential

distribution at plane y=0.63m

55

distribution at plane y=0.08m

ANSYS Confidential

distribution at plane y=0.63m

56

distribution at plane y=0.08m

ANSYS Confidential

It was found that the most appropriate drag which is in good accordance with the

57

The k- turbulence model combined with the Sato Model reproduced well the

experiments with no fundamental differences to the k- SST plus the Sato Model. This

may indicate that the bubble induced turbulence is quite significant in this bubble column

The Troshko-Hassan k- turbulence model performed well, particularly near the injection

point, a region of interest as it seemed to be problematic when the validations were

carried out with ANSYS CFX using k- SST plus the Sato Model

ANSYS Confidential

58

ANSYS Confidential

Three algorithms available for solving the pressure-velocity coupling

Phase coupled SIMPLE (PC-SIMPLE)

Pressure Coupled (Volume Fraction solved in a segregated manner)

Full multiphase coupled (Volume Fraction solved along with pressure and momentum)

A possibility of solving all primary and secondary phase volume fractions directly rather

than solving only the secondary phases directly

59

ANSYS Confidential

Simultaneous solution of the equations of a multiphase system offers a more robust

alternative to the segregated approach

For steady state problems the coupled based methodology is more efficient than

segregated methodology

For transient problems the efficiency is not as good as for steady, particularly for small

time steps. Solver efficiency increases with increase in time steps used for discretization

of the transient terms.

60

ANSYS Confidential

Solution Strategies

Solution controls for PC-SIMPLE

Conservative solution control settings are shown

If convergence is slow, try reducing URFs for volume

fraction and turbulence

two orders of magnitude). Default is 0.1

Use gradient stabilization (BCGSTAB)

61

ANSYS Confidential

Solution Strategies

For steady state problems using coupled multiphase

solver is effective

Use lower courant numbers for steady state and higher

URFs for momentum and pressure

Recommended values

Courant number = 20

URF pressure and momentum = 0.5 - 0.7

URF volume fraction = 0.2 - 0.5

62

Use larger time steps and high courant numbers (1E7)

for coupled solvers and high URFs (> 0.7)

ANSYS Confidential

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