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Lesson Plan: History of Life on Earth

Overview
The Geologic Time Scale spreads over 4.6 Billion years. Students in the middle grades sometimes find
it difficult to comprehend this time scale and understand the evolutionary processes of living organisms
over this vast amount of time. Using Google Calendar and a research-based table listing the history of
living organisms scaled down to a one year duration, students will collaborate to create a Google
calendar showing the history of life on Earth that includes links to background information of the events
and summarizing that time period.

Materials
Pictures of dinosaurs, humans, single-celled organisms
Computer Lab with Internet connection
Geologic Time Scale Document of website address below
Google Account for all students

Instructions
INTO

1. Show students pictures of various living organisms that may have existed throughout Earth's
history.

2. Ask students to explain how much time they think each organism has been on Earth and how
much time passed before each organism came to be.

3. Let them know dinosaurs and humans are separated by about 208 million years.
4. Tell them Earth is 4.6 billion years old, and ask, If we said Earth was only 1 year old how
much time would separate dinosaurs and humans?
5. Let them them know this would be about 5 days!
THROUGH
1. Make sure all students sign-up or have access to a Google Account.
2. Break students up into groups of 4.
3. Provide each student a computer with Internet access.
4. Assign or have them self-assign each member to one of the geological eras (Pre-cambrian,
Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic).
5. Ask one member of each group to be the Calendar owner.
6. While other group members are beginning to research their era, have the calendar owner
create a Google Calendar called Geologic Time Scale, in description write period number
and group member names and the era that each group member is responsible for.
(http://www.google.com/calendar) See pic. 1 below
7. Have the owner share the calendar with each of the group members.
8. Once the calendar is created and shared, ask all students to access their calendar list to
verify they now have access to this calendar.
9. Students can now use the document or link below to create an event for each significant
event in Earth's history. Students need to include (See pic. 2 below):
1. The actual event (paraphrased from the document)

2. The start and end time (end time should be the minute before the next event
so the entire calendar will be full)
3. Estimated location of where it happened.
4. In the description section include a summary of the research found, the actual
URLs of the research (at least 2 different sources), the URLs of at least 2
different pictures/drawings, and a quick explanation of what the picture is or
represents.
5. Be sure to tell them to set the Reminder off--they don't need this on.
6. They should make each event public so anyone can view it.
10. The time era and period should be specified as separate events and last the entire duration
(Pre-cambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic).
10. Once each student completes their era tell them to all start back at the first of the year and go
through each event taking notes by comparing and contrasting each era.
10. The owner of the calendar should now send the URL of their calendar to the teacher and one
other group by going into calendar settings and clicking on
adjacent to calendar address and then copying and pasting this URL into an email.

10. Each group will work together or in pairs to review another groups calendar and peer assess
using the rubric below.
BEYOND

1. Ask students to predict what might take place in the next calendar year. They can respond
back to you, draw pictures or even add to their existing calendar.
Pic 1

Pic 2

Related Links
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/geologictimescale.pdf - Geologic Time in 1 year
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/geologictime.php - Informational site

Video Tutorials

Create a new Google Calendar

Share a Google Calendar

Copy an event in Google Calendar


Embed a Google Calendar
Create an event in Google Calendar
Copy an event in Google Calendar

Evaluation
Master Geologist

Proficient Geologist

Emerging Geologist

All dates and times are


filled up representing an
accurate scale of geologic
time

Most dates and times are


filled up representing an
accurate scale of geologic
time

Few dates and times are


filled up representing an
accurate scale of geologic
time

Summary/informatio All entries have 3-6


n
sentence summary
explaining the era and/or
living thing

Most entries have a 3-6


sentence summary
explaining the era and/or
living thing

Few entries have a 3-6


sentence summary
explaining the era and/or
living thing

Sources/Pictures

Most entries have at least


2 links in the details
section that direct viewers
to the research and 2
links that direct viewers to
pictures of the Era and/or
living thing

Few entries have at least


2 links in the details
section that direct viewers
to the research and 2
links that direct viewers to
pictures of the Era and/or
living thing

Dates/Times

All entries have at least 2


links in the details section
that direct viewers to the
research and 2 links that
direct viewers to pictures
of the Era and/or living
thing

Standards
7th Grade CA
4. Evidence from rocks allows us to understand the evolution of life on Earth. As a basis for
understanding this concept:
a. Students know Earth processes today are similar to those that occurred in the past and slow geologic
processes have large cumulative effects over long periods of time.
b. Students know the history of life on Earth has been disrupted by major catastrophic
events, such as major volcanic eruptions or the impacts of asteroids.
c. Students know that the rock cycle includes the formation of new sediment and rocks and that rocks
are often found in layers, with the oldest generally on the bottom.
d.Students know that evidence from geologic layers and radioactive dating indicates Earth is
approximately 4.6 billion years old and that life on this planet has existed for more than 3 billion years.
e.Students know fossils provide evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed.
f. Students know how movements of Earths continental and oceanic plates through time, with
associated changes in climate and geographic connections, have affected
the past and present distribution of organisms.
g.Students know how to explain significant developments and extinctions of plant and animal life on the
geologic time scale.
NETS for Students
1. Creativity and Innovation
Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and
processes
using technology. Students:

a. apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.


b. create original works as a means of personal or group expression.
c. use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues.
d. identify trends and forecast possibilities.
2. Communication and Collaboration
Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a
distance,
to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others. Students:
a. interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others employing a variety of digital
environments
and media.
b. communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and
formats.
d. contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.
3. Research and Information Fluency
Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students:
a. plan strategies to guide inquiry.
b. locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of
sources and
media.
c. evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific
tasks.
6. Technology Operations and Concepts
Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations.
Students:
a. understand and use technology systems.
c. troubleshoot systems and applications.
d. transfer current knowledge to learning of new technologies
History of Life on Earth by Jason Borgen is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNoncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.

INTEGRATING ICT in EDUCATION - Sample Lesson Plan


Lesson Plan
Elementary English II
Arranging Words Alphabetically Based on the First Letter
I Learning Objectives
Arrange words in alphabetical order based on the first letter
Integrate ICT in education
II Subject Matter
A.Topic:Arranging words Alphabetically based on the first letter
B. References: Book: Adventure in English 2, pp. 247-250
-PELC: Reading 6.1, Writing 2
C. Material: Evaluation chart, colored chalk
Value Focus: Respectfulness
III Procedure
A.Preparatory Activities
1.Checking of Assignment
-menu scanning
2. Review
Options: URL Alphabet Antics
http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/kidsantics
What is scanning?
What is the importance of scanning?
3. Motivation
Tell pupils to form dyads.
Say: each pair will sit back to back. One partner will tell as many words as he/she can. The other
partner will list down all the words mentioned by his/her partner. The activity will be done for
two minutes.
B.Development of the Lesson
1.Presentation
o Call on pairs to write on the board the words they have listed.
o Have them read the word. Cross out one of the words which written twice. Mark the words with
the same initial letter
2.Analysis and Discussion
a.Ask the following questions about the words on the board.
i.Are the words spelled correctly?
ii.What is the correct spelling for the word ______?
iii.Ask the pupils to spell the words by row then individually.
b. How are the words arranged?
c. Write the following lists of words on the board.
d.Ask the students to observe how the words are arranged. Invite them to look at the beginning letter
of each word in each list.

e.Examples:
Group A
Group B
feel
bath
bath
feel
school
neigbor
puppy
puppy
neighbor
school
f.Let the pupils compare the two groups of words.
g.Say: look at the words in group A. Now look at the same words in Group B.
h.Ask:
i.Can you tell the difference between the 2 groups?
ii.What can you say about the arrangement of the words in Group B based on the
beginning letter?
iii.Look at the words again. Which word comes first in the list?
iv.Which word follows? What word comes last?
v.How do we arrange words in alphabetical order?
vi.What about the words that begins with the same letter? How do we arrange
them?
vii.What should we remember when arranging words in alphabetical order?
3.Generalization
a.How do we arrange words in alphabetical order?
(We arrange words in alphabetical order by looking at the first letter of the word and arranging
the words following the order of the alphabet as a, b, c. . ., etc. If two words have the same letter,
we look at the second letter.)
C.Post activity
1.Application
-go back to the list of words generated earlier and arrange these alphabetically with the
participation of the pupils.
a.Conduct a group in class.
b.Divide the pupils into four groups. Assign each group a topic to discuss.
i.Group I Favorite color
ii.Group II Favorite food
iii.Group III Favorite Pet
iv.Group IV Favorite Fruit
c.Have each group make a list of their favorites.
d.Ask them to arrange the words in alphabetical order, then, put them on a chart.
e.Let them present their work to the class.
f. Evaluate the work of each group.
2.
Values Integration
Ask the pupils to recall the past activity. Ask the following questions. Emphasize that through
listening they can understand each other.
a.Did you and your partner talk at the same time while doing the activity?
b.What would happen if both of you talk at the same time?
c.What important things should we remember when talking with one another person?

IV Evaluation
Write the words in each list in alphabetical order. Remember to look at the first letter of each
word.
1.
desk
_______
blackboard
_______
chalk
_______
pocket chart
_______
table
_______
stick
_______
eraser
_______
pencil
_______
book
_______
armchair
_______
2.
Street
_______
market
_______
police station
_______
barber shop
_______
church
_______
plaza
_______
school
_______
bank
_______
farm
_______
V Assignment
Make a list of ten things found in the kitchen in alphabetical order. Write your answers in your
notebook.
Posted
Charese Argonza

Plants: Life Cycle and Part Functions


Science, level: 3-5
Posted 06/05/2014 by Leida Rosario (Leida Rosario).
Allentown, USA
Materials Required: Computer with Internet access, journals
Activity Time: 2 days of 90 minutes block
Concepts Taught: plant life cycle and plant part functions
LESSON PLAN
Name: Leida Rosario
Subject/Period/Grade: ESOL/Science, 3rd grade
Title/Topic: Plants: Life Cycle and Part Functions
Lesson Duration: 2 days
Date / Day Minutes
Day 1 90 minutes
Day 2 90 minutes
PA Standards:
(ELPS Standards, if applicable)
Science: 3.1.3.A.3 Illustrate how plants and animals go through predictable life cycles that
include birth, growth, development, and death.
S.3.B.1.1.1 Identify and describe the functions of basic structures of animals and plants (e.g.
animals: skeleton, heart, lungs; plants: roots, stem, leaves).
English Language Proficiency Standards:
Standard 1: English language learners communicate in English for social and instructional
purposes within the school setting.
Standard 4: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary
for academic success in the content of science.
Technological Standards:
Goal 1: Language learners demonstrate foundational knowledge and skills in technology for a
multilingual world.
Goal 1, Standard 1: Language learners demonstrate basic operational skills in using various
technological tools and Internet browsers.
Goal 1, Standard 2: Language learners are able to use available input and output devices (e.g.,
keyboard, mouse, printer, headset, microphone, media player, electronic whiteboard).
Instructional Objectives:
Students will be able to describe how plants grow from seed to plant.
Students will be able to identify parts of a plant and their functions.
Students will be able to use technology to search for information.
Students will be able to use technology to present information.
Pre-requisite Skills: Tap into students' prior knowledge and preview important vocabulary words

about plants.
Instructional Strategies: Respond to visual clues, cooperative groups, hands-on investigation, use
of technology.
Vocabulary / Concepts:
Life cycle, grow, seed, stem, trunk, flower, leaves, roots, germination, sunlight, minerals, plant,
ground, cover, soil, tree, seedling.
Investigate, search, VoiceThread, upload information, website,
Materials, Resources, Equipment: Computer with Internet access, journals
TEACHING SEQUENCE
Pacing / Minutes LESSON PHASES
5 minutes Warm-Up / Do Now
Bring some seeds and share personal experiences about plants (e.g., planting a garden, getting a
plant for the classroom).
20 minutes Listen to the story The Tiny Seed online. Talk to children about the story and
discuss the big ideas. Set the purpose for the lesson. Introduce the objectives of the lesson.
Create a Word Bank with key vocabulary words (refer to the Vocabulary/Concept section).
20 minutes: Instructional Phase
Watch the video The life cycle of a Plant. Discuss information with the students. Have children
draw a picture of the life cycle of a plant in their journals.
15 Minutes: Have children work with a partner and select a part of a plant and do a quick writing
about it (Children in level 1 can write in their native language or draw an illustration).
25 minutes: Next, have children search online for information about the part of the plant they
chose and record the information in their journals. They will be provided with some websites
where they can find useful information about their topic (refer to the list of websites at the
bottom of this lesson).
5 minutes Closure
Get together as a whole group and wrap-up the lesson for the day. Ticket out: Write on a sticky
note 1 fact you learned about plants.
Day 2
TEACHING SEQUENCE
Pacing / Minutes LESSON PHASES
5 minutes Warm-Up / Do Now
Review Key Vocabulary Words
10 minutes Introduction to the Lesson
Create an Anchor Chart about the life cycle of a plant as the students recall information learned
from the day before.

20 minutes: Instructional Phase


Check progress on the students plant part report. Once students are ready for the next step,
explain: With the information found about the plant parts and their functions, you will create a
VoiceThread. Introduce students to VoiceThread and explain that it is an interactive tool that
allows users to add images and audio to share information around media. Play the VoiceThread I
created or create your own to share with your students.
35 minutes: Have children search for a picture or photograph of the plant part and guide them
through the process of creating their own VoiceThread.
20 minutes Closure
Go over the VoiceThread the students created and show children how to add comments. Talk
about their experiences creating the VoiceThread.
Home Assignment
Talk to your parents at home about the importance of plants. Ask them about different ways that
people use plants. Get ready to share the next day and compare answers.
Assessment Plan:
Students will go back to the picture they drew about the life cycle of a plant and will write to
describe the process. Students in level 1 can just label the illustrations. Students VoiceThread
will be used to evaluate the second part of the lesson (plant parts and functions).
Differentiation / Accommodations for Individual Learners:
Students in level one can just label the plant parts for the VoiceThread.
Students will be working in groups of 2 or three students. The groups will be divided by mixing
language ability levels. Videos and text are provided with information about the topic to facilitate
understanding.
References and Resources
The Tiny Seed
https://www.youtube.com/watchv=cqE3Kcc8Zgg&feature=kp
Introduction: Video about life cycle of a plant
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mZ3fRX1yqyM
Video: Parts of a plant and their functions.
http://app.discoveryeducation.com/builders/boards/assetGuid/8D61F036-9B63-E518-30231957ECF724C5/includeHeader/true/layout/default
Text: part of a plant and their functions
http://urbanext.illinois.edu/gpe/case1/c1facts2a.html

Plant parts and their functions


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8lf9SgXNg5s
VoiceThread Plants
https://voicethread.com/share/5828489/
Parts of plants
http://www.tooter4kids.com/Plants/parts_of_plants.htm

POST-LESSON ANALYSIS / REFLECTION


At the end of the lesson, we will create and Anchor Chart for plant parts and functions. We will
also reflect on how the lesson went and how the use of technology helped us to have a better
understanding of the lesson.

Nocturnal vs Dinocturnal Animals


Science, level: 1-2
Posted Sat Nov 17 17:00:18 PST 2012 by Samantha Ellis (Samantha Ellis).
Activity Time: 1 hr
Nocturnal vs. Diurnal Animals
Grade: 1
Standards:
State Science Standards of Learning, Grade 1, 1.5 & 1.7
Content Objectives
Students will identify adaptations that help animals navigate daytime and nighttime
environments.
Students will sort different animals that are either diurnal or nocturnal
Materials
Books on nocturnal and diurnal animals (fiction and nonfiction),
photographs and pictures of animals during the daytime and nighttime,
markers,
crayons,
glue,
scissors,
construction paper of various colors,
Motivation:
Tell the students they are going to learn about how an animals habitat can show us whether
particular animals like to come out at night or during the day.
Ask students to think about how they might dress if they wanted to hide in the woods or in the
city at night or during the day (What color clothing would they wear? Would they paint their
faces a colorwhat color?)
Distribute a variety of photographs of animals to small groups. Ask:
o What do you already know about these animals?
o What are their habitats?
o What do they eat?
o When do you usually see themduring the day or at night?
After asking a few students at each group to share their ideas with the large group, ask students
to sort the photographs onto labeled T-charts by daytime versus nighttime animals.
Tell students that the science word for nighttime animals is nocturnal and the science word for
daytime animals is diurnal.
Presentation:
Read the book Where Are the Night Animals? (or any similar book) to students.
As you read the book out loud, stop periodically to discuss each of the animals in the book and
what adaptations they have that show us they are nighttime, or nocturnal, animals. Explain the
word adaptation and ask the students to share some examples of adaptations they know. Ask a
few pairs to share for with the large group.
Provide the following sentence stems, and ask students to predict if an animal is nocturnal:
o I know it is nocturnal because its color is ________.

o This animal eats _______, so I think it is nocturnal.


o I think nocturnal animals live in _____________ places, so this animal must be nocturnal.
Next, discuss what animals are considered daytime or diurnal. Provide the same sentence stems
as above to ask students to predict if an animal is diurnal

Acid Rain Lab


Science, level: Middle
Posted 05/09/2013 by Kirsten Taylor.
Materials Required: Basic lab equipment
Activity Time: 1 hour
Concepts Taught: Chemistry
Acid Rain and Chemical Buffers
Introduction
Pure water has a neutral pH of 7, and the average pH of rainwater, unpolluted, is around 5.6. Any
pH below 7 is considered acidic, and a pH above 7 is considered alkaline, or basic. Acid rain is
defined as precipitation with a pH of less than 5.6.
Power plants, automobiles, and burning fossil fuels can introduce pollutants into the atmosphere.
When water droplets in the atmosphere encounter contaminants in the air, including carbon
dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx), the rainwater becomes acidic,
following the simplified process outlined below:
1) Carbonic acid is formed in the atmosphere:
H2O(l) + CO2(g) = H2CO3(aq)
2) Carbonic acid ionizes in water:
H2O(l) + H2CO3(aq) = HCO3-(aq) + H3O+(aq)
When water vapor containing dissolved acid precipitates, the resulting rain can have detrimental
impacts on rocks and soils on the surface, dissolving carbonate minerals. It also can kill microbes
in soils and lower the pH in surface water, damaging aquatic life.
In areas where limestone is present in the subsurface, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) can act as a
buffer, to help resist changes in pH caused by acid rain. The acidity is neutralized by carbonate
(CO32-) and bicarbonate (HCO31-) ions.
While the interaction of acid rain with calcium carbonate can alleviate the detrimental effects of
acid rain on the environment, other materials made of limestone can suffer from acid rain.
Gravestones, for example, and building materials, can dissolve in acid conditions.
Purpose
In this experiment, students will explore the effects of acid rain on both a buffered and a nonbuffered system.

Materials
- Distilled water
- Baking soda
- 1M H2SO4
- pH meters
- Universal Indicator
- (2) 200-mL beakers
- 25-mL graduated cylinder
- 10-mL pipette
- Gloves
- Safety goggles
Procedure
1. Create a buffer solution to simulate the presence of limestone in an acid rain environment: add
.5 tsp baking soda to 1 liter distilled water.
2. Create acid rain by dissolving 4 mL 1M H2SO4 in 2 liters distilled water.
3. Add 25 mL distilled water to one beaker, and 25 mL buffer solution to the other beaker. Add 6
drops Universal Indicator to each beaker. Measure and record the pH of each.
4. Using the pipette, add the acid solution dropwise to the distilled water, and measure pH after
each addition. Record the amount of acid necessary to turn the solution solid pink (acidic).
5. Repeat step 4 with the buffered solution.
Discussion
1. What is a buffer? How does it work?
2. Write the chemical equation for the interaction of acid rain with limestone (CaCO3).
3. Which of the solutions tested took longer to become acidic? Why was there a difference?
4. How does this experiment relate to acid rain in a natural system?
Resources
Acid Rain Experiments: Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (http://ei.cornell.edu)
http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/index.html
http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~edudev/LabTutorials/Water/FreshWater/acidrain.html

Determining the Identity of Unknows by using Solubility


Rule
Science, level: Senior
Posted Wed Mar 30 21:05:38 PDT 2011 by Kelly Timson (Kelly Timson).
GBS, Glenview, IL
Concepts Taught: Chemistry
Trouble in the Chemistry Department: Utilizing Solubility Rules to Discover the Identity of 4
Unknown Solutions
Target Audience
1st year high school chemistry students
Concept / Topic To Teach
Solubility Rules, Identifying Unknowns, Double Replacement/Precipitation Reactions
Objectives
Students will be able to:
utilize the solubility rules
write double replacement reactions and predict in which cases a reaction should occur (when a
precipitate forms).
correctly identify 4 unknown aqueous solutions
Required Materials
Lab Handout (see attached)
Dropper bottles of each of the following 0.10 M solutions: CuSO4, KNO3, NaCl, AgNO3,
NaOH.
Well Plates
Anticipatory Set
Begin with a warm up asking students to use their solubility rules to predict whether each of the
following substances is soluble or insoluble in water: AgOH, Na2SO4, ca(NO3)2
Next, have students complete the following double replacement reactions and identify the
precipitate (if any)
NaCl (aq) + AgNO3 (aq)
NaOH (aq) + KNO3 (aq)
Finally, pose the following questions to the students and lead them in a discussion of the
answers: What would you expect to observe if a solution of NaCl was mixed with a solution of
AgNO3? How about a solution of NaOH mixed with a solution of KNO3?
Laboratory Work
Give students the lab handout (see attached). Have them go into the lab and collect data. The data

collection will be quick. The majority of the time will be spent trying to determine which
solution is which.
Sample Data
Sample data is based on Solution 1 being AgNO3, Solution 2 being KNO3, Solution 3 being
NaOH, and Solution 4 being NaCl.
Solution CuSO4 1 2 3 4
1 No reaction X No reaction Ppt formed Ppt formed
2 No reaction No reaction X No reaction No reaction
3 Ppt formed Ppt formed No reaction X No reaction
4 No reaction Ppt formed No reaction No reaction X
Sample Conclusion
Here is a brief description of how the students should come up with the identity of the
unknowns:
Solution 3 is NaOH because it is the only one of the four that will form a precipitate with
CuSO4.
Solution 2 is KNO3 because it does not form a precipitate with anything.
Solution 1 is AgNO3 because it forms a precipitate with Solution 3, which we have already
determined is NaOH.
Solution 4 is NaCl because it forms a precipitate with AgNO3, which is Solution 1.
Assessment
Collect and evaluate each students data and conclusion.
Give a quiz in a couple days with sample data and ask students to determine unknown identity
based on solubility rules.
Trouble in the Chemistry Department
Introduction
There is a major problem in the chemical stockroom. Upon arriving back to school after the
summer, a teacher found a box containing a bunch of unlabeled bottles and 4 different labels at
the bottom of the box. The labels must have fallen off due to the humidity.
By using your solubility rules, help us figure out which numbered solution matches up with the
following chemicals:
AgNO3,NaCl, KNO3, NaOH
You will be given a labeled solution of CuSO4 to help you with this task.

Procedure
You will be provided with a labeled solution of CuSO4 as well as the 4 unknowns in bottles
labeled 1,2,3,4. You will also be provided with a well plate. Mix each solution with each of the
other solutions, observe, and record observations. There is no need to mix a solution with itself.
Data
Record all relevant data in a neat and organized table.
Conclusion
Be sure to address the following in your conclusion:
The identity of the solution in each numbered bottle
A detailed description of how you figured out which solution was which
Complete balanced equations for all reactions that produced a precipitate

Teaching Symbiosis with Blue Planet: Coral Seas

Science, level: Senior


Posted Fri Feb 17 12:16:09 PST 2012 by James Dauray (James Dauray).
Blue Planet - Coral Seas Worksheet
College of Lake County, Grayslake, IL, USA
Materials Required: Blue Planet: Coral Seas DVD
Activity Time: 45 minutes
Concepts Taught: symbiosis, mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, competition, predation
The seas surrounding coral reefs have the most diversity of any of the aquatic ecosystems. With
such a wide abundance of life, a wide variety of complex relationships can be seen between the
different animals and plants within the ecosystem. This episode of Blue Planet illustrates
examples of parasitism, mutualism, commensalism, competition, and predation.
Show the video to the class. Turn on closed captioning if possible so students do not miss any of
the exact species named. Have students classify each of the relationships shown.

Science, level: 1-2


Posted Sun May 8 14:31:02 PDT 2011 by Jessica O'Neal (Jessica O'Neal).
Indiana University East, Richmond Indiana

Materials Required: Book, pictures of most popular dinosaurs for the kids to color, as well as
masks, poster for the com
Activity Time: 1 day
Concepts Taught: basic information on dinosaurs
Lesson Plan
Jessica ONeal
Topic: Dinosaurs
Grade: 1st or 2nd
Content Area: Science
Standard:
4.3 Students will continue to develop their knowledge of dinosaurs and demonstrate knowledge
of what makes dinosaurs into different categories.
Objectives:
Students will know the names of different major dinosaurs, as well as major information.
Initiation Activity:
I will read the story Harry and the Bucketful of Dinosaurs by Ian Whybrow and Adrian Reynolds
to the class. I will explain the time period that dinosaurs lived in and begin to explain carnivores
and herbivores. We will go over what the kids favorite dinosaurs are and end with an arts and
crafts project where the kids will make posters of their favorite dinosaurs.
Procedure:
1. I will read the book out loud to all the students.
2. After reading the book to the students, we will go over each of the different dinosaurs in the
book, and I will find out what the students know about each dinosaur.
3. Then, I will split up the students into two groups, based on what their favorite dinosaur is. I
will then explain that their groups are based on the dinosaurs being herbivores or carnivores and
what that means. The students will be broken down into groups of 2-3 based on the dinosaur
within their groups that they choose (all Triceratops together, etc). The students will color masks
and pictures of the dinosaur group they are in as well as learn the size and correct spelling of
each dinosaur.
4. When students complete these tasks, they will take their pictures and add them to a poster
board for all the dinosaurs. The day will be completed with the kids wearing the masks created
and pretending to be dinosaurs.
Materials:
Needed: Book, pictures of most popular dinosaurs for the kids to color, as well as masks, poster
for the completed dinosaur pictures to be added to, crayons, markers, glue, and scissors.
Assessment/Evaluation:
I will walk through the class while they are working on their group projects and masks, and be
there to answer any questions they may have. I will also share special facts based upon the
dinosaurs that they have chosen. I will make sure each group is doing what they need to be dong
and everyone is contributing.

Science, level: Senior


Posted Mon Feb 20 13:22:57 PST 2012 by Ihtisham (Ihtisham).
Elementary and secondary Education, Pakistan
Materials Required: Charts , Small cars, Balls, etc

Activity Time: 60 to 80 mint


Concepts Taught: motion and rest
Lesson No 1
Class 9th
Chapter no 3
Subject Physics
Topic _____________________________
(1) ESTABLISHING:
Learning Objectives
Following are the objectives of this lesson
To enable students, define kinematics, motion and rest.
To enable them, differentiate motion and rest.
To enable students to produce motion and explain their demonstrations regarding motion and
rest.
To enable students, give example of moving bodies and bodies in state of rest from daily life.
Material
Automatic toy cars, balls, charts, markers, white board and text book.
(2) ELICIT
After entering the class the teacher will ask these questions from the students to judge their prior
knowledge regarding topic and about the topics, already studied.
If a person wants to go to market how can he reach the market?
If van does not move will this person reach market? So can we say that only due to the motion of
a van, person reaches from his home to market?
(3) ENGAGE
The teacher will place a car on a table before the class and ask
Is this car moving?
What is the state of car?
So we shall study about rest and motion with out considering the force or agent which is causing
this rest or motion.
Teacher will show the chart on which topic will be written
KINEMATICS, REST AND MOTION
Teacher will orally give brief introduction of kinematics, motion and rest.
(4) EXPLORE
The class will divided into appropriate groups and each group will be given a ball, a car, charts
and markers. Charts will be consisted following instructions.
Place the ball and car on a table and answer these questions
Is the ball changing its position with respect to car?
Is the car not changing its position with respect to ball?
Now move the ball
If the ball is changing its position what is the state of ball with respect to car?
What the state of car with respect to ball?
During the group work teacher will guide the groups towards solution by asking questions. After
the completion some of the groups will represent their work before the class to help the other s to
reach the solution.
(5) EXPLANATION
After the completion of group work groups will be asked to represent their work before the class.

After the representation of groups teacher himself will explain the phenomenal in detail and to
extend the concept teacher will ask the students to work in the same groups.
(6) ELABORATE
Students will work in the same groups and all groups will be provided new questions papers and
charts to answer these questions.
Define kinematics.
Move the car and repeat previous process.
State and explain motion and rest with the help of any five examples from daily life.
Can a body be in state of rest and motion at a time?
If sun is stationary, what is the state of earth with respect to sun?
During the group work teacher will guide the groups towards solution by asking questions. After
the completion some of the groups will represent their work before the class to help the other s to
reach the solution.
(7) EVALUATION
To judge the improvement in level of achievement of the student and success of teaching process
a chart consisted of the following questions will be presented before the class and students will
be ask to complete the sentences.
The branch of physics which deals with the description of motion with out considering the force
or agent which cause this motion is called
__________________________________________________
What is the state of a person sitting on road with respect to moving car
__________________________________________________
Define motion and rest
(8) EXTEND
HOME WOEK
Search the answer of this question at home and write the answer on your note books.
Can a body be in state of rest and motion at a time? Explain your answer.

Calculate your weight on other planets

Science, level: Middle


Posted Wed Aug 25 06:47:07 PDT 2010 by T.C. (T.C.).
teaching interview
Lincoln Middle School, New York, USA
Materials Required: Paper, Pencil, Calculator (optional)
Activity Time: 30 minutes
Concepts Taught: gravity on planets, multiplication of decimals
This is a great lesson when you're teaching space/planets, or for teaching multiplication of
decimal numbers.
Students can calculate their own weight on other planets using simple formulas.
You could either have kids calculate on paper to reinforce math skills, or allow them to do it with
a calculator, to make the lesson move along faster. It works with kilograms or pounds.
The formula is:
Your weight x Decimal percentage of gravity on planet = your weight on the planet
So, for example, Mercury's gravity it 38% of Earth's gravity. So you'd multiply your weight
times 0.38 to find your weight on Mercury.
If I weight 150 pounds on Earth, then it's calculated like this:
150 lbs x 0.38 = 57 lbs on Mercury
--The percentages are as follows:
Mercury - 0.38 or 38%
Venus - 0.9 or 90%
Earth's moon - 0.16 or 16%
Mars - 0.38 or 38%
Jupiter - 2.36 or 236%
Saturn - 1.08 or 108%
Uranus - .8 or 80%
Neptune - 1.12 or 112%
Pluto - 0.05 or 5%
---Students enjoy learning how their weight is changed as they travel from planet to planet.

Technology and Genetics

Science, level: Senior


Posted Wed Apr 29 15:56:56 PDT 2009 by Abhinav Krishnan (Abhinav Krishnan).
Wayne State University, Detroit, USA
Materials Required: Podcast maker, Smiley Face Template, etc.
Activity Time: 1 class period and 10 min the next day.
Concepts Taught: Mendelian Genetics and Podcast Making
Content
Gregory Mendel, greatly impacted the field of genetics and through his research geneticengineering, etc exist today. Hereditary is a commonplace subject that every child has
heard,You look just like your father, therefore, students after creating smiley faces will see the
similarities and differences between theirsmiley faces. Use a webcast feature to film what traits
are observed and use the production for other classes to compare. Allow the students to develop a
podcast of what they think inheritance is and discuss their interpretations of the webcast.
Benchmarks
Give students the ability to apprehend what inheritance is and how it can be identified by looking
at ones parents and grand-parents. Also, from experiment identify what inheritance really is and
its implications on students lives, and allow them to discuss aloud using podcasting and
webcasting.
-Discuss Emerging Technology Resources

Learning Resources and Materials


1) A penny
2) Smiley Face Templates
3) Microsoft Word
4) iTunes: podcast maker
5) .mp3 viewer
Development of Lesson
Introduction
During this activity students use pennies to determine the traits for a smily face and then use
Microsoft Word to create the smiley face. After students have completed the faces, the instructor
shall webcast the results of what is evident and which faces have a disease and allow the students
to discuss in the podcast what the subsequent generations will have based on the traits and/or the
carrier of the mutation.

Methods/Procedures
First 20 min of class.
1) Lecture to the students about Genetics: inheritance, etc.
2) Have the students each make a smiley face using a penny to flip for the traits they would like.
3) Once finished ask prescribed questions about inheritance and other genetics questions.
Next 30 minutes of class
1) Film the data and within the film tell what traits the faces have based on templates and
whether the smileys have a mutation or not.
2) Lecture about the developments of genetic technology and other emerging technologies such
as podcast and webcast making.
3) Have the students go home and download the free podcast maker and create a podcast
describing what any future generations would have if they were match with someone just like the
individual they created.
4) Have them further discuss the anything else that comes to mind.
5) Have students e-mail the podcasts to the instructor or bring them to class the next day.
Next day for 10-15 min:
1) Discuss with the class how they liked the idea of using the podcast and teach them of using
those as either note-taking aids when reading over lectures or reminders.
2) Also discuss the benefits of webcasts in making short-films for class.
Accommodations/Adaptations
1) Connect with another classes and share your results with them.
2) Allow students to summarize the similarities and differences between the smileys created in
your class and those in another class. Challenge students to pair up two smileys as new parents
and then flip a penny to determine the traits for a new baby.
3) For students with disabilites allow the instructors to aid in their coin toss and work with them
increating their smiley faces.
4) For the ELL students underscore to them the concept and have them work within a group to
come up with their faces.

Assessment/Evaluation
Based on podcasts, the instructor will base how well the students understood the material and
whether they understood the concepts thoroughly. Also based on the discussion of podcastsassess
whether the students really liked them.
Closure
I feel that this is a great project and will be a great asset to teachers and students alike. It
combines a biology subject area with technology which is what many researchers and college
lecturers use to teach and understand material.
Teacher Reflection
This was a great experiment and as mentioned before allow the students to discuss how
technology really helped in aiding in their learning and how they liked it when combined with
biology.

Anti-Biotic Resistance
Science, level: Senior
Posted Wed Apr 29 16:14:23 PDT 2009 by Abhinav Krishnan (Abhinav Krishnan).
Wayne State University, Detroit, USA
Materials Required: Look at lesson Below:
Activity Time: 1 class period
Concepts Taught: Anti-Biotics
Content
Bacterial antibiotic resistance is an important concept in the process of understanding the nature
and adaptability of bacterial species. By mating a kanamycin resistant strain with a non-resistant
strain, students will observe the reproductive process and transfer of antibiotic resistance and
therefore generate understanding of bacterial life cycles and evolution.
Benchmarks
1) Become familiar with microbiology laboratory techniques.
2) Observe the bacterial resistance resulting from the mating process.
3) Develop questions and theories based on the scientific conclusions determined in the
experiment.
Learning Resources and Materials
Per group of four students:
1) pOX38-Km bacteria strains and ED24 bacteria strains
2) 2 TSB plates containing Km and Spc antibiotics (1 for control, 1 for growing transformed
ED24)
3) 1 TSB plate containing Km Sm antibiotics (for growing pOX38 donors)
4) Eppendorf tubes
5) transfer loop
6) Bunsen burner or alcohol lamp
7) 1xSSC stock solution
8) water bath (37 deg C)
9) micropipettor and tips
Per class:
1) incubator
2) discard container
Development of Lesson
Introduction
Students will work in a group of four to complete the experiment after listening to a lecture on
bacterial resistance. This lecture will focus on the mechanics of gene recombination i.e. bacterial
mating and the development and spread of bacterial resistance.
Methods/Procedures
First 20 minutes of class:

1) Discuss with the class different types of bacterial infections and the many antibiotics used to
treat them.
3) Lecture about the process of bacterial reproduction and the process in which bacteria are able
to develop resistance and then transfer resistance through conjugation.
4) Encourage student questions about the subject and then demonstrate the lab procedure.
Next 30 minutes of class:
1) Students will obtain a test tube containing 800ml TSB (broth for bacteria) and label it with
group name and ED24 + pOX38.
2) Using a micropopettor and fresh tip, add 100 ml ED24 to the test tube.
3) Attach a fresh tip and then add 100 ml pOX38 to the test tube.
4) Place the tube in the water bath for 30 minutes.
5) While conjugation occurs, set up the conjugation plate as follows:
6) Label the KmSpc plate with the group name, five points to spot dilution samples, and type of
bacteria that should grow (recipientsED24). Repeat this step for a second donor plate.
7) Using the micropipettor and fresh tip, fill each of five Eppendorf tubes with 180ml 1xSSC to
dilute bacteria.
8) After 10 minutes, remove test tube with the conjugating bacteria from the water bath and
gently tap the tube to interrupt the mating process.
9) Using a micropipettor and fresh tip, fill the first Eppendorf tube with 20ml of your sample,
close and tap to mix well.
10) Draw 20 ml from the first Eppendorf tube and add to the second tube. Mix well.
11) Repeat this procedure for tubes 3-5.
12) Starting with Eppendorf tube #5, draw 10 ml of the sample and spot the 5 spot on the KmSpc
recipient plate. Repeat with 10 ml samples from tubes 4-1.
13) Cover the plate and set aside, do not disturb until samples are dry.
14) Place in the incubator for 24 hours.
15) After 24 hours, remove your plates and draw the results of each plate. Write a summary
for each picture explaining your results.
Accommodations/Adaptations.
1) For students with disabilities, allow them to participate in the experiment with additional
teacher supervision or aid.
2) Encourage group involvement if possible.
Assessment/Evaluation
1) Ensure student comprehension by evaluating summaries and diagrams.
2) Asses group participation as the experiment is carried out.
Closure
Once the students bring back their summaries and diagrams a discussion of the expected results
will ensue and explanations to student questions will be provided.
Depending on the accuracy and nature of the results of this experiment, it will be evaluated for
future use. This evaluation will also take into account student feedback and the possibility of
more effective derivatives.

Teacher Reflection
I feel that the benchmarks of this lesson were well represented by this experiment. The ability of
bacteria to pass on antibiotic resistance through conjugation was demonstrated. Accommodations
were made when necessary. I learned how to present this experiment and how best to explain the
procedure to students who have not encountered these lab techniques before. In the future this
lab will be used for this concept, however a pre-lab explanation of techniques may be helpful
because of the time restraint.

Leaf Classification
Science, level: Senior
Posted Wed Apr 29 16:19:10 PDT 2009 by Abhinav Krishnan (Abhinav Krishnan).
Wayne State University, Detroit, USA
Materials Required: Look Below:
Activity Time: 1 Class Period
Concepts Taught: Plant Speciation
Content
Students will learn about deciduous trees, their various leaves, and the arrangements associated
with them (i.e. simple, compound, alternate). Students will also take a field trip into the school
yard and discuss the species of trees that grow locally.
Benchmarks
1) Introduce the concepts behind leaf classification and its usage.
2) Give students hand-on experience in tree/leaf identification.
3) Encourage class discussion and questions in order to better understand the plants that grow in
the local ecosystem.
Learning Resources and Materials
1) Overhead projector and overhead markers.
2) Various collected leaves.
3) Handout/Transparencies of biological key.
4) Classification quiz.
Development of Lesson
Introduction
Students will be taken outside into the school yard and work individually to observe and collect
leaves from various trees. The lecture will discuss the different types of leaf structures and
functions. A biological key will be provided to help determine the species of trees in the area
from their leaves.
Methods/Procedures
1) Lecture to students about the various types of leaf structures, (simple, compound, alternate,
opposite).
2) Take students outside each endowed with a biological key and allow them to try and identify
the local trees from their leaves.
3) Inside the classroom divide the students into groups of five. Provide each group with three
different leaves. Ask the group questions about the different structures of their leaves. Allow
them to try and identify the type of tree using their notes and key.
4) In the last 15 minutes of class administer a quiz that focuses on leaf structure and types of
leaves that local tree species have.

Accommodations/Adaptations
1) Students with disabilities can participate freely outdoors with the rest of the students, a partner
can be provided if necessary.
2) Encourage involvement in the group portion of this lesson as well.
Assessment/Evaluation
1) Students will be assessed in group and overall participation.
2) A quiz will also be administered at the end of class for evaluation.
Closure
Quizzes will be graded in order to assess the effectiveness of the lesson in conveying the
information. Student reaction to the lesson will also be taken into account.
For future classes, the order in which the lesson is administered may be tweaked, as well as the
questions asked. Student questions may possibly be used in the quiz.
Teacher Reflection
The benchmarks in this lesson were very well covered. The material was well understood and
applied by the students. This lesson will be used in the future with students possibly choosing the
quiz questions in order to encourage even greater student participation.

Negative impact of human activities on an Ecosystem


Science, level: Senior
Posted Wed Apr 29 13:27:26 PDT 2009 by K. Muscat (K. Muscat).
Wayne State University - Student, Detroit, MI
Content
Day 1:
Define ecosystem
Provide local examples (Lake Huron) & brainstorm of importance (recreational, food)
Introduce concept of invasive species (emphasize those a result of human actions)
o Zebra and Quagga Mussels
Filter-feed removing large amounts of phytoplankton and decreasing the food supply for other
species.
Clog water intake structures, requiring costly upkeep and repairs
o Round Goby (contaminated ballast waters of transoceanic ships)
voracious feeder outcompete native fishes
Issues of water quality & quantity
Take Ecological Footprint Quiz
Day 2:
Discuss results of Ecological Footprint Quiz
Introduce WebQuest assignment.
Group students together in home groups. Have them decide roles.
Once roles are decided, have students switch and meet with their Specialist Group
Days 3-4:
Students will continue to work with Specialist Groups.
Days 5-6:
Students will switch back to Home Groups to finish WebQuest.
Day 7:
Home Groups will share their final results with the class.
Benchmarks
Michigan Content Standard B3.4C Examine the negative impact of human activities.(in an
ecosystem)
Development of Lesson
Introduction
Day 1:
Define ecosystem
Provide local examples (Lake Huron) & brainstorm of importance (recreational, food)
Introduce concept of invasive species (emphasize those a result of human actions)

o Zebra and Quagga Mussels


Filter-feed removing large amounts of phytoplankton and decreasing the food supply for other
species.
Clog water intake structures, requiring costly upkeep and repairs
o Round Goby (contaminated ballast waters of transoceanic ships)
voracious feeder outcompete native fishes
Issues of water quality & quantity
Take Ecological Footprint Quiz
Methods/Procedures
Day 2:
Discuss results of Ecological Footprint Quiz
Introduce WebQuest assignment.
Group students together in home groups. Have them decide roles.
Once roles are decided, have students switch and meet with their Specialist Group
Days 3-4:
Students will continue to work with Specialist Groups.
Days 5-6:
Students will switch back to Home Groups to finish WebQuest.
Day 7:
Home Groups will share their final results with the class.
Accommodations/Adaptations
Two students have dyslexia and are slow readers:
o The Ecological Footprint quiz is a really fun assignment because its interactive, online, and
can be done at home at your own pace.
o Provide electronic format of assignment so students can use word-processing software to assist
with spelling and grammar.
o Provide useful URLs to class to help direct their research efforts. This saves them from having
to read unnecessary information and helps to minimize their frustration.
o Have other students in their groups read the instructions and background information to the
group to keep them all at the same place.
One student has ADHD:
o The Ecological Footprint quiz is a really fun assignment because its interactive, online, and
can be done at home at your own pace.
o Assignment can be partially graded on the work that is turned in. Any attempt is better than
none.
o Provide useful URLs to class to help direct their research efforts. This saves them from having
to read unnecessary information and helps to minimize their frustration.
o Also, this student can provide visual instead of written examples is she chooses.
One student stutters when speaking in front of groups or strangers:
o Written work will be accepted in place of classroom presentation if student so desires.

Assessment/Evaluation
Homework Day 1 take the Ecological Footprint Quiz. Bring results to class for discussion
along with ideas that each student can implement to reduce their footprint.
Group project WebQuest.
o Each home group will be evaluated on the presentation and work of the entire group.
o Each group's total performance will depend on the individual performance of each person in
the group.
o Each group member will be further evaluated on the his or her ability to thoroughly answer the
assigned questions
Closure
So what can we as individuals do to help keep our ecosystem health?

Evolutionary Biology
Science, level: Senior
Posted Wed Apr 29 14:52:16 PDT 2009 by Abhinav Krishnan (Abhinav Krishnan).
Wayne State University, Detroit, MI
Materials Required: Different Types of Gloves, Fruit, Cups,
Activity Time: 1 class period
Concepts Taught: Darwinism
Content
Evolutionary Biology has been deeply impacted by the discoveries of Charles Darwin and
Edward Spencer, with their ideas of natural selection and evolution.
By creating a concept map about natural selection, students will form associations between
concepts and therefore reinforce understanding and allow them to develop questions that can be
answered/understood with the following experiment.

Benchmarks
Provide students with a context to aid in their ideological understanding of evolution and
therefore allow students the capacity to describe what natural selection is and develop their own
questions based on their knowledge.

Learning Resources and Materials


1) Inspiration Software
2) Primates diagram template
3) Latex fingers, Over-Sized Gloves, and two-fingered mittens
4) Different size fruit, (small enough for a cup, 4 different fruit)
5) 10 + cups depending on class size

Development of Lesson
Introduction
Students will be in a group environment, and will first engage in an activity and then lecture for
the material. The result of natural selection acting upon variation within a population is known as
evolution. What is most important to understand is that being with an advantage in one situation
may not be advantageous in another situation. Primates/other organisms with favored traits
within a given set of environmental factors will have advantage over others whose traits are
different. In basketball being taller does aid in playing the game, similarly, Primates, one will see

that different types of fruits favor different hand sizes, in addition, after the lecture, students will
discover not just hands but other demographics like area and size play a part in evolution.
Methods/Procedures
First 20 minutes of class
1) Lecture for 5-8 min about Biological Evolution, and the origin of species written by Charles
Darwin, and the writings of Edward Spencer. Also, describe the scopes monkey trial, and what
that meant for the teaching of evolution in the classroom.
2) Then describe to them Inspiration and encourage groups of students to share notes and record
information from the lecture in an Inspiration diagram. Go around the class and check for
understanding.
3) Give take-home questions about what happened in class including, what is natural selection
and how does it form a basis for evolution allow them to answer these questions in the following
experiment.
Second 30 minutes of class
1) Start the experiment by showing a picture of a rainforest and then begin a tale about a slue of
primates that reside in that rainforest then tell of an earth quake that happened and broke a dam
that now separates the forest in two halves.
2) Begin showing a slide show of different primates, from monkeys to gorillas, to sloths and
underscore their differences between them and how their needs are different, as is their ability to
get food with their hands, their overall size, and their speed.
3) Select 8 students to be from the north side of the jungle and 8 students to be from the south
side of the jungle. In each group, give them different types of gloves, latex, mitten (two fingers),
and two obstacle gloves: latex/mitten but you need to hold two pieces of fruit, only then eat the
third piece fruit. A cup shall be given to act like their stomachs.
4) Then underscore how much each of the 4 gloves needs a different amount of food to survive.
(Show slide with energy amount in each fruit, next).
5) Place the different size fruit on table and give 10 seconds to eat their fill. The people with that
satisfied their quota can get another partner those that did not should turn in their gloves.
6) Now there should be one glove gone and the others should have two partners, food should be
laid out again for the second year.

7) Repeat steps 4-6 till the fourth year and see the results. Ideally there should only be 1 or two
left
8) Now discuss with the classes what happened. And what called for the change in the amount of
primates from the first year the fourth year.
Last 10 minutes of Class:
1) Discuss the lab and the lecture and discuss any theories or questions that arised from doing the
lecture and lab.

Accommodations/Adaptations
1) For students with disabilities, participation should still be encouraged especially in the group
activity with students or other instructors available.
2) Also for the younger students try using only two seasons instead of the four and use rounded
numbers that are similar to the actual values instead of real unrounded numbers.
3) Different obstacles can be given for the north/south halves of the jungle.
4) Based on the Inspiration diagrams as well as the questions understanding of the benchmarks
will be obtained.
5) For ELL students allow participation in activity and then prescribe online activities to help
underscore the topic.

Assessment/Evaluation
1) Gauge student participation in activity by checking questions from lecture
2) Evaluate each inspiration diagram to check for accurate understanding of natural selection.
3) Assess student group cooperation and team work as they conduct the natural selection
activities and as they build the inspiration diagrams.

Closure
Once, the students bring back the questions and they are answered, one entire class day will be
held where a movie regarding Charles Darwin or some other derivative be shown and the
instructor will then answer questions and give feedback that was found in the process of grading
the diagrams and questions. In-class participation can also be taken into account.

Based on the general feedback of the class, the instructor will then determine if this experiment
will be used in the future or some other derivative may be used in the not just teaching this unit
but other curriculum bench marks.

Teacher Reflection
I feel that the benchmarks will be supported by the results of the experiment. To allow students
to generate questions that can be solved in the laboratory or field was the benchmark for this
experiment. Depending on circumstances accommodations were made based on the situation. I
learned many things about incorporating this experiment and feel that this experiment should be
used, but results vary, and should be used depending on the year/students.

Mitosis/Meiosis Flip-Book
Science, level: Senior
Posted Wed Apr 29 15:09:39 PDT 2009 by Abhinav Krishnan (Abhinav Krishnan).
Wayne State University, Detroit, USA
Materials Required: Flash Cards, Stapler, Crayons, Colored Pencils
Activity Time: 3 classes
Concepts Taught: Steps of Mitosis and Meiosis
Content
Mitosis and Meiosis are the crux of biology and genetics. Through these two processes the
growth, development, and evolution of all species persists, therefore learning about these
processes allows students a chance to take a look into the field of scientific research, as scientists
themselves look into such processes and develop questions and investigations, and develop such
questions using the flip-book they have created.
Benchmarks
Allow students to learn through visual representation the steps of mitosis and meiosis and
through learning engender questions that can be solved in a lab or the field (i.e. crossing over,
inheritance, genetic errors, etc.)
Learning Resources and Materials
1) Template cards printed and glued for students (at least 21 cards per student)
2) Stapler
3) Crayons and Colored Pencils

Development of Lesson
Introduction
Mitosis and Meiosis are the crux of biology and genetics. Through these two processes the
growth, development, and evolution of all species persists, therefore learning about these
processes allows students a chance to take a look into the field of scientific research, as scientists
themselves look into such processes and develop questions and investigations.

Methods/Procedures
Day-1

1) Students will use template cards (printed on sheets and glued index cards) to create a flip-book
that illustrates the steps in mitosis and meiosis
2) Students will decide whether to use mitosis or meiosis for their first flip-book.
3) After reviewing the stages of cellular division, the teacher will provide a template for them to
make the book, student may also bring images of their own.
4) From each step of the process students must draw their own diagrams to illustrate the
processes involved throughout the cell division.
5) Encourage the use of colors and middle steps between phases to help transition to flip book
6) Once all pages are finished in the correct order students will then use a heavy-duty stapler to
paste the pages
Day-2
1) Students will follow steps 2-6 from Day-1 and create another flip-book for the other process.
Day-3
1) Students will bring flip-books to class and instructors will encourage discussion of the
processes and steps involved and eventually spur questions about what exactly happens during
each phase and how the phenotypically and genotypically affect species.

Accommodations/Adaptations
1) For ELL students, allow them to understand the representation of the steps and how to follow
the order consecutively. Encourage group participation with them to help foster understanding.
2) For students with physical handicap the instructor or the attendent in-charge of the student
should help in the making of the cards.
3) Students can use digital photgraphs to help aid in the lab.
Assessment/Evaluation
Gauge the results of the discussion be sure to quiz them later on the steps involved with both
meiosis and mitosis and on some of the terms and theories that arised during discussion.
Also grade the flip-books either pass or fail, to see if the students actually put the effort into
making the cards and followed the directions and the steps involved in each process.
Further, any questions that developed instead of completely answering in class, allow for time
during lab to answer inevitable questions such as inheritance, widows peak, hitch-hicker thumb,
etc.
Closure
Based on the evaluation of the students after the first exam to see whether they used the books,

allow perpetual questions referring to the processes. Allow students to plan projects to discover
to themselves (similar to Mendel) how variations arise through mitosis and meiosis.
Teacher Reflection
I feel that the benchmarks will be supported by the results of the experiment. To allow students
to generate questions that can be solved in the laboratory or field was the benchmark for this
experiment. Depending on circumstances accommodations were made based on the situation.
The flip-book idea I felt was a good idea for it allows for greater creativity in a subject that may
otherwise seems like only facts and information.