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Structural Systems for Tall Buildings

Sang Dae Kim


Professor,, Korea University
y
CTBUH Chairman

Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

Contents

Introduction
d i

E l Hi
Early
History
t
off Tall
T ll Buildings
B ildi

Height of a Tall Building

Structural Systems and Technological Changes

Conclusions

Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

Introduction

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3

Landmarks

Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

Burj Khalifa
Dubai, UAE, 2010
828 m (163 stories)
Worlds Tallest Building

Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

Symbol of Power

Chrysler Building: Achievement of Chrysler


Petronas Tower:

Superiority of Muslim Country

Mao, SWFC,
SWFC Shanghai Tower: Symbol of Chinese Growth
Jin Mao
Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

Spacial Efficiency (Vertical City)

Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

Tourist Attractions

30 St. Mary Axe in London

Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

Burj Al Arab in UAE

Tourist Attractions

Jin Mao Building

Willis Tower
Empire State Building
Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

Beginning of Tall Buildings


How are Tall Buildings made Possible?
Three Important Technological Revolution
in the Mid-19th Century

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Beginning of Tall Buildings

Elevator, Electricity, Steel

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Beginning of Tall Buildings


Elevator

Steel

Home Insurance Building (10F)


Chicago, 1885
Haughwout Building (5F)
New York, 1857

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Beginning of Tall Buildings (1850 1930)


Growth in Height of the First Great Era of American Skyscrapers

No. of S
Stories in T
Tallest Building

100

80

Firstt wrought
Fi
ht iron
i
rolled sections

Firstt steel
Fi
t l rolled
ll d
sections

60
New York
Era
Cast Iron Era
New York

40

20

Chicago
School

Otis elevator
Electric elevator

1850

1870

1890

1910

1930

Source: Tall Building Structures, Bryan Stafford Smith, 1991

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A Tall Building Review (2010)


Tall Buildings 200 meters or Taller Completed Each Year (1960-2012)

(50-Stories)

131%
INCREASED

Total Numbers of Tall Buildings over 200 meters


Source: Tall Buildings in Numbers, CTBUH Journal, 2011(1)

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A Tall Building Review (2010)


Tall Buildings 200 meters or Taller Completed in 2010
by Region

by Function
Central
America - 1
(1%)

Europe - 3
(5%)
North
America 6
(9%)

by Material

Hotel - 6
(9%)

Steel - 3
(5%)

Office -13
(20%)
Residential 30
(45%)

Middle East
14 (21%)

Concrete/Steel - 1
(1%)

Asia - 42
(64%)

U.S.

Composite
14 (21%)
Mixed -17
(26%)

Asia (64%)

Concrete - 48
(73%)

Office

Steel

Residential (45%)

Concrete (73%)

Source: Tall Buildings in Numbers, CTBUH Journal, 2011(1)

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Top 10 Tallest Buildings in the World


UAE

Taiwan

China

HK

Malaysia

China

U.S.

China

U.S.

China

Burj Khalifa (Dubai)

Nanjing Greenland Financial Center (Nanjing)

Taipei 101 (Taipei)

Willis Tower (Chicago)

SWFC (Shanghai)

Guangzhou IFC (Guangzhou)

ICC (HK)

Trump International Hotel & Tower (Chicago)

Petronas Tower (Kuala Lumpur)

Jin Mao Building (Shanghai)

Source: http://skyscraperpage.com

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Tall Buildings: A Cultural Symbol and Humanity


Not only Technological Aspects, but also Cultural Symbol and Humanity

Technology

Culture

Tall
Buildings
g

Humanity

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Early
.
E l History
Hi t
of Tall Buildings

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18

New York & Chicago

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The Beginning of Tall Buildings in New York


Roads & Canals
(1820~1840)

1800

Civil War
(1861~1862)

1850

1900

1950

Tall Building
(1880~)

Chrysler Building Empire State Building


1931
1930
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The Beginning of Tall Buildings in New York


Roads & Canals (1820~1840)
Increase in Population

Civil War (1861~1862)

I
Innovation
ti in
i U
U.S.
S A
Architecture
hit t

Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

North won the Civil War

Insurance Companies
p
& Manufacturing Businesses

Many Jobs

Urban Population to Soar

Increase in the Value of Land

Taller Building

21

The Beginning of Tall Buildings in Chicago


Advances in Railways
& Locomotives (1848)

1800

Great Chicago
g Fire (1871)
(
)

1850

1900

1950

2000

Restoration of Chicago
(1880~)
John Hancock Center
1969
Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

Willis Tower
1974
22

The Beginning of Tall Buildings in New York


Great Chicago Fire, 1871

the Most Modern City


y in the U.S

1870 ~ 1880
Restoration of Chicago

Disaster turned into blessing


g
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First Skyscraper Home Insurance Building

Location: Chicago, Illinois, USA


Completion: 1885
Height: 55 m
Stories:
10
St i
Materials: Steel
Facing Materials: Brick
Engineer: William LeBaron Jenney

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First Skyscraper Woolworth Building


Location: New York, USA
Completion: 1913
Height: 241 m
Stories: 55
Materials: Steel Frame
* High-speed
g p
elevator

Reference:

SKYSCRAPERS, A Social History of the Very Tall Building in America


by GEORGE H. DOUGLAS

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Skyscrapers in New York & Chicago

Chrysler Building

Empire State Building

New York, 1930

New York, 1931

319 m (77 stories)

381 m (102 stories)

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Skyscrapers in New York & Chicago

J h Hancock
John
H
k Center
C

World Trade Center

Chicago, 1969

New York, 1972

344 m (100 stories)

417 m (110 stories)

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Skyscrapers in New York & Chicago

Aon Center

Willis Tower

Chicago, 1973

Chicago, 1974

346 m (83 stories)

442 m (110 stories)

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..

Height
eg to
of a Tall
a Building
u d g

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What is a Super-tall Building? (, )

300 Meters
(CTBUH)

Home Insurance Building


Chicago, 1885
55 m (10 stories)
The First Steel High-rise Building
Source: http://ctbuh.org

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Height of a Tall Building


1. Height to Architectural Top

Source: http://ctbuh.org

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Height of a Tall Building


1. Height to Architectural Top
Taipei 101

Petronas Towers

Willis Tower

Source: http://ctbuh.org

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Height of a Tall Building


2. Highest Occupied Floor

Source: http://ctbuh.org

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Height of a Tall Building


2. Highest Occupied Floor
Taipei 101

Willis Tower

Petronas Towers

Source: http://ctbuh.org

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Height of a Tall Building


3. Height to Tip

Source: http://ctbuh.org

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Height of a Tall Building


3. Height to Tip
Willis Tower

Taipei 101

Petronas Towers

Source: http://ctbuh.org

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. Structural Systems and


Technological Changes

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Innovation of Structural
Efficiency

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Structural Steel vs. Height


Three Conceptual Components to Separate the Material Quantities

Structtural Steel W
Weight (kgff/m2)

350
300
250
Total Steel
200
Wind Bracing

150
100

Columns
50
Floor Framing
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100 110

Heights in Stories

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The Revolution in Structural Efficiency


Before 1970:

After 1970
Willis Tower

60-Story
60
Story Chase Manhattan Bank Building
- Steel weight : 55 lb/ft2 (269 kgf/m2)
After 1970:
110-Story Sears Tower
- Steel weight : 33 lb/ft2 (161 kgf/m2)

One Chase
Manhattan Plaza

Before 1970

Source: Efficiency in Design of Tall Buildings, 1988

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The Revolution in Structural Efficiency


110
100
00
90

After 1970
Willis Tower

Steel weight

Height increased two-fold


Steel weight decreased almost by half

Height in
n Stories

80

Before 1970:

70
60

60-Story Chase Manhattan Bank Building


- Steel
St l weight
i ht : 55 lb/ft2 (269 kkgf/m
f/ 2)

Height

One Chase
Manhattan Plaza

50
40
30

Before 1970

Aft 1970
After
1970:
110-Story Sears Tower
- Steel weight
g : 33 lb/ft2 ((161 kgf/m
g 2)

20
10
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

Structural Steel Weight (PSF)


Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

Source: Efficiency in Design of Tall Buildings, 1988


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The Revolution in Structural Efficiency


33PSF
Willis Tower

85 PSF
Without the revolution

O Chase
One
Ch
Manhattan
M h tt Plaza
Pl

Source: Efficiency in Design of Tall Buildings, 1988

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The Revolution in Structural Efficiency


Development of Structural Systems
Development
p
of the Structural Analysis
y Technology
gy
Use of Damping Devices
New High-strength and High-performance Materials
Reduction of Wind Load by Wind Tunnel Test

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Main Lateral-resisting Systems (Interior)

Central Core +
Rigid Frame

Outrigger
System

Source: Structural Developments in Tall Buildings: Current Trends and Future Prospects,

Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

2007
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Main Lateral-resisting Systems (Exterior)

Source: Structural Developments in Tall Buildings: Current Trends and Future Prospects
Prospects, 2007

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Structural Analysis Technology


(ETABS, SAP, MIDAS)

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Damping Devices

TMD
(Taipei 101)

Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

Outrigger Damper
((St. Francis Tower,, Manila))

47

New High-strength, High-performance Materials


Two Union Center

Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

Stories : 58F
Max.
Max Concrete Strength: 130MPa

48

Reduction of Wind Load by Wind Tunnel Test


Softened Corners

T
Tapering
i
and
d Setbacks
S tb k

Varying
i
C
Cross Section
S i
Sh
Shape

Spoilers

Porosity or Openings

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Changes in the Structural


Systems

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New Cladding Concept / Structural Systems


Conventional Load-bearing Masonry Walls
relatively small punched openings

Iron / Steel Frame Structure


the larger openings

Increasing rentable area by stacking office spaces vertically

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New Cladding Concept / Structural Systems


A New Cladding Concept

Cu
Curtain
ta Walls
a s

The Emergence of the New Structural Systems

Frame Structure

Claddings did not carry any loads from buildings


except their own weights.
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Development of Structural Systems

Frame

Perimeter Tube

Shear Wall

Braced Core

Braced Tube

Bundled Tube

Source: AIA Tall Buildings Presentation, R. Halvorson

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Development of Structural Systems

Before
f
1990:
All Framed Tube Structures
were completed prior to
1990
75% Steel
2000s:
73% Core + Outrigger
approx. 50% Concrete

Source: Tall Buildings in Numbers, CTBUH Journal, 2010(2)

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Structural Efficiency of Lateral Load Resistance


Interior
Structures

Exterior Structures

Core Wall System


y

Tube System
y

Mega
g Column System
y

I = 0.11 I0

I = I0

I = 1.50 I0

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Structural Efficiency of Lateral Load Resistance


y

48 m

A = 51,200 cm2
Ix = 1,981
1 981 m4
Structural Systems for Tall Buildings, CTBUH

48 m

48 m

48 m

A = 51,076 cm2
Ix = 2
2,942
942 m4 (1.5
(1 5 times lager)
57

What is Tube system?

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Tube System

Willis Tower (Sears Tower)


Chicago, 1974
442 m (110 stories)
i )
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Tube System

Willis Tower (Sears Tower)


Chicago, 1974
442 m (110 stories)
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Tube System

World Trade Center


New York City, North Tower:1970, South Tower:1971
417 m (110 stories)
i )
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Mega Column System

Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong

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Taipei 101, Taiwan

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Mega Column System

International Commerce Centre, Hong Kong

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Mega Column System

Ji Mao
Jin
M Tower,
T
Shanghai
Sh
h i
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Diagrid System

Triangulated sloped column and beam frame configurations

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Diagrid System

St. Mary Axe, London

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Diagrid System

Capital Gate, Abu Dhabi, 160m, 35


35-story
story
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Diagrid System

Hearst Tower, New York, 183m, 46-storyy

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Diagrid System

O-14 Tower, UAE

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Diagrid System

Urban Hive, Korea

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Diagrid System

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Changes in Structural Material


and Usage

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Structural Material

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Comparison of Structural Material


Steel

SRC / Reinforced Concrete

2010

1998

1974

Source: http://skyscraperpage.com

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Development of Concrete Technology


Steel vs.
vs Reinforced Concrete

Lighter Weight

High-strength Concrete

Speedy Construction

System Formwork
Early-strength
y
g Concrete

Longer Span

Post-tensioning System

Prefabricated Structure

Prefabricated Rebar Cages

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Development of Concrete Technology


High-performance Concrete
High Strength Concrete
(more than 60 MPa)

Early Strength Concrete


(8 MPa / 1 day)

High Flowing Concrete


(Flow 55~65)

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Development of Concrete Technology


Form & RC System
ACS Form
(Core)
Slab System
(Flat Slab + PT)
ACS Form
(Column)
Shear Reinforcement
(Stud Rail)
Table Form
(Flying Form)

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Comparison of Usage
Top 10 Tallest Buildings in the World
2010

2010

2010

2010

Residential / Mixed

2009

2008

2004

Office

1999

1998

1974

Office

Office

Source: http://skyscraperpage.com

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. Conclusions

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Since the beginning of the history of tall buildings


in the second half of the 19th century in the U.S.,
tall buildings have undergone various changes.

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Tall Buildings

Regions

USA

Structural Systems

Tube

Mega
g Column

Material & Usage

St l
Steel

C
Concrete
t

Office

Residential / Mixed

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Asia

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