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Wednesday, February 23, 2011

BHAGAVAD GITA CONCLUDED


Gita Series 178: Conclusion.
Bhagavad Gita is not another epic. It is considered as the science of spirituality.
The Lord speaks through the seven hundred couplets, the precepts of mankind as a
whole. Ka takes the aspirant towards liberation, slowly eliminating every doubt of
students of spirituality. While talking about the steps required for liberation, Ka
ESSENCE OF
also lays down guidelines for day to day living. He does not advocate spiritual
BHAGAVAD GITA
V RAVI
practices, nor gives hopes to the humanity that He would absolve them from their
sins. He makes it apparently clear that everyones life is determined by his own
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sins. He makes it apparently clear that everyones life is determined by his own
actions and says there is no divine intervention involved. One has to seek the Lord
to get away from pains of transmigrations.

Among many other things to be followed, he stresses importance of doing ones prescribed duties.
Shirking from ones responsibilities is considered as a sin. The second important factor is the mind. One
has to keep the mind free of impressions. The main source for the impressions is the sensory organs.
One has to use the sensory organs for an effective existence and not for pleasures. Todays pleasure will
be tomorrows pain. Pleasure and pain are realised only if one uses senses beyond ones necessity.
Ka discourages excessive indulgence in all the actions. Over indulgence causes addiction, which
ultimately turns into monstrous proportions leading to ones self destruction.
Another aspect of Gita is renunciation. If one remains inert without carrying out his duties saying that he
is always united with the Lord, he is disowned by the Lord. What the Lord advocates is that one should
perform his duties without intent on the fruits of actions. Fruits of actions are to be surrendered to the
Lord, irrespective of the nature of outcome. If one understands and follows the theory of renunciation and
surrenders, no further karmas accrue to him. Ones karma is the deterrent factor to liberation, as one has
to exist in various shapes and forms till all his karmas are exhausted. The Lord rules the universe only
through the Law of Karma. Evil thoughts are more powerful than evil actions.
One cannot attain liberation overnight. The spiritual progressions should be gradual with a strong
foundation. Hence a great emphasis has been laid on spiritual knowledge. Only with the right kind of
knowledge, the Lord can be realised. Only a thoroughly purified soul becomes eligible for liberation. The
Lord is always waiting to offer liberation to souls. He is also longing for the love of His devotees (may
sound like dualism). That is why, it has been repeatedly stressed in this commentary that ones devotion
to the Lord should transform into love for Him. He says to Arjuna, You are so dear to Me. I will never let
you down. Believe me. What a sort of compassion is this? The Lord is more concerned with our welfare
more than our parents. Every breath of ours is being watched by Him. Every action of ours is recorded.

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It is often said that Gita is unsuitable for modern times Scriptures cannot be changed to suit the modern
times Holy Scriptures do not change, but humanity changes from bad to worse. There cannot be peace
and harmony when there is no reciprocation. When the humanity sets its mind to transform from religious
fanaticism to a spiritual pursuit, there is bound to be a peaceful co-existence. The Lord is not many He is
one and He belongs to everyone. Out of ignorance and misguidance, men resort to different types of
ritualistic worships. Commercialization of spirituality is the worst sin of all.

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This commentary is meant only for the beginners of spiritual pursuit. This commentary does not follow a
particular type of philosophy. It is the combination of all. The main idea of this exercise is to make the
people choose the right kind of living that paves the way for ultimate liberation. Mind is the only factor that
leads to liberation. Everyone should attempt to develop only positive thoughts and concern for the fellow
beings. The Lord is the embodiment of compassion and love. When one decides to merge with Him,
one has to be full of compassion and love. After all, fire and water cannot coexist. If one conclusively
decides to have liberation, he has to have purity of thought and mind. The inner purity is more important
than the external purity, as liberation takes place only through the mind.
With these words, the commentary on Bhagavad Gita is completed and placed before the lotus feet of
the Lord seeking His grace for universal prosperity and peaceful co-existence.

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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 72 - 78


Gita Series 177: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 71 78
Have you listened to the holy sermons of Mine with rapt attention, Arjuna? Has your ignorance, born
out of delusion, vanished?

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Arjuna answered: Yes! My delusion has gone by Your grace. I have now regained my knowledge and
shall act according to Your words.
Sajaya said: Thus, I have heard the wonderful dialogue between r Ka and the great soul Arjuna,
with goosebumps all over my body. Through the grace of r Vysa, I have directly heard this
supreme and the most secretive sermons directly from r Ka, the Lord of yoga. O King, I rejoice
repeatedly in this holy conversation. Remembering that holy form of r Ka repeatedly, I am
amazed and I rejoice again and again. Wherever r Ka and Arjuna are, there will be
auspiciousness, victory, glory, and unfailing righteousness. This is my firm conviction.
With great concern, Ka asks Arjuna whether he has understood His teaching with attention. This is the
concern of the Lord for His true seekers. The Lord can be attained through any of the methods of
Vednta. Vednta is the combination of two words Veda + anta. Veda refers to knowledge and anta
refers to the end of which means the end of knowledge. At the end of knowledge, liberation happens.
Knowledge here refers to the spiritual knowledge and not the materialistic knowledge. Spiritual
knowledge is the knowledge that is required to realise the Brahman. The different categories of Vednta
are beautifully explained by the Living Master thus, Brahma has no relation to My nor is He residing in
the heart of all beings in Advaitavednta. It is His updhi var (the Lord with attributes) who is residing
in the heart of all beings. Anyway, even var is not the owner of My in dvaita. My is the Power of
the Lord only in Dvait and Viitdvaita. In dvaita, it is merely neither real nor unreal (i.e. not created,
not manifested by anyone, just a mere mistaking the rope for a snake). Brahma has no relation to My
nor is He residing in the heart of all beings in Advaitavednta. It is His updhi var (the Lord with
attributes) who is residing in the heart of all beings. Anyway, even var is not the owner of My in
dvaita. My is the Power of the Lord only in Dvait and Viitdvaita. In dvaita, it is merely neither
real nor unreal (i.e. not created, not manifested by anyone, just a mere mistaking the rope for a snake).
Vednta is a powerful tool made available to us to realise the Lord within. Vednta is not a mere
intellectual exercise, but an experience by itself. For the beginners, Vednta can be explained as
follows: Several gods and goddesses to satiate our different requirements is the lowest form of Vednta.
Acceptance of a force called God, who is the creator of the universe, is the middle form. Understanding
and realising that there is only one Reality, known differently as the Lord, the Brahman, Self, etc is the
Ultimate Truth. When one affirms with confidence I am That he is known as Self realised person. To
attain ultimate liberation through knowledge, one has to pursue the path of non-dualism. Dualistic

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theories say that the Lord is different from individual soul and cosmos (prakti). Qualified non-dualism
also accepts soul and cosmos, but as qualities of the Brahman. Non-dualism says everything is the
Brahman, and He is the ultimate Truth. All the Upaniad-s, including Bhagavad Gita dwell elaborately
only on non-dualism. In the words of Gabriel Pradiipaka , referred to as the Living Master earlier,
Brhma cannot be described by any means, i.e. He is not the embodiment of anything. He doesn't
control My at all. Not even His updhi var does so, because the updhi-s arise from her and not
vice versa. My is neither real nor unreal, and consequently, she is "nothing" which is fit for being
controlled. It is just a false notion, not something objectively manifest. To understand this is crucial in
dvaita. In dvaita, Knowledge is the main tool to attain Final Liberation. When you realize Brhma such
as He is and not as vara, that is spiritual enlightenment according to dvaita.

BHAGAVAD GITA
CONCLUDED
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
72 - 78
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
67 - 71
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
64 - 66
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
61 - 63

Whatever the branch one pursues is not important, but it has to be pursued with great dedication and
sincerity. Ones devotion has to turn into Love for the Lord. If love for Him blossoms forth, it means He is
ready for final enlightenment. When his karmic account is nullified, he is liberated and the self realises
the Self. It is only the knowledge that is paramount in Advaita philosophy. Only Advaita philosophy says,
I am That or I am Brahman. Through out this commentary, all types of philosophies have been used
depending upon the circumstances and narrative necessities.

BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
56 - 60

Arjuna for the first time says that his delusion has gone. For a person like Arjuna, who is highly advanced
spiritually, when so many explanations are needed, nothing needs to be said about spiritual aspirants.
Spirituality does not mean the expression of religious affiliations. It is much beyond any religion. One has
to seek the Lord within, by constantly meditating on Him, focussing his attention on Him. Then only he
gets enlightened and attains ultimate liberation. Arjuna got enlightened and now is ready to listen to the
words of the Lord.

BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
45 - 48

Sajaya has referred to in the opening verse of Bhagavad Gita. The great sage Vysa had given to
Sajaya, the cosmic eye or the third eye to see the happenings in the battle field. On seeing the Lord
enlightening Arjuna, Sajaya enters into the blissful state and affirms with great confidence, wherever
Ka and Arjuna exists, there will be positive vibrations The presence of a true devotee can be realised
from the positive vibrations around him.

BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
33 - 35

CHAPTER XVIII OF BHAGAVAD GITA IS CONCLUDED.

BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
49 - 53

BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
40 - 44
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
36 - 39

BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
29 - 32
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
26 - 28
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
23 -25

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BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
54 - 55

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BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
17 - 22
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII.
12 - 16
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII. 7
- 11
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVIII. 1
-6
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVII.
23 - 28
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVII.
18 - 22

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 67 - 71


Gita Series 176: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 67 71

BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER XVII.
14 - 17
January (39)

The secret that has been disclosed to you should not be revealed to the one, who is devoid of self
control and devotion, who is unwilling to listen and finds fault with Me. Whoever imparts this supreme
secret of Mine to my devotees with devotion, he shall, without doubt attain Me. No one else is dearer
to me than him, nor there shall be one. Whoever studies this sacred dialogue between us, worships
Me through his mind. Whoever listens to this conversation with utmost faith is freed of his sins and
attains the world of virtues.
Ka after having finishing His holy sermons briefly tells Arjuna about the benefits accruing on reading
and listening to His holy sermons. The Lord also places some injunctions by which His sacred and
secret sermons should not be disclosed to disinterested people.
Bhagavad Gita is an exceptionally a great epic from two angles. First, the Lord Himself discloses what is
needed to attain liberation of a soul. Secondly, the whole Gita is a concise precept of teachings of
Upaniad-s. The main purpose of human life is liberation, as liberation can be attained only in human
life. Man forgets the ultimate aim of his birth and indulges himself in the delusionary pleasures of life and
falls into the trap of desire and bondage. As a result, he goes on accruing both good and bad karmas.
As long as karmas prevail, one has to undergo the pains of karmas. The Lord never interferes in the Law

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of Karma, but surely paves the way to become devoid of karma. This is all about Bhagavad Gita. The
Lord wants everyone to get rid of karma and attain liberation. But, a bewildered man considers the
enjoyment of sensory pleasures as his ultimate goal and sinks deeper into the materialistic world. Over a
period of time, he gets addicted and unable to get away from the clutches of materialistic life. By the
time he begins to understand the reality, his life comes to an end. This vicious cycle goes on and on
without any respite for sufferings.
Mind is the most important aspect in spiritual path. Entire spirituality revolves around mind. Throughout
this series, cleansing of mind has been repeatedly emphasized. Cleaning ones mind is a tough job to
do. It is easier to say, but the process of cleansing is difficult. Mind has innumerable impressions and at
one stroke, it is difficult to remove those impressions. To begin the process of cleansing, one has to stop
further impressions. Every action performed with I ness, leaves strong impression in the mind. Mind is
literally controlled by emotional disorders, psychological conflict and narcissistic dominance. They are
too powerful and prevent the cleansing process of the mind. They are the inherent qualities of mankind.
One has to fight against these powerful forces to conquer his mind. If efforts to conquer are initiated now,
the result can be reaped in future births. By initiating the process of mind cleansing, the impressions can
be gradually removed in births after births.
Spiritual evolution is directly related to the level of consciousness. Allegiance to ego forms the stumbling
block to purify ones consciousness. Consciousness in most of the men is dominated by impulsive
desires and animal instincts. Consciousness is the only instrument that is able to differentiate between
Reality and illusion. That is why Ka said that impelled by desires and fruits of actions, one goes to
bondage. Ego is not overcome by seeing it as an enemy. It is ones biological inheritance, and without
it, nobody would be alive to lament its limitations. By understanding its origin and intrinsic importance to
survival, the ego can be seen as being of great benefit, but prone to becoming unruly and causing
emotional, psychological and spiritual problems if not resolved or transcended.
An impure mind with is filled with excessive delusion and too much of thoughts is the real enemy to
spirituality. It is not by mere enquiry, spiritual knowledge is attained. To attain the true spiritual knowledge
self-experience is essential. Self-experience can be attained by going through Holy Scriptures. But, at
the same time, one should not continue to be associated with scriptures. Every scripture and every
author have their own way of explicating the path of spirituality. Many of them speak from their own
experiences and experience of any two persons is not the same in spirituality. It all depends upon ones
cerebration.

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Chapter II of Brahma Stra


consists of 157 aphorisms. This
chapter is named as avirodha
(a-virodah or non-contradiction).
In Chapter I (...
KAMAKALAKALI
TRILOKYAMOHANA KAVACHAM
Mahklasahit kmakalklkhaa -Trilokyamohanakavaca
upadea
--
(As...
FORMS OF BHAIRAVA
This is part IV of Shiva the
Supreme. There are eight types
of Bhairavas and they are called
ashta Bhairavas. They are
Asithanga Bhairavar,...
MAHODA MANTRA
MAHA SHODASHI MANTRA
All mantra -s are considered
secretive in nature and oda is
not an exception. Recitation of
oda leads to liberation. This
mantr...
top- akathaha chakra: bottom janana yantra
VARIATIONS OF MATANGI
MANTRA
R MTA N GI MANTRA
(also known as Lagu
ymala) Version 1


...
MAHA SHODASHI MANTRA
EXPLAINED
Mahoa mantra is
formulated like this. First line:
om - r - hr - kl - ai sauh (
r...

) Place

SRI VIDYA GANAPATI VANCHA


KALPALATA MANTRA
r Vidy Gaapati Vcha
kalpalat mantra
This mantra is a
combination of mantras ...

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combination of mantras ...

Ka says to Arjuna, that Bhagavad Gita can be taught to the one, who has the capacity to understand
the foregoing. Caviling is another deterrent factor in spirituality and is the quality of those who are
unwilling to listen with attention. The Lord also prohibits the revelation of Gita to them. Gita should be
taught to those who respect human values, kind heartedness, compassionate, devoid of arrogance and
anger. The one, endowed with these qualities is very dear to the Lord. There are many instances where
men and women attained liberation out of pure love for Him. The initial knowledge should transform into
love for Him for perfect liberation. Knowledge should act as a seed for perpetual love for Him. Love is a
stage beyond devotion. However great a man may be, he is nothing but a tiny particle before the ever
compassionate Lord.
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Tuesday, February 22, 2011

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 64 - 66


Gita Series 175: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 64 66
Listen to My supremely secret words again, the most secretive of all. You are extremely dear to Me,
and I shall only say what is beneficial for you. Fix your mind on Me, worship Me and bow down to Me.
By doing so you will come to Me alone. I promise you. Resigning all dharma, take refuge in Me alone.
I shall absolve you of all your sins. Do not worry.

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This is almost the concluding statement of Ka in Bhagavad Gita. After having explained to Arjuna, the

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This is almost the concluding statement of Ka in Bhagavad Gita. After having explained to Arjuna, the
elaborate steps to attain liberation, Ka conclusively says that surrender unto Him is the best choice
for liberation. Ka gives importance to friendship by saying to Arjuna that he is very dear to Him. Both
Ka and Arjuna, studied, played and grew together. Though, Ka was moving with many others, He
had a special interest in Arjuna, not just because he was a noted warrior, but also because of his ability
to understand. Added to these qualities, Arjuna never deviated from the scriptural dictums and always
followed the path of virtuousness. It is like the Lord extending His hands to those who are spiritually well
advanced. This does not mean that the Lord follows the path of partiality. The Lord takes a special
interest on those, who truly seeks Him without the handful of prayers and favours. Such yogis are taken
over by the Lord Himself, who ultimately leads them to liberation. Even then, the Lord does not dissolve
their karmas. He only tells them the ways and means to dissolve their karmas quickly. Karmas can be
dissolved only by ones experience in this world and not otherwise.
The entire Bhagavad Gita is the Lords message to these yogis and not just Arjuna alone. Subsequently,
He says that Gita should not be imparted to those who are not interested in pursuing the path of
righteousness. When the world is totally immersed in darkness of ignorance, the Lord incarnates and
sets the world in the right path; as otherwise, the world would sink deeper and deeper without any
plausible redemption. All those, who follow the path of virtuousness, will also get sunk along with the
demons. If virtuous men are punished, then the sayings of the Scriptures would be falsified. In order to
avert the complete catastrophe, the Lord takes avatars and infuses confidence in the hearts of those
virtuous men Ka avatar is purely towards this goal only and obviously, the goal has been totally
achieved by the Lord. Towards the closing chapters of Gita, Ka becomes too compassionate. He
says to Arjun and through him to the entire humanity, You have suffered enough. I do not want you to
suffer any longer. I am your Lord. Surrender unto Me by thinking about Me all the time. I will give you
liberation. You have come very close to Me. Just a few steps, you will attain Me. Please do not go back.
Even after these compassionate words, one is unwilling to surrender his ego to Him, then, nobody can
save him. He will continue to undergo the pains of birth and death repeatedly.
When a person had fallen into a deep pit, one can throw a rope to save him. If he is not willing to take
that rope and claim up, what can one think about him? This is the kind of situation, the humanity is in. The
Lord says I am giving you the rope to claim up and even promises that he would be taken to safety. Even
then, the fallen person is not acting it means that he is resigned to his fate. The Lord says that one should
set aside his ego and surrender to Him through ones mind. He does not even want a person to suffer
physically. Just developing the quality of renunciation, through his mind, is more than enough to attain
liberation. Sacrifice is the sole essence of Gita. One can perform any actions without intent on the fruits
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liberation. Sacrifice is the sole essence of Gita. One can perform any actions without intent on the fruits
of actions. Nothing is barred and the only requirement is to stay connected consciously with the Lord all
the time. If one takes refuge in the Lord, the Lord will take care of his liberation. He will find the ways and
means to absolve all his sins, purify him and ultimately makes him one with Himself. After all, the Lord is
the embodiment of compassion and love.

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Ka once again tells Arjuna not to worry and asks him to surrender in entirety to Him. The Lord also
gives a promise that he will be absolved of all his sins and liberated. He says, Do not get repeatedly
entangled with duties that may be either right or wrong. I am above all the scriptural dictums. When you
aim to attain Me, dharmas have no significance. Get out of your ego and come to Me is all that I need
from you.

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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 61 - 63


Gita Series 174: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 61 63
Arjuna, the Lord abides in the hearts of all beings, causing them to revolve according to their karmas
as if attached to a machine, by His cosmic delusion known as my, Take shelter in Him completely,
and by His mere grace, you shall obtain supreme peace and the eternal abode. Thus, I have
imparted the supreme wisdom, the secret of all secrets. Ponder over it thoroughly and act as you
desire.

The essence Bhagavad Gita is being conveyed through these verses. This message can be interpreted
as follows. The Brahman residing in the hearts of all beings make them to act as per their karmas,
through His power of my. Surrender unto Him totally, and you will have eternal peace. This is the
secret of all secrets. Now it is up to you to decide.
Lord is the force, by which all the beings are made to act. Without electricity, the light fittings are of no
use. The Lord is the electricity that powers the beings to perform. The Lord does not decide how one
should perform his duty. It is already decided by his karmas that unfold as actions at the appointed time.
Depending upon the bulbs, electricity does not change. Bulbs could be 60 watts, 100 watts, fluorescent
lamps, etc. The shapes and sizes of the bulbs could be different but the source for all the bulbs is the
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lamps, etc. The shapes and sizes of the bulbs could be different but the source for all the bulbs is the
same electricity. In the same way, the source for all the beings is the Lord and only the shapes and forms
differ. The one who realises this is said to be a Self-realised person and the one who does not realise
this is said to be spiritually ignorant.
My is the illusionary aspect of the Brahman. M means to measure. When the immeasurable
Brahman appears as if measured, is known as my. Vednta holds that we perceive things only in their
empirical aspects and not in their essential aspects. The Brahman is the embodiment of purity of mind,
consciousness, etc. He is the ultimate reality, underlying all our experiences. Therefore, any kind of
existence is essentially the Brahman and hence, He is omnipresent. The Brahman controls my holding
it as His manifold power to rule over the cosmic process. If one is able to look beyond empirical aspects
into the unchangeable essential aspect, the Brahman, one is said to have realized the ever radiating
Self, who alone is Self-illuminating. One gets deluded by the effects of my, which is always tempting
and inducing, he succumbs to illusionary joy and happiness it creates. If one is able to understand the
effects of my, he will not be deluded, but makes progress to understand the Reality.
Karma is the sum total of consequences of ones thoughts and actions over his past births. Depending
on the nature of ones karma, one is born as different shapes and forms and undergoes pains and
miseries. This process continues over many births, till his entire karmic account is exhausted. Karmas
stop accruing only if he chooses to surrender to the Lord consciously. Any amount of ritualistic surrender
will never stop the accrual of karmas. The surrender should happen through the mind. Repeated
affirmations make this happen. The thought of liberation comes to ones mind, only when his karmic
account permits. When the thought of liberation dawns on him, it means that he is not too far away from
liberation. When the thought of Lord dawns on him, he begins to judiciously exercise his freewill, goes
past my and ultimately surrenders to Him. From that moment onwards, his karmic account does get
added up.
When such a situation arises, the grace of the Lord falls on him, which bestows the state of bliss and
peace. He merely waits for the time for his liberation. Ka says to Arjuna that He had imparted the
most secretive spiritual wisdom to him and it is for Arjuna to decide what he should do, whether to fight
or not to fight. It should also be remembered that irrespective of Arjunas decision, the fate of the war has
already been decided by the Law of Karma. This signifies the importance of karma in ones life. Good
thoughts and actions cause good karma and bad thoughts and actions cause bad karma. If one
consciously surrenders to the Lord, karmas do not accrue at all. Liberation happens to such a person,
soon after all his existing karmas are exhausted.

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Monday, February 21, 2011

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 56 - 60


Gita Series 173: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 56 60
The one, who always takes refuge in Me, though performs actions, attains the imperishable state due
to My grace. By mentally surrendering all actions to Me, taking recourse to discriminative intellect,
considering Me as the ultimate goal, constantly give your mind to Me. By surrendering your mind to
Me, you shall overcome all difficulties due to My grace. If by chance you are not listening to Me, you
will meet with destruction. If you are still afflicted with egotism and decide not to fight, your decision will
be falsified as you will still be compelled by Prakti to fight. Arjuna! Even then if you are not willing to
fight, deluded by ignorance, you will be forced to fight helplessly, due to your karma.
Ka spoke about liberation through knowledge in the previous section and in this section, He
discusses about karma yoga. Yoga of knowledge is difficult when compared to karma yoga. In jna
yoga or the yoga of knowledge, the entire process of liberation happens through the mind as mind is the
only tool that is put into use. However, in the case of karma yoga, mind is not the only instrument that is
used to attain liberation. Along with mind, the power of ones affirmation plays a very significant role. A
jna yogi is completely engulfed in the thought of the Lord all the time. A karma yogi performs actions
and surrenders all his actions to the Lord. The concept of renunciation is important in karma yoga. If
renunciation is not practiced, it means the practitioner continues to remain only as an aspirant, unable to
move to the stage of a yogi. Renunciation is nothing but surrendering ones thought of I ness which is
known as ego. When importance is given to I, it leads to desires and attachments. Ka has already
said that one who performs actions without attachment attains liberation. The thought of I always
kindles the fire of ego. An egocentric person can never attain liberation, however hard he pursues the
path of spirituality. The very word I has no place in spirituality. If anyone uses I in spirituality, it clearly
means that he continues to be a spiritual infant. It should be understood that one attains liberation only
through His grace. One has to seek His grace all the time, instead of remaining egocentric. The Lord is
ever ready to shower His grace, when it is sought for by a person whose mind is devoid of any
impressions. A mind without any afflictions is the stage, where one is able to remove all sensory

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impressions and ensures that further impressions are not deposited.A karma yogi is permitted to
perform any action, provided he is able to surrender that action to the Lord. A karma yogi advances in
spiritual path through the concept of surrender and renunciation and a jna yogi advances through his
discriminative knowledge and contemplation. Goal is the same in both these approaches, but the path
that is to be traversed is different. They cannot be compared and none can affirm that a particular path is
better than the other one. Ultimately, it is the mind alone that matters. Liberation of a soul can happen
only through the mind. As humanity alone has got the power of mind, liberation is possible only during
human birth. Attaining human birth is not an easier task. The entire humanity is blessed by the Lord and
none should waste this divine compassion. If one does not develop devotion to the ever compassionate
Lord, he is said to be in the darkness of spiritual ignorance. Surrendering to the Lord should happen only
through the mind. Any amount of rituals ever satiates Him. What the Lord expects from the humanity is to
think about Him all the time. None is barred from performing his prescribed duties. But he has to perform
all his actions on behalf of the Lord. This is possible only by mentally surrendering all his actions to the
Lord. Repeatedly affirming that the Lord alone performs all his actions makes one to advance in the path
of surrender and renunciation.
Even after Kas exhaustive teachings, if one continues to be bewildered by the influence of my,
which is also His own manifestation, he goes without redemption for births. Even after knowing that His
grace is always available if sought for through the mind, if one does not make any efforts to seek That,
he causes his own destruction. Destruction does not mean his death. Death is nothing but a tiny process
by which a soul migrates from one body to another. His death is not an end to his miseries, but just a
beginning.
Ka says to Arjuna that in spite of all His elucidations, if he still chooses not to fight against his cousins
and teachers, then the law of karma takes over, and he will be compelled to fight through the influence of
primordial nature, present in the form of Prakti A soul and Prakti cause the formation of a being. What
is destined to happen, will surely happen, which none can postpone or prevent. Nobody can fight against
his karmic account, and the karmic account unfolds at the appropriate timings in ones life. The only way
to escape from karmic accruals is to renounce every action to the Lord, by surrendering ones ego. After
all one is not different from the Lord Himself. Arjuna has no option except to fight, as his karma is waiting
to unfold that way only. If Arjuna chooses to listen to Ka and kills his enemies, he does not accrue
further karma as he acts only at the behest of the Lord. On the contrary, due to ignorance, if he decides
to act with ego, he is further afflicted with karmic accruals.

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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 54 - 55


Gita Series 172: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 54 55
That yogi, who has realised the Brahman, with complete mental clarity, neither grieves nor rejoices.
He beholds equitability and attains Me with supreme devotion. By this devotion, he realises My reality
and having realised My reality, he gets absorbed into Me.
A spiritual aspirant transforms into a yogi, when he enters the state of eternal bliss. By constantly
remaining in a state of bliss, he moves towards the Lord slowly but steadily. When he enters into the
arena of His radiating effulgence, his mind attains perfect clarity. When the mind is devoid of any other
thought processes and entirely pervaded by His thoughts alone, his mind is said to have been cleansed.
His mind remains in absolute purity. As his mind is percolated by His thoughts, he sees both animate
and inanimate beings as Him. He does not need anything from anyone. He does not love anyone nor
hate anyone. His mind becomes incapable of discrimination, as he has understood the reality of creation
and existence. He knows that the Lord alone exists everywhere and only because of illusionary effect, the
creation appears to be in different shapes and forms. He now becomes capable of looking beyond the
shapes and forms. His mind becomes completely tranquil.
As he establishes himself in the radiating effulgence of the Lord, he begins to acquire the qualities of the
Lord. He is like the Lord, yet He is not the Lord. When a log is put in a fire, it merges into the fire by
burning itself slowly but firmly and ultimately merges with the fire. After the log is fully burnt, there remains
no trace of the log, as the fire has totally assimilated the log. The log does not get burnt immediately. The
log has to first draw the heat energy of the fire and then has to gradually transform into the fire itself.
Unless both the fire and the log have the same level of temperature, the log cannot be burnt by the fire. If
the log contains traces of water, fire ensures that traces of water are removed and this can be noticed at
the other end of the log. The fire is purifying the log before it imbibes the log.
In the same manner, the Lord takes over that yogi, who enters into the vicinity of His effulgence for final
processing before He allows his merger with Him. First, his mind is purified. It loses its ability to
differentiate and discriminate, not out of ignorance, but due to lack of secondary thought processes. It
loses its ability to receive the inputs from his sensory organs. That yogi sees only the Lord and Lord

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alone around him. His purified mind is readied for that Supreme merger. Traces of his karmic influences
are removed, and his karmic account is totally zeroed. When the time is ripe, his soul leaves his physical
remains and merges into the Lord forever. That yogi ceases to exist once and for all. The complete
merger had happened. That yogi has become the Lord. The Lord and that yogi are not different now.
That yogis perseverance and dedication have been rewarded.
Not a single person goes unrewarded in his spiritual pursuits, provided there is sincerity, devotion,
perseverance and dedication. After all, the Lord is the embodiment of compassion. The only
precondition before the merger is that one has to become almost like the Lord Himself. The final stages
are taken care of by Him.
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Saturday, February 19, 2011

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 49 - 53


Gita Series 171: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 49 53
He, whose intellect remains unattached, who has subdued his senses and has no desires, attains
perfect knowledge to get relived from karmic afflictions, can attain the state of supreme perfection.
Learn from me, how this perfected person realises the Brahman, the supreme state of knowledge.
Endowed with pure intellect, subjugating his mind with determination, devoid of sensory gratification
and likes and dislikes, limited food consumption, controlling his speech, mind and body, ever
remaining detached, devoid of ego, violence, arrogance, lust, anger and comforts, devoid of any
materialistic possessions, remaining selfless and peaceful all the time and remaining in a secluded
place becomes fit to realise the Brahman.
Ka emphasizes three primary conditions to attain liberation and they are the non-attachment,
subdued senses and devoid of desires. Not just this, one has to be devoid of karmic afflictions as well.
Further accumulation of karma is possible only if one renounces the fruits of all his actions. Only when
one reaches this stage, he becomes eligible to realise the Self. Unless one is perfected and pursuant to
which is purified, one will not be able to reach the destination of his spiritual journey, probably
commenced in his last few births. One should never lose out this opportunity, to merge with Him.
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Therefore, Ka takes time in explaining the last part of ones spiritual journey. Brahman is an
embodiment of perfection, knowledge and effulgence. A soul has to be purified, attain knowledge and
illuminated, before it merges into Him.
One has to purify and refine his intellect. Pure intellect is the stage where one can distinguish between
the Brahman and His illusionary aspect. Brahman conceals Himself through His veil of my. Realisation
does not happen that easily, though it may appear to be easy. Many aspects of realisation are easier to
discuss and explain than to follow. Once the concept is understood thoroughly, the whole process
becomes easier. Ka now begins to explain the conceptual aspect of realisation.
Mind by nature is always tending towards senses. One has to control his mind by not crowding the mind
with too many thought processes. Ground for realisation is set only if the mind is devoid of any
secondary thoughts. The primary and the only thought should be about the Brahman all the time. When
the mind has to be subjugated, the sensory organs are easily trained to look within. If sensory organs are
allowed to function in their natural way, impressions are caused in the mind. Mind should be made
devoid of any impressions. Instead of listening to the external sound, one has to practice to listen to the
sound of OM within. Instead of using the biological eyes, one has to learn to use the spiritual eye, also
known as the third eye. Instead of consuming sumptuous food, one has to learn to secrete ambrosia
during meditation. These are ways to control senses as a result of which, mind is also controlled. It can
also be said the other way around.
When senses and mind are controlled, rest of the process happens on its own. When the mind and
senses are subjugated, he transcends the stage of likes and dislikes. For him, every being is nothing but
the form of the Lord. He has developed the ability to look beyond biological structures. He is not
concerned with shapes, forms and names. If one develops attachment towards gross bodies, he
develops the quality of like and dislike. When he is able to see the Brahman in everyone, all are same to
him. After all, he is struggling all these days to realise Him. His individual consciousness no longer exists
and transforms into universal consciousness that becomes ripe enough to merge with Him. When one is
moving closer towards the Lord, he automatically feels the vibrations of the Lord and at some point of
time, during the last leg of his journey, he imbibes the effulgence of the Lord and the final stages of his
liberation is taken over by the Lord Himself. The Lord is so compassionate He is unwilling to let one of
His true seekers to slip back during the last moments of his union with Him. The yogi (he is no more an
aspirant) now begins to consume less food. He literally lives on the ambrosia secreted from his top head
chakra. He perpetually remains in the state of bliss. He does not need food at all, but he knows that he

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cannot destroy his body that sheaths the Lord within. He is not able to go around and procure his food.
He is not able to talk; he is not able to use his mind either for other purposes as the Lord has completely
pervaded his mind. All his human qualities begin to disintegrate. He remains detached to his very
existence pursuant to which he becomes devoid of ego, violence, arrogance, lust, anger and comforts.
He clearly understands that materialistic possessions cause attachment and sheds every one of them.
He is now a completely purified person. Literally, he becomes like the Lord. He has no interest either in
his body or in the materialistic world. He moves into the repeated bouts of trance and at one point of
time, he remains in the stage of trance perpetually, strongly bonded with the Lord within. His mind and
body are completely rested and remain in total peace. He moves into a secluded place. He is all alone
with the Lord. When his karmic afflictions are exhausted, the Lord makes his soul to merge with Him. He
longer exists and his body is consumed to the Nature from which it originated.
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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 45 - 48


Gita Series 170: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 45 48
"When one performs his duty perfectly, he becomes eligible for realising the Self. Now, listen to me for
the ways to attain this perfect stage. A person attains perfection when he worships the Lord, the source
of all beings and all pervading, through his ordained duties. It is better to perform ones prescribed
duties, though imperfectly, than performing others duties perfectly, because one does not accumulate
sin if he performs his ordained duties. One should never abandon his prescribed duties, though done
with imperfection. Like smoke engulfing fire, all actions are marred by demerits.
Every human being is classified under the four categories. This classification is not based on ones
lineage, but purely depends upon his inherent quality. Duties are prescribed based upon ones inherent
qualities. For example, a person with great valour should engage himself in protecting the boundaries of
his country rather than performing the duties of other classes. A person with complete knowledge of the
Lord should not waste his time in bordering his countrys boundaries. In both the cases, the country is
the loser.

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Ka says that even one does his ordained duties with blemishes, he does not accrue sins. The
imperfectness of the initial stages will get rectified through experience and will finally lead to perfection. If
one finds his inherent quality is to serve others, then he should not aspire to plunge into a commercial
venture. If one has a great interest in God realisation, he should not waste his capabilities by indulging in
administrative activities. The inherent nature of a person is important in choosing his line of action, and
by doing so he does not accrue any sin, though there are mistakes while discharging his ordained
duties. If one pursues an activity against his inherent nature, though it may appear to be perfect in the
beginning, over a period of time, he ends up in catastrophe. Assuming that his actions are perfect while
indulging in duties against his inherent nature, he still accrues karmas for having disregarded his
inherent qualities and for having abandoned his ordained duties. By doing so, he also accrues sins for
having failed to perform his prescribed duties. Ones karma and impressions of past births determine
the type of quality one imbibes.
All types of actions have blemishes. No action is perfect. If one thinks that all his actions are perfect, it
means that he is afflicted with egoism. Fire, by nature will have smoke around it. If there is no smoke,
then it means no fire. In the same way, every action will have its own shortcomings. However, these
mistakes can be rectified with practice, like fire becoming less smoky with dry logs. Practice alone leads
to perfection. When perfection is complete, that man is ready for liberation. Total perfection can be
attained only if he pursues the path destined by his inherent nature and not otherwise. It is also important
to remember that one should not get attached to the fruits of his actions, even though he performs his
ordained duties.

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Friday, February 18, 2011

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 40 - 44


Gita Series 169: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 40 44
There is no being on earth, or in the heaven or among the gods, or elsewhere
without the three gua-s, originated from Prakti.T Men are classified under four
broad categories based upon their inherent qualities, based on the three gua-s.
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Subjugation of mind and senses, enduring hardships for the discharge of ones
prescribed obligations, both internal and external purity, forgiveness, honesty,
V RAVI
behaviour, belief in Vedas and Sacred Scriptures, faith in God and life after death
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all these constitute the inherent duties of brhmaa-s. Gallantry, fearlessness,
firmness, cleverness, solemnity in battles, bestowing gifts and leadership
qualities are the inherent duties of katriya-s. Agriculture, breeding of cattle and
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business are the qualities of vaiya-s. Offering their services to other three
classes is the inherent duty of dra-s.
LALITA SAHASRANAMA

The entire creation is intertwined with the three types of gua-s. Prakti has all the three gua-s in equal
proportion. When Prakti conjoins a soul, a creation is made and depending upon the predominance of
a particular gua, his quality is determined. One has got the ability to alter the predominant gua. The
determination of gua in a person largely depends upon ones karmic account and impressions of subtle
mind. Without the presence of gua-s, existence is impossible.
The entire humanity is being classified under four categories, depending upon the inherent qualities
present in them. This classification is not based on ones birth or lineage, but purely on their qualities.
Due to ones efforts, one can move from one gua to another gua. Any one of these classifications
cannot exist on its own and has to depend upon the other three for a peaceful and safe co-existence.
Brhmaa-s are those who actively engage themselves in gaining and imparting knowledge of the
Brahman. By controlling mind and senses, they perform sacrifices on behalf of others. In the process of
learning, they endure hardships. Their very purpose of existence is only for the sake of the society. They
set an example for internal and external purity or purity of mind and body. They are supposed to be the
embodiments of honesty and straight forwardness. They should have immense faith in the Lord and
through understanding about souls. They stand as a connecting link between the Lord and His creations.
They have to be compassionate and should not be greedy. Their main source of income is their fees for
rituals and secondary source of income is the gifts given by other groups. They should set examples and
make others follow the right spiritual path.
The next category is katriya-s. They have inherent quality of leadership and they are basically the class
of warriors, who are capable of protecting ones mother land from enemies. They should remain
fearless, not only against the enemies but also against the wrong doers of his own country. Their main
responsibility is to keep their citizens happy and to ensure plenitude in their administration. The great

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epic Ramayana is based on these principles. They have to offer gifts to the other three classes of men.
A countys prosperity depends upon its commercial acumen. Third category known as vaiya-s, take
care of agricultural production, commerce, milk and milk produce. They engage in trade with other
countries and ensure that all the basic needs are available to their fellow countrymen at a price that they
can afford. Their inherent quality is commerce and economics.
The fourth category is the work force. In todays scenario this category can be compared to those of the
employees, workers, skilled labourers, etc. They offer their services to the other three classes. They form
the backbone of every economy. A countrys prosperity depends upon their dedication, sincerity and
loyalty.
Only if all the three classes live in absolute harmony, a country can prosper. None of them is considered
as superior or inferior. A person who excels in his class is highly respected. With the process of aging,
there is a possibility that one class may move to other class. For example, a king, after ruling his country
for years, may decide to seek the Lord and may enter into the path of spirituality. In this case, a katriya
becomes a brhmaa. In the same way, a brhmaa, if he is unable to pursue the path of spirituality
could go for employment. When disharmony, mistrust and hatred prevail, that country will be heading for
disintegration and becomes susceptible to attack by enemies.
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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 36 - 39


Gita Series 168: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 36 39
Now, listen to me on the three types of happiness. That in which the spiritual practitioner by means
perseverance finds happiness in practices such as the devotion, meditation, prayers, service, etc.,
thereby he reaches the end of his sorrows, though appears like poison in the beginning, tastes like
nectar at the end. This happiness is sattvic in nature, as it arises from ones purified mind due to the
realisation of the Self. The happiness that arises from the senses though appears as nectar in the
beginning, eventually becomes poisonous. This happiness is rajasic. The happiness that originates
from delusion, excessive slumber, obdurate and slothfulness is said to be tamsic in nature.

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After having categorised actions, doers, intellect and fortitude, Ka begins to categorize happiness
under three gua-s. With this, categorisation under the three gua-s is completed. Out of the three guas, sattvic, rajas and tamas, sattva gua is the best one, that is to be followed by all the sincere spiritual
aspirants. The other two gua-s do not purify the mind and amplify egoism.
Law of karma is supreme and having born with karmas, one has no choice except to go through the
unfoldment of karmic account The person who aims for liberation has to ensure that his karmic account
does not swell any longer. Therefore, he chooses to pursue the path of devotion by renouncing the fruits
of his actions. He gradually loses the concept of doer ship and leaves everything to the Lord. He refines
and purifies his mind by resorting to meditation, prayers, service to the Lord, etc. Though he may find the
initial stages of his spiritual life as painful, ultimately he reaps the benefits of his perseverance and
dedication. When one can attune his mind with the Lord, irrespective of the intensity of his sufferings, he
does not feel the pains of his sufferings. Initially, one will find the spiritual path as very challenging,
particularly control of the senses. Ultimately, when he succeeds in his attempts, he always remains in a
state of bliss, the reward for his perseverance and dedication. At this state, the aspirant is very close to
the Lord, awaiting his turn to become liberated. However, he has to wait, until his karmic account is
exhausted. The intensity of happiness that immerses him at this stage is sattvic in nature. A spiritual
aspirant who is devoid of wants can comfortably reach this state of happiness.
A person, who indulges in sensory pleasures, will be happy in the beginning, but as time runs out for his
exit from his present body, he begins to realise his mistakes. By that time, his mind would have been
totally corrupted with un-erasable impressions that get manifested in subsequent births as well. Sensory
pleasures, beyond the permissible limit cause serious inflictions in ones present and future lives. The
initial joy in such cases, invariably lead to irreparable miseries. Such temporary and deceptive
happiness is said to be of rajasic in nature.
When a person is inert and derives happiness out of delusion, excessive sleep, unwilling to mend his
wrong doings, remaining stubbornly remorseless and unwilling to work, if at all he derives happiness, this
happiness is classified as tamasic happiness. Such kind of men is to be discarded and deserve no
sympathy from the society. Their very presence will cause serious depletion of positive energy levels.

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Thursday, February 17, 2011

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 33 - 35


Gita Series 167: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 33 35

The one with absolute resoluteness controls the functions of his mind, vital breaths and senses is
sattvic in nature. The one with resoluteness gets attached to the fruits of actions to enjoy materialistic
life with bondage and attachment is rajasic in nature. The one with absolute resoluteness and wicked
mind always remain in a state of slumber, fear, anxiety, sorrow and arrogance is tamsic in nature.
Ka after having classified actions, actors and intellect, now proceeds to classify fortitude under the
three gua-s. Fortitude is one of the four inherent virtues derived from nature and the other three being
prudence, justice and temperance. They vary from person to person and ultimately determine the
character of a person. Any quality or action can be classified broadly under the three gua-s that are
present in prakti Fortitude means the strength of ones mind.
When one can focus his mind towards the Lord, leaving aside other thoughts, he will be able to realise
the potency of his inner power. In order to aid the process of conquering the mind, control of breath and
senses is necessary. When the breathing is slow and deep, the mind becomes calm. When the
breathing is fast and shallow, the mind is afflicted with too many thoughts. Sensory inputs leave lasting
impressions in the mind, if objects are looked at with desire and attachment. The one, who is able to
control his mind, breath and senses with a single pointed focus on the Lord, this type of fortitude is called
sattvic fortitude. It not merely the fortitude that is important, but the thought process is far more
important. The classification of fortitude is based on the thought process.
The one, who focuses his mind on satiating his materialistic desires and on the fruits of all his actions, is
said to have rajasic fortitude. His main focus will be pleasures and comforts. He spends lesser time for
realising the Self. They derive satisfaction in performing religious rites. All his actions are done with a
limited purpose in mind. He is incapable of surrendering the fruits of his actions to the Lord as he
believes that fruits of his actions will pave the way for his liberation.
T
he one with tamsic fortitude is engrossed in lethargy and laziness and lives without a purpose. He lives in

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his own world and unwilling to understand the reality. As he is incapable of discrimination, he immerses
himself in the sea of miseries and sorrows. His mind always remains wicked, causing the spread of bad
energy in and around his place of living. He commits mistakes after mistakes and spends his precious
life fearing all the time. This physic fear induces him to indulge in more and more evil actions and
ultimately his karmic account sweeps over him to cause his abominable end.
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Wednesday, February 16, 2011

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 29 - 32


Gita Series 166: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 29 32
Listen to me while I explain the classification of intellect and fortitude based on the predominance of
each gua. The one, whose intellect is sattvic, is one who is able to understand the paths of action and
renouncement, what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, the difference between fear and
fearlessness and bondage and liberation. The one, whose intellect is said to be rajasic, is not able to
understand what is dharma and adharma and what is to be done and what is not to be done. The one,
who understands adharma as dharma and looks at all things in a perverted manner, his intellect is
tamasic in nature.
Ka after having classified all actions and the performers of actions under three types of gua-s, now
proceeds to classify intellect under the three types of gua-s.
When a person is able to distinguish between actions performed with desire and actions performed with
intent to renounce, his intellect is said to be sattvic in nature. One has to have an intellect that has
acquired the ability to discriminate. If the intellect is devoid of ability to discriminate, realising the Lord is
not possible, as one should be able to discriminate between my and reality. The intellect is a product
of mind and if the mind remains pure, the intellect automatically attains the capacity to discriminate.
Realising the Self can happen through two ways. One is by performing actions like charity, rituals, etc
prescribed by Scriptures. However, these actions are to be performed with no intent on the fruits of
action. The other one is to renounce all the karmas and stay eternally connected with the Lord. Generally,
one should enter the spiritual life by following the precepts of Scriptures and after gaining versatility over
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them, should enter the final stage of renunciation. True spiritual aspirant, blossoms forth as yogi, only if
this path is strictly followed. Knowledge required for realisation can be attained only by following
Scriptural dictums at the beginning of ones spiritual life. In the case of total renunciation, a renouncer
cannot perform any types of actions.A person with sattvic intellect has to understand the difference
between the two and has to pursue these paths at the appropriate times. If one does not have
knowledge to discriminate between the two, he will remain as a confused person. Therefore, in spiritual
pursuit, mere intention is not enough; one has to have adequate knowledge and capacity to discriminate.
All actions are classified as good and bad according to the precepts of the Scriptures. One has to have
sufficient knowledge of the Scriptures, so that he knows what can be done and what cannot be done.
Fear is inherent nature of any being. One cannot fear for everything in life. A man with knowledge can
discriminate between what is to be truly feared and what is not to be feared. Spiritually advanced person
has the ability to discriminate and hence he will not fear for anyone except his own conscience. He is
able to distinguish between bondage and liberation. Bondage causes impressions and he ensures that
he never gets afflicted with impressions of materialistic life. As long as impressions remain, one cannot
get liberated. A person, whose intellect is endowed with these quality is categorised as sattvic.
When a persons intellect is not able to differentiate between dharma and adharma and the actions that
are approved and unapproved by Scriptures is said to be rajasic in nature. A person with rajasic intellect
cannot take appropriate decisions as his intellect is not endowed with the capacity to discriminate.
A person with tamasic intellect understands adharma as dharma. His mind is corrupted and afflicted with
immorality and sensuality. This kind of intellect cannot be corrected. They always look at the world in a
perverted manner. Most of the criminals continue to be criminals in their life because of tamasic intellect.
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Tuesday, February 15, 2011

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 26 - 28


Gita Series 165: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 26 28
The doer, if free from attachment and ego, full of firmness and enthusiasm, unconcerned with
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success and failure is sattvic. The doer, who is full of attachment and greed, with intent on fruits of his
actions, impure, vicious and affected by happiness and sorrow is rajasic. The doer, who is devoid of
self-control, arrogant, deceitful, indulges in robbery, lazy, despondent and procrastinating is tamasic
in nature.
Ka further explains about the characteristics of three types of doers. All the actions depend upon the
nature of the doer. When a person performs an action without the thought of the doership, with
determination and with vibrancy and without concern for its result, he is said to be of sattvic quality. He
fully understands the impermanency of his physical body. He also knows that neither his body nor the
Self within is the doer. He is fully aware that all his actions are due to his karmic account. What he had
sown in his previous births is being reaped by him, either good or bad in the present birth. He also
knows that by staying connected to the Lord all the time, he does not accrue further karmas. He is a man
of knowledge and is said to be sattvic in nature. One should not give room for malefic thoughts, as they
are more dangerous than malefic actions.
When one performs an action with full of attachment and greed with impure and vicious mind and with
intent on the fruits of his actions, he is said to be rajasic. He allows his mind to stay connected only with
the results of his actions. If the result is not in his favour, he becomes angry and expresses his anguish in
different ways. If the result of his action turns out to be in his favour, he becomes jubilant and expresses
his happiness also in different ways. He is concerned only with the end result of an action and not with
the action itself. He is always concerned with his ill-founded pride. If one decides to renounce the fruits of
actions, a rajasic person becomes tamasic in nature.
The third category is the one who is devoid of self-control, full of egoistic arrogance. They are like
animals and indulge in beastly actions. They are unfit to be classified as humans, as they are unable to
control their senses. Self control is the quality that is unique to humans, which they are devoid of. They
make their living by laying their hands on others hard earned money. They have no inclination to work
and remain sedentary. They postpone all the actions indefinitely out of lethargy and laziness. They are
classified as tamasic in nature. They are beyond salvation.
Ka classified all the actions under three gua-s in the previous section. In the present section, He
classifies doers under three gua-s. Action is not possible without a doer. Action and the actor together
determine the quality of an action. All the three gua-s are present in all the beings. But, one of the three
gua-s alone predominates. A man is known by the predominant gua in him.

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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 23 -25


Gita Series 164: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 23 25
Those actions that are prescribed in Scriptures done without the thought of doership, without
attachment, without prejudice and without concern for fruits of such actions are sattvic in nature. Those
actions that are performed with immense strain, with intent on the fruits accruing out of such actions
and with egotism are rajasic in nature. Those actions that are performed out of ignorance, beyond
ones capacity, without considering the consequences on self and others are tamasic in nature.
All the actions are classified under the three gua-s. Those actions that are performed merely to follow
the Scriptural directives, without the thought of doership, without concern for the fruits of actions, without
prejudice are classified as sattvic in nature. One has to be unselfish while performing actions that are
classified under this category. Actions are classified not on the basis of actions but on the intent of the
performer. If a person chooses to do charity for publicity, it is not considered as sattvic in nature, even
though the act of charity is sattivic.
If actions are performed beyond ones capacity, both physical and financial, in order to reap the accruing
benefits and in the process causing inconvenience to others are classified as rajasic in nature. Such
acts are nothing but the arrogant exhibition of ones pride. Any action done with a sense of doership
does not confer merits. The end results of such actions are nothing physical and financial strain. If one
performs any action beyond his capacity, he only accrues only bad karmas. Many festivities and rituals
come under this category. Lord never wants anyone to propitiate Him with material offerings. He longs
only for unstinted love.
Those actions that are performed out ignorance, with immense physical, mental and financial strain,
causing hindrance to others, without thinking about the consequences of performing such acts are
classified as tamasic in nature. By performing such stupefying acts, one ends up in financial debts and
physical miseries. At that time, neither the Lord nor those who were with him, come to his rescue. This is
a typical example of digging ones own grave.
All the actions should be done without ego and pride, with humility and without causing inconvenience to

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others, within ones physical and financial capabilities and without intent on the fruits of actions. Such
actions should have the approval of the Scriptures. If any acts performed in contravention of this,
ultimately yield only irreparable sorrows and miseries.
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Monday, February 14, 2011

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 17 - 22


Gita Series 163: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 17 22
The one, who does not have the thought of doership, whose mind is not attached
to materialistic objects and actions, though destroys beings, is not affected by
sins accruing out of such actions. The triad - knower, the knowledge and the
object of knowledge induces an action and another triad - the agent, the organs
LALITA SAHASRANAMA
and the activity forms the components of an action. As per Skhya philosophy,
V RAVI
the knowledge, the action and the doer are classified as three kinds in
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accordance with the three types of gua-s. Listen to me carefully. That by which
man perceives the undivided and imperishable Supreme in all the beings is
sattvic in nature. That by which man perceives different beings of the universe as
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different entities is rajasic in nature. That by which man perceives only the body
as if it were the whole, is irrational, trivial and without reasoning is tamasic in nature.
If one becomes devoid of ego and remains unattached to materialistic objects, is absolved of all the sins
resulting as a result of performing his actions, including killing his enemies. This statement is particularly
addressed to Arjuna by the Lord, as Arjuna is hesitating to slay his enemies comprising of his cousins
and teachers. Ka had already said that Arjuna merely remains as a tool in killing them as the period
of their existence is already over, as determined by their own karmas. At this stage, if we say that Lord is
responsible for their death, it would not be appropriate, as the Lord has clearly said that Self is not
responsible for any of the actions. Every person creates his own karmas and according the accrued
karma, he undergoes either pleasure or pain or both.
Karmas are of three types. One is the sum total of all the karmas acquired during different births. Out of
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this grand total, a portion is carved out to be spent in the present birth. The third one is the carried
forward karma which is calculated as grand total +/- accrued karmas in the present birth. To attain
liberation, the sum total of the karmas is to be zeroed. A person, who is not concerned with the fruits of
his actions, but still performs his prescribed duties, does not accumulate karmas. Becoming unattached
to the fruits of actions can happen only through a purified mind. As long as one suffers from attachment
and desire, he continues to accumulate his karmas. His future karmas become more than the sum total
of his karmas that he brought in at the time of the present birth.
Skhya philosophy begins by saying, The absolute cessation of the threefold pain is the absolute aim
of the Soul. There are a number of instances where Skhya philosophy deals with triads. It is only the
Skhya philosophy that enumerates tattva-s or principles. An action can be performed only if there are
three factors present - knower, the knowledge and the object of knowledge. Knower is the one who is the
doer, knowledge is the one with which the doer performs as an action and the object of knowledge is the
one for which an action is performed. Let us take the example of realisation of the Self. Knower is the
person who makes attempts to know the Self. Knowledge is the tool that he uses to realise the Self;
meditation comes under this category. The object is the Self, for whose realisation the doer performs
different actions, such as meditation. This triad is also called the knowledge, the known and the knower.
Without all the three, no action can happen, hence it is said that these three induces an action.
There is another triad which is called the components of an action. They are the doer, the organs and the
action itself. A doer has to perform an action with his organs. Let us take the example of walking. The
doer walks (action) with his legs (organs). Skhya philosophy classifies the doer, the action and the
knowledge into three categories as per the inherent gua-s, sattvic, rajasic and tamasic. The one who
sees the entire creation as the Brahman is sattvic in nature. The one sees the creation as different
entities is rajasic in nature. The one who gives importance only to the gross bodies is tamasic in nature
and he is considered as a man of total ignorance. The reality is that the entire creation is nothing but the
reflection of the Brahman. If one looks at his image in a mirror, he sees his image. The image is illusory
and the person who sees his image is the reality. There exists no two persons, the one is the reality and
the other is illusory. The one who believes that the image is another person, he is considered as
ignorant. In the same way, the Brahman is seen everywhere and in every object. This explains the theory
of omnipresence of the Lord.
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Sunday, February 13, 2011

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 12 - 16


Gita Series 162: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 12 16
The three kinds of fruits of actions good, evil and mixed accrue after death, to those who have not
renounced. But, for those who have renounced, nothing accrues after death. Arjuna, there are five
types of causes for accomplishment of all actions, as per skhya yoga. They are the seat of action,
the doer, sensory organs, functions of different organs and destiny. These five are the contributory
factors for any actions, either right or wrong, performed by a person through his mind, speech and
body. This being the reality, the one who thinks that only the Self is the doer is afflicted with perverted
intelligence, does not understand the truth.
For every action there is equivalent reaction that gets recorded in ones karmic account. Karmic account
not only records the results of ones actions, but also his thoughts. Karmic afflictions of malicious
thoughts are far more powerful than malicious actions. Since thoughts originate from the mind, it
signifies the status of ones mind. Unless the mind is purified, realisation and consequent liberation is
not possible. When a soul is not liberated, it causes transmigrations. When a soul gets embodiment, the
body undergoes pains and sufferings, but the soul remaining within remains the same, irrespective of the
number of embodiments it takes due to the embedded karma. The sufferings and pains are only for the
gross bodies and the mind. Karma does not cause agonies alone but also causes pleasures and
happiness. It is also possible that one undergoes happiness and sorrow, either together or separately or
alternatively. Karma is nothing but a tool that records ones thoughts and actions, which is replayed
either in the same birth or during subsequent births. There is no way that one can escape from the
clutches of karma, except when one renounces the fruits of his actions. Actions do not cause karma,
whereas the attachment to the end results of actions cause karmas. Hence, renunciation is prescribed
as a remedy to avert karmas. The reactions in the form of karmas could be good, bad or neutral,
depending upon the quality of actions performed without intent to renounce the fruits accruing to such
actions. In order to attain liberation, one should not be concerned with the fruits of his actions.
For every action, there are five components. They are the field of action, the gross body; the doer, the
subtle body, comprising of mind, intellect, consciousness and ego; sensory organs organs of
perception and action; functions of these organs like seeing, walking, etc; and destiny or the will of the

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Lord. Let us take an example as to how these five components together cause an action. The gross
body is the shell of an automobile. The fuel is the subtle body. Gross and subtle bodies are
interdependent and the one without the other is not possible. Without the fuel, the vehicle cannot move.
The fuel alone does not make the vehicle to move. The fuel makes the engine to function and only the
engine of the vehicle is the sensory organs. The engine does not make the vehicle to move. The kinetic
energy produced by the engine makes the vehicle to move. This is the functionalities of the organs. The
fifth one is the destiny. Destiny is nothing but the unfoldment of ones karmic afflictions. Destiny decides
the destination of a person and in the same way, the one who is at the wheels decides the destination of
the vehicle. The concept of actions can be understood with ease with this analogy.
Effectively all the actions, either right or wrong, are performed through the perfect coordination between
mind, speech and body. The mind decides, the speech conveys the decision of the mind and the body
carries out the decision of the mind. For example, a person decides to visit his friend. He conveys his
decision to his friend through a phone call and then drives to his friends place. Therefore, every action is
decided by ones own intellect and not by the Lord. Self is merely a witness to all the actions carried out
at the command of the mind. Self neither influences nor modifies nor disapproves any of the actions.
Every action done with ego gets recorded in ones karmic account that gets unfolded either in this birth
or in the subsequent births. If the same actions are done without ego, then karmic accounts does not get
affected. If one believes that whatever is destined happens at the will of the Lord, then he is mistaken.
Ones destiny is decided by his actions alone and the Lord never decides ones destiny or fate.
Everyone acts according to the law of karma, known as the Law of the Lord.
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Saturday, February 12, 2011

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 7 - 11


Gita Series 161: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 7 11
One should not stay away from those acts that are obligatory in nature. Non performance of such acts
due to ignorance is tamasic in nature. When one renounces these actions out of bodily discomforts, it
is rajasic in nature and the fruits of such acts do not accrue to him. When one performs such acts as
his duty , without attachment to the fruits of such actions, is said to be sattvic in nature. The one who
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does not hate bad actions or likes good actions is truly wise with all his doubts cleared, and is said to
be a man of true renunciation. Since all actions cannot be given up in totality as long as one exists
with a gross body, the one who renounces the fruits of all his actions is a man of renunciation.
Prescribed actions are of two kinds, optional and obligatory. Obligatory actions are those actions that
are considered as essential. For example, maintaining ones family is obligatory in nature. If a person
finds it difficult to take care of his aged and ailing parents, it is a clear shirking of ones obligatory duty.
Such grave sins are considered as tamasic in nature, the worst among the gua-s. Ones obligatory
duties should be performed without fail. Such responsibilities should never go unperformed due to
laziness or bodily discomforts. These types of responsibilities are not carried out mainly because of
laziness and lack of time. When one says that he does not have time, it means that he has not come out
from the clutches of illusion and ignorance. If one is not able to manage his time, he cannot pursue right
spiritual path. Spirituality is not meant for people who are lazy and docile in nature. It means that they are
engulfed by darkness and it is difficult for them to move away from darkness. They become addicted to
laziness and lethargy and get sunk to the deeper levels of ignorance. They are said to be tamasic in
nature.
Ka makes a difference between non-performance of obligatory actions due to ignorance and
laziness. Non-performance due to ignorance is tamasic in nature and non-performance due to
sluggishness or any other bodily discomforts is rajasic in nature. In both these cases, fruits of any of his
actions do not accrue to him. But the one who performs such acts as his duty without any intent on the
fruits of such actions is said to be sattvic in nature, the best among the three gua-s. The one who fails to
perform obligatory acts out of ignorance is rajasic, the one who fails to perform obligatory acts due to
body discomforts that include lethargy and laziness is tamasic and the one who performs all the
obligatory duties without any intent on the fruits of such acts is sattvic. Shirking ones responsibilities out
of ignorance, lethargy and laziness are frowned upon by Ka. The one, who performs all the prescribed
duties without concern for the fruits of such actions is said to be a person of true renunciation.
There are two kinds of actions in the world. One is good actions and the other one is bad actions. Good
and bad are relative terms from the point of view of others and not from the point of view of the person
who performs such actions. Good actions pave way for peaceful coexistence and harmony and bad
actions cause mental and physical afflictions on others and cause enmity and hatred. Bad actions
invariably leave bitter impressions on the one who indulges in such acts. Ka says that the one who
does not hate bad actions nor likes good actions is a truly renounced person. A truly renounced person

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is beyond likes and dislikes.


A person with a gross body cannot be without performing actions. Actions are the platform on which
ones karmic account is unfolded. If one performs an action with an eye on end result of that action, he is
bound by karma. If an action is performed without intent on the end result of an action, irrespective of the
end result, karmas that arise while performing such actions do not accrue to him. Therefore, one should
continue to perform actions that are prescribed as precepts by Scriptures, unattached to fruits of such
actions is a truly renounced person. Actions in the present context refer to ones duties as a true human
being and not the sacrificial rites and rituals.
One should also understand that non-performance of rituals and rites out of laziness does not permit a
person to begin his spiritual journey. Spiritual journey should be commenced with a strong foundation.
No progress can be made in spirituality if one merely says that God exists everywhere and there is no
need to appease Him by performing rituals. Such thoughts are only hallucinatory in nature, as these
thoughts are shallow and do not originate from strong affirmations from ones experience.
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Friday, February 11, 2011

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVIII. 1 - 6


Gita Series 160: Chapter - XVIII. Verse 1 6
The eighteenth chapter is the concluding chapter of Bhagavad Gita and is known as
mokasannysayoga and has 78 verses. Mokas means liberation and sannysa means
renunciation. When a soul gets itself relieved from transmigration, it is called liberation. This chapter,
more or less appears to be the essence of the previous chapters. This chapter emphasises the
importance of remaining unselfish and unattached to attain liberation.
Arjuna said, Ka! I want to understand the essence of renunciation and relinquishment and the
difference between the two.
Ka replied, Sages say that giving up materialistic desires is called renunciation or sannysa.
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Some wise men say that giving up fruits of actions is called relinquishment or tyga. Yet others say
that all actions have inherent sins and therefore should be given up. Others say that activities like
sacrifice, charity and austerities should never be given up. Arjuna, understand from me the truth about
relinquishment or tyga which is of three kinds. Sacrifice, charity and austerity should not be given up
and must be performed as they purify even the wise. But, either these activities or other activities
should be performed without attachment to the fruits of these actions. This is my considered opinion,
Arjuna.
Ka begins to answer Arjunas question that arises in the minds of many spiritual seekers. There are
certain acts prescribed by scriptures such as nurturing a family, acquiring wealth for sustaining his family,
etc. These actions are not obligatory, but are only optional. The only obligatory act is nourishing ones
gross body, mainly because it encases the soul within. This is what true sannysi-s do. They eat not to
satiate their taste buds or appetite, but to keep the encasement of the soul in a perfect condition. Rest of
the actions are all desire oriented. If one develops desire for materialistic way of life, one desire always
leads to another with no end to desires in sight. Such persons cannot pursue a true spiritual path, as they
will have many mental distractions. The end to spiritual life is attained only through mind.
There is no major difference between renunciation and relinquishment as both are devoid of selfishness.
But, it is often interpreted that renunciation is discarding materialistic way of life. Only materialistic life
causes the multiplicity of desires. When the mind is bombarded with desires, it loses its ability to focus
and concentrate, the fundamental requirements of spiritual life. There are also views that involving in any
type of action is sinful as it is said that every action has its inherent sin. Based upon this theory, many
advocate that one should refrain from all types of actions, as performing an action increases ones
karma. Practically, this theory is not feasible as one cannot sustain oneself without action, as it
tantamount to inertia or darkness. Darkness is the source for ignorance, the major negative factor for
spirituality. Scriptures prescribe certain sacrificial rites as ones duties. If one stays away from these
duties, it tantamount to discarding the precepts of Scriptures. Hence learned men are of the view that
one should perform the rites prescribed by the scriptures and should never be given up.
Ka says that renunciation is of three kinds, sattva, rajas and tamas, and under no circumstances one
should keep away from sacrifice, charity and austerity, as they purify the mind. These are the
opportunities made available to test ones capacity to renounce. All the actions should be performed
without any intent on the end result of actions. This is how the process of renunciation and relinquishment
begins, which ultimately leads to purification of mind and consequent realisation.

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Thursday, February 10, 2011

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER XVII. 23 - 28


Gita Series 159: Chapter - XVII. Verse 23 28

Shiva Sutras
V Ravi
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OM, TAT and SAT are the threefold representations of the Brahman and from
That alone Vedas, Vedic scholars and sacrificial rites have originated. Hence,
during the acts of sacrifices, gifts, austerities approved by Scriptures and during
Vedic recitations, OM is uttered in the beginning. TAT is recited by those who aim
for liberation while performing sacrificial rites, austerities and charities without
intent on the fruits of these actions. SAT is recited by those who perform the
above acts with faith and on behalf of the Brahman. The above acts performed
without faith and devotion is termed as ASAT, which is of no use here and later.

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Krsna elucidates OM TAT SAT. OM which is popularly represented as is the


mystical sacred syllable representing the Brahman. Tat means that and Sat refers to the reality of the
Brahman. Om Tat Sat is a sentence with three separate words, each of them representing an aspect of
the Brahman. As already discussed, the Brahman has two aspects; one is Purest form and another
illusory form, often known as my. Purest form of the Brahman is known as Para-Brahman or the
Supreme Brahman. Om Tat Sat refers to Para-Brahman.
Om represents the Supreme Creator. Tat represents His act of creation and Sat represents existence.
Everything originates from Om, the Absolute. From the Absolute arises universe or the universal truth.
The Absolute, though remaining as Absolute all the time, gets universalised in the form of creation is Tat.
When the creation becomes a Reality, it is known as Sat. If Om is the vibratory force of creation, Sat is
the soul and Tat is the intelligence. Therefore, OM TAT SAT refers to the creative aspect of the
Brahman. None of three words are associated with ego of the self. They mean only the universality, as
opposed to individualism.
Out of the three, Om is used during all sacrificial rites, during sacred chants of Vedas, at the time of

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giving gifts, etc. Om indicates auspiciousness. Without the recitation of Om, no ritual is complete or no
mantra becomes effective. When TAT is recited, it means non-attachment. When one performs an action
without attachment to the fruits of his actions, Tat is uttered. Tat also means liberation of the soul freed
from bondage and attachment. The egoless stage of a person is indicated by Tat. Sat refers to the
Reality of the Absolute or the Supreme Brahman and His creation. When a person becomes devoid of
ego, freed from attachments and bondage, he begins to act on behalf of his Creator. Sat is the stage of
cosmic consciousness, the perfect platform to attain liberation.
Ka concludes this chapter by saying that any action, be it sacrificial rites, be it charities, be it
austerities, be it penance, done without faith and devotion is called asat Asat, the opposite of Sat,
means unreal. From unreal nothing can emerge and unreal always remain as unreal only. Unreal is of no
use not only in this birth, but also in the births to come, as it has karmic implications. While pursuing
spiritual path one should have absolute faith coupled with determination. What is pursued without faith
can never be attained. Faith and devotion get transformed into love for the Lord. Love for the Lord is an
important turning point in realising the Self. Spiritual pursuit is not something that can be taken lightly.
Spirituality is the only tool available to permanently exit from the pains of transmigration. One should not
waste the opportunity of human birth to attain final liberation, as liberation can happen only through mind,
which is a unique property of mankind alone.
CHAPTER XVII OF BHAGAVAD GITA CONCLUDED
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