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Tuesday, December 21, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 7 - 10


Gita Series 101: Chapter -IX. Verses 7 10
Arjuna, at the time of dissolution, all beings enter My Prakriti and at the commencement of creation, I
send them back. Managing My Prakriti, I again and again send this multitude of beings, subject to
their karmas. But, Arjuna, these actions of Mine do not affect Me, as I am unattached and indifferent to
such actions. Having Me as Her supervisor, Prakriti produces both sentient and insentient beings and
because of this the world revolves.

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Prakriti is the Primordial Nature, where creation unfolds. Prakriti is the Mother Nature. A soul is a part of
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Prakriti is the Primordial Nature, where creation unfolds. Prakriti is the Mother Nature. A soul is a part of
the Supreme Soul or the Brahman. When a soul has to manifest, it has to conjugate with Prakriti. At the
time of this colligation, karma embedded in a soul gets imbedded in that gross form along with the soul,
ready to manifest at the appropriate time. Karma and soul can never be separated. At the time of death,
the soul leaves the body along with the embedded karma and the body is absorbed by Prakriti. But,
Prakriti is not something different from the Lord, but part of the Lord. If Prakriti is considered as different
from the Lord, the omnipresent nature of the Lord would be lost. Lord is the static energy and Prakriti is
the kinetic energy originated from the Static Energy. That is why Krishna says My Prakriti. At the time of
creation souls are sent to impregnate Prakriti. At the time of annihilation everything gets dissolved into
Prakriti which goes back to the Lord. When the annihilation is complete, there remains the Lord alone, all
alone, as He is always.

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At the time of re-creation, the reverse process happens. The Lord first segregates Prakriti from Himself.
He then creates souls yet again to impregnate Prakriti and the process of creation continues for millions
of years to get annihilated again. Creation and dissolution are like childs play to the Lord. Krishna says
though He creates all the beings, their nature and quality is determined by their past actions that get
embedded in their karmic accounts. It is not the Lord who determines the quality of a person. A persons
thoughts and actions get recorded in his karmic account. Karma can be compared to an aircrafts black
box, where every minute detail of the flight gets recorded. The common saying what you sow is what you
reap is nothing but the reflection of ones karmic account. If one thinks good and does good, his karmic
account does not give him pains and miseries. Evil thoughts and actions cause serious affliction in
karmic account that manifest as pains and miseries either in this life or in subsequent lives. Having
associated with evil thoughts and actions, an ignorant man prays to the Lord for eradication of his pains
and miseries. He fails to understand that he alone is responsible for his miserable state. Brahman offers
only liberation and He does not answer prayers. Only ones thoughts and actions are answers to his
prayers. This is the divine law and the whole universe is bound by this law. Devotion is the best way to
seek His mercy. That is why Krishna says all beings are subjected to karmic law. Though the Lord is the
Supreme, still according to the karmic law, He is bound by His own acts. Karmic law does not bind Him,
but for the sake of argument, He does not get Himself attached to His own actions. Though He performs
creations, sustenance and dissolution, He remains indifferent to His actions. Hence, His own actions do
not affect Him.

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Krishna also says that He is not directly responsible for creation and sustenance as He supervises these
acts through His own creation Prakriti. Prakriti derives energy from the Brahman. The energy derived by
Prakriti is the Lords own energy and none other than the Lord has that kind of potent energy. Lord has

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merely transferred His own energy to Prakriti to effectively administer the universe. If one desires to
merge with the Lord, he has to necessarily go through Prakriti, who alone is endowed with power to
reveal the Lord. Prakriti on its turn produces both sentient and insentient things that are born and
dissolved alternatively, till Prakriti considers that a soul is ripe enough to merge with the Brahman.
Prakriti herself takes that soul to the Lord to merge with Him forever, though Prakriti is not different from
the Brahman Himself. Otherwise, Krishna would not have said My Prakriti.

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Monday, December 20, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 4 - 6


Gita Series 100: Chapter -IX. Verses 4 6

LALITA SAHASRANAMA
V RAVI

The whole universe is pervaded by Me in My unmanifest aspect. All beings


abide in Me, but I am not present in them. No! All these beings do not abide in
Me. They behold My divine power of yoga. Though I am the Creator and the
Sustainer of these beings, My tma do not dwell in them. Just as the wind moves
everywhere in ether (k) still remains in ether, all the beings originated from Me
abide in Me.

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Fundamental of creation is being expounded by Krishna. He talks about His


omnipresent nature. If something is omnipresent, obviously it has to be the subtlest
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and formless. A comparison is drawn to ice and water. Just like water pervading
throughout ice, the Lord interpenetrates the universe. Unmanifest aspect of the Brahman is His formless
form. Brahman is smaller than the smallest and bigger than the biggest. Every existence, be it sentient or
insentient is pervaded by Him. He controls all the three aspects, creation, sustenance and dissolution.
The universe uses Him as the support to expand. When He says that the whole universe is pervaded by
Him, it means His subtle form. When He says that all beings abide in Him, it refers to gross form. This
saying of Krishna confirms Katha Upanishad which says that He is smaller than the smallest and bigger
than the biggest. This reflects the omnipresent nature of the Brahman. He is the source of energy for the
universe. Without this highly potent energy, there is no creation, sustenance or dissolution.
Krishna says that all beings abide in Him, but He is not present in them. He further says that all beings
abide in Him and subsequently says that all things do not abide in Him. There is an apparent
contradiction in what He says, possibly indicating the secrecy. On the face of these statements, one may
notice the contradictory nature, but in reality this contradiction is harmonized. The Brahman is the
creator, the sustainer and the dissolver. He does not perform these acts on His own. All these acts are
done by His power of yoga. For example, clouds depend upon the sky for their existence, but clouds are
not always present in the sky. In the same way, beings depend upon Him for their existence but He is not
present in them. Sky is not in the clouds, but without the sky clouds cannot exist. Like sky giving support
to the clouds, Brahman extends support to the universe. The whole universe was created out of His yogic
power and the Lord merely acts as the supporting power. Though, the entire creation is within Him, yet,
He is far beyond them. Still the entire creation does not have any other support other than Him.
Therefore, it is logical to say that the entire creation abide in Him. Whatever is visible is nothing but the
Lord Himself, as without Him, objects cannot be seen. Objects are nothing but His own reflection, but
they are not the Lord. That is why Krishna says that all beings originate from Him as He alone supports
them, yet He is not in them as they are only His reflections. Now it can be understood that there is no
contradiction in what the Lord says. All the beings abide in His yogic power, His kinetic force. He
remains all alone, invisible to anyone, yet casting His power on everyone, eternally remaining without a
form.
Therefore, scriptures say that the Brahman is to be realised through His various vibratory and life
sustaining forces. Trying to understand this Reality is spiritual pursuit. He compares His omnipresence

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BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER X. 37 42
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER X. 32 36
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER X. 27 31
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IX. 23 26
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER X. 19 22
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER X. 12 18
BHAGAVAD GITA.

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to the ever persisting air in the ether that originated from the ether. In the same way, all the beings
originated from Him always persist in Him. Though beings persist in Him, He does not change and
always remain the same, like ether remaining always the same, though air always prevails.

BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER X. 10 11
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER X. 6 - 9
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER X. 1 - 5

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BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IX. 33 34
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IX. 29 32
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IX. 25 28
MERRY CHRISTMAS
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IX. 22 24
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IX. 20 21

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 1 - 3


Gita Series 99: Chapter -IX. Verses 1 3
Chapter IX of Bhagavad Gita is known as Yoga of Sovereign Science and Sovereign Secret. This
chapter has 34 verses and considered as very significant.
Arjuna, as you are devoid of quibble, I shall now disclose to you the secret knowledge of both nirguna
and saguna Brahman, by knowing of which, you shall be freed from all worldly miseries. The
knowledge of both nirguna and saguna Brahman is a royal science and royal secret, the holiest, most
excellent, directly enjoyable, virtuous, easy to practice and imperishable. Those who do not have faith
in this dharma do not attain me, causing further transmigrations.
Arjuna is a good student of Krishna. He does not pose irrelevant questions to Krishna, thereby wasting
the precious time of both the master and the student. The significance of pursuing spirituality with strong

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BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IX. 16 19
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IX. 15
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IX. 11 14
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IX. 7 10
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BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IX. 4 6
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IX. 1 3
BHAGAVAD GITA.

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foundation is indicated here. Faith is one of the foundational aspects of spirituality. Faith leads to
determination, will power, steadfastness, etc. Since Arjuna has immense faith in his Master, Krishna is
willing to declare to Arjuna the royal secret about the Brahman without attributes or niguna Brahman and
Brahman with attributes or saguna Brahman. If one is able to understand the mysteries of the spiritual
path, the spiritual goal can be easily attained. There is no point in traversing a path, without knowing its
destination. Unless one has complete knowledge about the path he is traversing, he cannot reach the
destination with ease. Krishna highlights this point here. He says that knowing the proper spiritual path
and pursuing it properly will free a person from worldly miseries. Worldly miseries do not end up in this
birth alone, but also rears its head in every subsequent birth. The only solution to this is liberation.
Krishna says spiritual experience is enjoyable, as the aspirant enters blissful state when he makes
substantial spiritual advancement. Bliss unfolds when the aspirant begins to develop the direct
experience with the Lord. Spirituality has both theoretical and practical aspects as a result of which one
first gains knowledge. As a result of acquiring knowledge, the aspirant begins to feel the experience with
the Lord. The spiritual knowledge or the knowledge of Self realization is not like worldly knowledge that
is subjected to modifications. The spiritual knowledge alone helps an aspirant to avoid transmigrations.
That is why Krishna says that such knowledge alone is the holiest as it leads to liberation. For the same
reason, He calls it as sacred, virtuous and permanent. Having elucidated the importance of divine
knowledge, Krishna also says that it is easy to practice. Spiritual knowledge alone is permanent as it
alone leads to liberation.
From the next verse onwards, Krishna is going to explain the intricacies of the highly revered spiritual
knowledge.
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Saturday, December 18, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VIII. 27-28


Gita Series 98: Chapter -VIII. Verses 27 28
No yogi gets deluded by knowing the secrets of these two paths. Therefore
Arjuna, at all times remain firmly in yoga. The yogi who truly understands the
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BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VIII.
27-28
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VIII.
23-26
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VIII.
20-22
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VIII.
15-19
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VIII.
11-14
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VIII. 9 10
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VIII. 6 8
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VIII. 3 5
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VIII. 12
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VII.
2730
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SAHASRANAMA
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EDITION
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VII. 23
-26
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VII. 18
- 22
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VII.15 17
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VII. 1214

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LALITA SAHASRANAMA
V RAVI

merits of these two paths transcends all the rewards ascribed in the scriptures to
the study of Vedas, performance of sacrifices, austerities, charities, and attains
the beginningless supreme state.

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These two verses are the summing up of this chapter. Krishna has declared two
paths, one is the path of light and the other one is the path of darkness. The first
path is pursued by the wise and the second one is chosen by the ignorant. The
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illuminated path is the path of no return and the smoky path is the path of return. The
yogi, who has really understood the Lord, purifies his mind by steadfastly fixing his mind on the Lord all
the time, ignoring the sensory influences to cause any impressions on the mind is able to cut across
desire, passion and attachment proceeds further towards the ever illuminating form of the Lord. His sole
aim is to merge with the Brahman as he knows the miseries and pains of life that is caused by indulging
in the material world. The yogi also knows that the pleasures of the materialistic world is not eternal and
crumbles along with the body. The yogi has become wise by continuously working through his mind and
realised that the Brahman alone gives the lasting solution of liberation. Therefore, the yogi chooses the
right path, the path of light. As a result of choosing the path of light, he has gained enough knowledge
and wisdom to stay connected with the Lord all the time, by simultaneously carrying out his worldly
duties. He clearly distinguishes between the Real and illusionary world. As a result of his knowledge, he
knows where to keep his consciousness at the time of his death. At the time of death, he is able to fix his
consciousness more firmly with the Lord, as a result of which his soul traverses through the illuminated
path, honoured by different deities like the lord of fire, the sun, etc. Finally, he merges with the Brahman
and his further transmigrations come to an end. Hence Krishna tells Arjuna to become a yogi, always
contemplating on the Supreme Self.
The union of Self with the self can be contemplated only through proper meditation. What is needed is
only dedication and sincerity on the part of the aspirant. Krishna says even knowing of Vedas,
performing sacrifices, austerities and charities do not yield quicker results than contemplating the Lord
all the time. A perfect meditation transforms a yogi in stages making the yogi immersed in His bliss
always. He utilizes the opportunity available to him at the time of his death and he fixes his
consciousness on the Lord, rather more powerfully and firmly this time, to integrate with the Lord forever.
CHAPTER VIII OF BHAGAVAD GITA CONCLUDED.

BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VII. 8 11
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VII. 4 7
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VII. 1 3
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VI. 44 47
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VI. 40 43
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SAHASRANAMA KINDLE EDITIONS
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CHAPTER VI. 37 39
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VI. 35 36
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER VI. 33 34
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CHAPTER VI. 3132
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CHAPTER VI. 28 30
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CHAPTER VI. 24 27
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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VIII. 23-26

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Gita Series 97: Chapter -VIII. Verses 23 26

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Arjuna, I shall now tell you the different paths pursued by yogis at the time of leaving their bodies, one
to return and another, not to return. Self realised persons, at the time of relinquishing their physical
body, follow the path of fire, light, day time, bright half of the lunar month, six month period of northern
course of the sun and go to the Brahman. They are led to the Brahman by these presiding deities.
The other path is where yogis leave their bodies during smoke(smoke is generated due to improper
fire), night, the dark fortnight of the lunar month, six month period of southern course of the sun and
are led by the presiding deities of the above and reach the moon. After exhausting the effects of their
good karmas, they come back. The two paths, the bright one and the dark one are eternal. Proceeding
through the first of them, the yogi reaches the supreme state never to return. Proceeding by the other
one, he returns to the mortal world.
There are two type of interpretations for these stanzas. General interpretations talk about time factor like
day time and night time, bright and dark lunar fortnights and northern course and southern course of the
Sun. According to this interpretation, if one dies during bright time, he reaches the heavens and if one
dies during darkness, he reaches the hell. As the time of death in not in our hands, these verses of
Krishna cannot be interpreted on the face of it, but one has to look deep into these verses. It is also said
that those who leave the mortal world during brightness reach the heavens, where gods live and those
who leave during darkness reach the world of ancestors at Moon, to be born again.
There are two paths after death. One is to merge with the Lord and another is to come back to earth
again, after experiencing the reward for his past deeds. The latter refers to the sojourn of the soul in the
higher planes of the cosmos and begins its transmigration again. These verses also say that one
presiding deity hands over the soul to another deity till the destination of the soul is reached. If an attempt
is made to expand the significance of exercising control over the soul one deity after another, it could
mean gradual liberation or krama mukti. His liberation becomes gradual, but steady. It beings with the
least powerful light to the most powerful Self illuminating light. This is the path of no-return where the soul
becomes one with the Brahman.

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The second path is the path of darkness which leads to the world of ancestors. This world is presided by
the Moon. Moon always refers to sensual pleasures, which means that the soul has not been totally
purified yet, to become fit enough to merge with the Brahman. His spiritual path is not yet complete,
though he has made considerable spiritual progress. As a result of this considerable spiritual progress
he reaches the Moon, continues to enjoy there and takes another birth to continue his spiritual journey
from where he had left during his last life. He perfects himself during further births and proceeds towards
the path of light for liberation. But a perfected yogi goes through the illuminated path in stages to
ultimately merge with the Brahman.
The choice of the path is decided on the basis of ones karmic account. Brightness indicates knowledge
and darkness indicates ignorance. Brightness leads to the Brahman and darkness leads to
transmigrations. The concepts discussed in these verses are explained in great detail in Prana
Upaniad.
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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VIII. 20-22


Gita Series 96: Chapter -VIII. Verses 20 22

SHIVA SUTRAS
V RAVI

Far beyond this unmanifest, there is yet another Unmanifest, which is eternal and
does not get destroyed even when the entire beings are annihilated. The same
Unmanifest is also known as Supreme Goal, My abode. Those who attain this
highest state of Mine, are not reborn. Arjuna, that eternal Purua (Purusha), within
whom all beings exist and by whom all this is pervaded, is attainable only through
steadfast devotion.

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Before proceeding with discussion on these verses, let us hear what the Living
Master says about Brahmaloka, which has been discussed in the previous posting.

Brahmaloka is a little above the Mytattva (tattva 6). As it is "still" material, it never touches the
tattva 5, which is not material but completely spiritual. Therefore, being Turya a level belonging to
tattva-s 3 to 5, where there is "still" a universe to be witnessed. Hence Turya is the Witness or the state
of the Self as a Witness. In tattva-s 3 to 5, the ones who attained Turya have baindavadeha-s or

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bodies composed of Bind, which is not material but spiritual.


Turytta is beyond Turya and therefore beyond the universe, whether in its material (tattva-s from 6 to
36) or spiritual (tattva-s from 3 to 5). Turytta is the very state of iv and kti. Both are aspects of
the Highest Reality known as Paramaiva. Hence, Turytta is the highest state a being can attain.
Brahmaloka is only a little about My, the deep sleep of ignorance. Even so, the limited beings
cannot attain Brahmaloka except making tremendous efforts. Turya and Turytta can only be
achieved by the most eminent among the sages.
The Unmanifest that has been discussed in the previous posting is not the ultimate. The unmanifest
referred in the previous verse refers to tasmt avyakta. Tasmt means that and avyakta refers to
primordial nature or productive principle. Now, Krishna says that there is One beyond this. He has
already made subtle references to this One in earlier verses as well. Now He elaborates on this. (The
Living Master again clarifies the difference between Brahm and Brahma. Brahm refers to the Creator and

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Brahma refers to the Ultimate Reality. He also says that by using Brahman to mean both the creator and the

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the highest Reality and not the creator who unveils of the act of creation. The creator is referred by Brahm.)

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What Krishna refers in this verse is the Brahman, the Ultimate Reality, much beyond human
comprehension. This Ultimate Reality does not get annihilated during annihilation. He is eternal. During
the process of annihilation, everything, including prakriti gets absorbed into the Brahman. After
everything is annihilated, He alone remains in His full glory. When the process of annihilation is
complete, He alone remains as bright as ever and as same as ever, in spite of the fact that, the entire
sentient and insentient things got absorbed unto Him, including Brahma.

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Brahman is also referred as Purusha by Krishna. This Purusha is the Supreme Goal for the purpose of
liberation. One gets liberated by merging with the Truth, Knowledge and Bliss, by which He is known. He
does not have a form. Krishna says that He can be attained only by pure devotion. Devotion is nothing
but total surrender unto Him.
The Brahman can be summed up as the one who is the Supreme in everything. For example, He is the
embodiment of truth, knowledge, bliss, etc. That is why Taittirya Upaniad says that Truth, Knowledge
and everything else is Brahm. Krishna says that liberation can also be attained by pure devotion.
Devotion is comparatively easier way to get liberated from transmigrations. But the devotion should be

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pure and humble. The Lord does not like pomp and vanity. Krishna addressed these verses in His
capacity as the Brahman or Brahma, the Supreme Lord.

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Part 2: This is a very pertinent
point for discussion. This can be
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from the

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Thursday, December 16, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VIII. 15-19


Gita Series 95: Chapter -VIII. Verses 15 19

LALITA SAHASRANAMA
V RAVI
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only the stotra without chanting


poorva bhagam and palasturti?
is there any specific

Those who are highly perfected merge with Me and are not subjected to rebirth,
which is the abode of sorrow and perishable. All the worlds from Brahmaloka
downwards are impermanent. But those who reach Me are not reborn. Yogis know
that Brahmas day time is several times longer than human day time and
Brahmas night time is several times longer than human night time. At the dawn of
Brahmas day all, the beings emanate from the Unmanifest and at the time of
Brahmas night all the beings merge into the Unmanifest. Arjuna, the
innumerable beings, in accordance with their intrinsic nature, is being born again
and again during the day of Brahma and repeatedly gets dissolved during
Brahmas night.

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Krishna continues to talk about rebirths. He says that the completely perfected souls merge unto Him
and are not reborn. Transmigration is only for the souls. Gross forms that hold the souls within are not
transmigratory in nature. Once the gross forms perish, they perish for good. During the next birth, the soul
attains a different physical form, not necessarily a human form. If the souls karmic account is highly
contaminated, it undergoes several quick transmigrations and experiences the pains of birth and death
more frequently. Insects and moths have short duration of life. Those who remain ignorant do not
understand the theory of transmigration and continue to indulge in evil thoughts and actions. Evil thoughts
are worse than evil actions. Krishna says that any type of existence is full of sorrows and is always
painful.
Krishna proceeds to say that those who are unable to attain the Brahman but reach any world up to
Brahmaloka are reborn. It is important to understand lokas from its original perspective. Loka means
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world. Lokas in this context mean different levels of ones consciousness. Different worlds represent
different levels of consciousness. The lowest level of consciousness is ones active state, when the mind
is most active. Brahmaloka is the penultimate state of consciousness, say level of turytta. The state of
turytta can be explained as the state of ones consciousness where differentiation is completely
dissolved and the whole universe appears as the Self. Even at this stage, one is subjected to
transmigration. Beyond turytta, there is the ultimate level known as kaivalya. This is where one merges
with the Brahman and further transmigrations of the soul comes to an end. Kaivalya is known as Krishna
consciousness. Only in the kaivalya stage, one merges with the Brahman. Again, the merger with the
Brahman does not happen by entering kaivalya stage off and on. Entry into kaivalya stage has to be
perpetual for the cessation of transmigration. Therefore, Brahmaloka downwards mean the level of
consciousness from turytta to normal active state. If one fixes his consciousness in any of these states,
he is bound to be reborn. For the ultimate merger with the Brahman, however one has to transcend all
these states.
The day and night of Brahma refers to the cosmic cycle. Day means action and night means inertia. Day
means knowledge and night means ignorance. The Holy Bible also says In the morning it flourisheth,
and groweth up; in the evening it is cut down, and withereth. (Psalms 90:6). Both Krishna and Christ
have said this not without reasoning. It is said that one celestial day is equivalent to 360 terrestrial days.
One human year is equivalent to one day and one night in the Brahma loka. This is with reference to time
and space. When a yogi crosses time and space, he is not affected by terrestrial days and nights.
Several celestial years form a yuga. There are four such yugas. At the end of yugas, the entire universe
up to Brahmaloka gets annihilated. For the next yuga, creation is made afresh by the Brahman. Except
Brahman and His cosmic energy, everything else gets annihilated. The expansion and contraction of the
universe is directly related to light and darkness. Expansion happens during light and contraction
happens during darkness. The Bible also unravels this process in Genesis.
Krishna says that all the beings, due to their inherent nature of ignorance, deluded by darkness are
unable to attain wisdom. Such ignorant men continue to dwell in darkness and subject themselves to
innumerable transmigrations and undergo pains and miseries. Krishna says that knowledge is a
prerequisite to transcend time and space to merge with the Brahman. When knowledge is attained, the
mind is cleansed and the process of Self realization begins. The duration of this process purely depends
upon ones perseverance and dedication.
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Tuesday, December 14, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VIII. 11-14


Gita Series 94: Chapter -VIII. Verses 11 14

SHIVA SUTRAS
V RAVI
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I shall declare in brief, what the knowers of Vedas say as Immutable, That, into
which ascetics wish to enter for which celibacy is practiced. Having closed all the
doors of the senses, holding the mind in the heart, fixing prana in the head and
remaining steadfast in yoga, he who leaves the body uttering OM, the symbol of
the Brahman, remembering Me in My attribute less form, attains the Supreme
Goal. Arjuna, I am easily attainable by those, who constantly think of Me with
focused mind.

Krishna further explains about what one should do at the time of his death. After all,
every ones ambition is to merge with the Lord, not be born again to undergo the
miseries. The sufferings of humanity increases as the days go by. The only available way to avoid
transmigration is to merge with the Brahman. This process becomes not possible unless one transforms
himself more or less as the Brahman. Shiva Sutra explains this state as just like Shiva. In the previous
verses, we have seen that a soul gets purified at ajna chakra, when it is ripe enough for the merger with
the Brahman. When it comes to the merger with the Brahman, a soul has to be totally pure. Divine
purification of the soul happens at ajna chakra, only if the soul is already purified by human efforts.
Krishna explains about human efforts.
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First, one has to practice celibacy. Procreation is one of the acts of God, which he executes through a
male and a female. If everyone abstains from sex, the first and primary act of the Lord would be
defeated. A man has several duties while he advances in age. As a student, he acquires worldly
knowledge. As a grown up man he earns to sustain himself and his family. Later, he gets married and
begets children. After certain age, when his duties are over to his parents and to his family, he is set to
commence his spiritual journey. He meditates more and tries to explore the Lord. Only at this time, he
refrains from sex. This is for the common man who carries out his normal duties. Sages and saints do
not carry the responsibility of procreation, as the God sends them to propagate spirituality. Their
assignment in the world is totally different.

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At the time of commencement of spiritual journey, a religious man gradually gets transformed into a
spiritual man and his real quest for the Brahman begins. When he begins his this journey, he has to
renounce his desires and attachments. These two will never allow a person to advance in his spiritual
journey, as they are associated with senses. That is why Krishna advises to shut the door for senses.
There are nine sensory openings in our body. They are two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, organ of
excretion, organ of procreation and mouth. When Krishna advises to shut the door for senses, he means
that usage of these nine senses should not cause any impressions in the mind. These senses should not
be put into excessive usage, beyond what they are meant for.
When Krishna refers to death, it is meant that the process of death occurring at the ripe age. It is said
that a person is quite aware when the process of death is initiated in his body. His mind is already
purified because he is already practicing celibacy. At the time of death, he has to fix his entire
awareness in his heart, where the soul is said to reside and getting ready to leave the body. He has to fix
his prana in the head, through which the soul makes its exit from the body. When prana is fixed in the
head between ajna chakra and sahasrara or the crown chakra, the awareness fixed in the heart is also
automatically drawn towards prana. Soul and prana join together at this place to make a peaceful and
painless exit from the body through brahmarandhra, the orifice at the top of the head. Soul and prana
always exit together. While this process is happening still within his body, the person should mentally
chant the sacred OM, the Brahman in the form of sound, contemplating not on the form of Krishna, but on
His nirguna form, His form without any attributes. Such a person attains the Brahman. Unless a person
has advanced very significantly, he cannot contemplate on the Lord at the time of his death. This also
depends upon ones karma. Krishna declares that such a process is available to humanity. But if ones
karmic account does not permit, an aspirant will not even come across this verse of Bhagavad Gita.
Naturally, if one is not aware of what is to be done at the time of death, he loses the opportunity of this
birth.
Krishna says that attaining the Brahman is easier. It depends upon the depth of ones devotion and
ability to concentrate on the Brahman and Brahman alone. If the mind is subjected to oscillation, ability to
focus does not become perfect.
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Monday, December 13, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VIII. 9 - 10


Gita Series 93: Chapter -VIII. Verses 9 10
He who meditates upon Omniscient, the Eternal, the Ruler of the universe, subtler than the subtlest,
the One who sustains the universe, having a form beyond human comprehension, radiating like the
sun, beyond the darkness of ignorance, at the time of his death, fixes his prana by the power of his
yoga, in the place between his two eye brows, contemplating on the Lord with a steadfast mind that is
full of devotion, reaches the Supreme Effulgent Lord.
Krishna now describes the Lord and the means to attain Him. Lord cannot be described even by using
any number of superlative degrees. The Brahman can at the most be explained as the Supreme
amongst all the known objects to humanity. He is Omniscient because He knows past, present and future
of everyone who exists in the universe. Though the universe originates from Him and dissolves unto Him,
He never undergoes any changes. He is subtler than the subtlest and is the cause of creation. Because
of this, He is omnipresent and supports and maintains the universe. Without Him, the universe cannot
exist. Because He is subtler than the subtlest, He is ubiquitous. He is called as the Supreme Ruler
because He creates, sustains and dissolves the entire universe. He alone is Self-illuminating. Sun and
other luminaries derive light from Him alone. Because every superlative degree is used to describe Him,
He is beyond ignorance. Ignorance is the quality associated with perishables only. Immutable is beyond
ignorance. He has to necessarily have these qualities, as everything originates from Him. When one
becomes embodiment of something, then only he can share with others. The same principle applies to
the Brahman. Because He is complete in everything, He is able to give everything to the universe. What
one does not have, cannot be shared with others. In spite of all these superlative degrees used to
describe Him, still He is beyond human comprehension. He creates, sustains and dissolves the universe
based on several automated mechanisms. Let us take for example, the law of karma. The Brahman
need not decide the quality of every being. His quality is determined by the law of karma. Another
example is the creation of five basic elements ether, air, fire, water and earth. It is not that everything
appeared on a single day like a magic. Upanishads affirm that ether came into existence first, from ether
air was created, from air fire was created and from fire water was created and from water earth was
created, from earth food is being created on which the universe is being sustained. Such meticulously
operated principles are beyond general human perception. Hence the Lord is considered as the
Supreme. He is the source of every energy that exists.

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When a person, at the time of his/her death should fix his/her awareness in between the two eyebrows,
the life energy called prana rushes to this point of focus. The basic principle in kundalini meditation is
fixing awareness in different psychic chakras. When awareness is fixed on a chakra, the prana rushes to
that point and activates that chakra. The highly effective point of concentration is the place between two
eyebrows, known as ajna chakra or third eye. This is the place where pineal gland is placed in a human
body. Pineal gland can be explained as the gland of divinity and when this gland is energized, it gets
illuminated and it draws necessary cosmic energy for illumination from the Self. The third eye is the place
of commands. Ones mind can be easily conquered, when ajna chakra is activated. A highly qualified
meditator can fix his consciousness on ajna chakra and can get whatever he needs or heals, whomever
he wants to. Ajna chakra is a very powerful tool available to mankind. That is why Krishna says to fix
ones consciousness at this place. The Lord notices all those who fix their consciousness at ajna chakra.
The soul gets its final purification at ajna chakra for its ultimate merger into the Brahman. Brahman being
the embodiment of purity, no partially purified element can merge with Him. Hence, the soul undergoes
final purification process at ajna chakra. When ones consciousness is fixed on the third eye, his
consciousness becomes steadfast at this point without wandering elsewhere. When the process of
death unfolds, one has to fix his awareness at the third eye, where the soul undergoes final purification
and gets endowed with God consciousness as he is already contemplating on the Lord at this point.
When his soul leaves his body, it is not only purified, but also endowed with full of divine qualities, so as
to merge with the Brahman in no time. That soul is not born again and is absorbed into the ever radiating
Lord Himself. The whole process takes just a few seconds. Lord is always compassionate and the
difficulty is that His compassion is not utilized properly to redeem ourselves.
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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VIII. 6 - 8


Gita Series 92: Chapter -VIII. Verses 6 8

Lalita Sahasranama

Arjuna, thinking of whatever entity while leaving his body at the time of death, that
alone one attains in his next birth, as he is always absorbed in that thought.
Therefore, Arjuna think of Me all the times and fight. With mind and intellect set
on Me, you will undoubtedly come to Me. Arjuna, he whose mind is perfected by
practicing yoga, thinking nothing else except effulgent Purusha, attains Him.

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Krishna now talks about rebirth. At the time of death, a process associated only with
the gross form, soul leaves the body. A body without a soul is like electrical
equipment without electricity. A person cannot develop thought of God only at the
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time of death. Thinking process embeds firm impressions in the mind and such
impression are the cause for certain visualizations and afflicted consciousness. Krishna says that at the
time of death, if one fixes his thought on anything of his choice, he becomes that, in his next birth. For
example, if one dies thinking of wealth, he is born as a wealthy person in his next birth. However, his
karma unfolds its quality during all his births. If his karmic account is afflicted, though born as rich person,
he is bound to suffer. If, on the other hand, if a person is always thinks about the Lord, even at the time of
his death, he thinks about the Lord. Thought about the Lord arises at the time of death, only if his mind
has Godly impressions. Having said that, Krishna proceeds to explain, as to how this can be achieved.
Krishna says that one should fight against his mind. Mind, as already discussed, is always prone to
sensory influences. If such influences are allowed to cause impressions in the mind, then it becomes
difficult to restrain the mind. One has to fight against these impressions to focus his consciousness. If the
impressions are allowed to become deep rooted, they begin to act through sensory organs again. This
makes a person wicked not only in thoughts but also in actions. Krishna says that in the beginning itself,
restrain the mind, before it becomes too late to fight against its impressions. He also gives solution for
this normal human tendency. He says that one should always think about the Lord. This does not mean
that he should not think anything else. The thought of the Lord should be powerful so as to override
sensory influences. As long as senses function, they are bound to cause influences on the mind. Without
the help of the mind, no one can function. But, at the same time, if mind is brought under the control of the
senses, the mind becomes susceptible to addictions. At that stage, the mind becomes irreparable. A
person with an irreparable mind loses the greatest opportunity to effectively utilize the God given
opportunity to overcome the pains of rebirths. Both birth and death is always painful. In order to avert too
much of sensory influences, ones attention is to be fixed on the Lord. Ones intellect plays a dominant
role here. Intellect is the refined product of mind and has the ability to differentiate between good and
bad. It has the ability to discriminate real from illusionary. The mind generates intellect by practicing one
pointed attention, which is called meditation. Meditation is called yoga because it paves the way for
mentally uniting self with the Self. Unless Self is fully realised and understood, self cannot become one
with the Self. By persistent practice of meditation, mind can be conquered. A conquered mind alone has
the ability to reach higher levels of consciousness or highly focused awareness. To sum up, the highest
level of consciousness can be reached in the arena of mind, where Krishna is realised. It is also called

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Krishna consciousness or Christ consciousness or whatever name one likes.


How the formless Lord is to be contemplated? Focusing on a formless form is extremely difficult than
focusing on a gross form. But, as we know that the Lord is extremely subtle, in conformity with the theory
of His omnipresence. For the purpose of liberation, He has to be contemplated as Self illuminating light,
His subtle form. But fixing ones consciousness on the Self effulgence subtle Lord can happen in stages,
provided, one takes his practice very seriously. Even when one meditates on a form of God, ultimately,
the form gets dissolved into the Self radiating Purusha, the Lord. However, this is subject to ones
knowledge and intensity of practice coupled with his freewill.
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Saturday, December 11, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VIII. 3 - 5


Gita Series 91: Chapter -VIII. Verses 3 5
Brahman is Supreme and indestructible. Individual soul is adhytma. The force that unfolds itself for
creation, sustenance and dissolution of all the beings is called karma. All perishable objects are
adhibhta. The essence of each being is adhidaiva. I am Adhiyaja, remaining as a witness in this
body. He, who departs from the body thinking Me alone at the time of his death, attains My state and
there is no doubt about it.
Krishna answers all the seven questions of Arjuna. Brahman is Supreme and is beyond time and space.
Brahman is the source of creation, the energy that sustains the creation and into which every creation is
absorbed. In spite of these three acts, the Brahman does not undergo any changes. The origin of the
Brahman is beyond comprehension. Brahman is realised as the incomprehensible energy that is beyond
sensory perceptions. At the most, the Brahman can be visualized. Hence, it is said that Brahman is to be
realised through mind. It is only due to the Brahman, the universe gets illuminated. Because of this
Illumination, all the activities take place in the universe. Brahman alone is omnipresent, omnipotent,
omniscient and Self illuminating.
After having explained the Brahman, Krishna proceeds to explain adhytma, which is also known as
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soul. Adhytma is the representation of the Brahman in a gross body. In other words, the individual
representation of the Brahman in a gross form is known as adhytma. The representation of Self as self
in a form is adhytma. Manifestation of the Brahman is adhytma. The cause of expression of an
individual personality is adhytma. The sum total of adhytmas is the Brahman. (There is an epic by
name Adhyatma Ramayana, as told by Lord Shiva to His consort Parvati). When one truly understands
this principle, he is known as a Self-realised person.
The next question of Arjuna is about karma. Karma generally means action. For every voluntary action
that is performed with desire, there is an equal reaction and this reaction is known as karma. Life unfolds
according to the quality of ones karma. Karma is an automated mechanism of Divinity, wherein, ones
actions are recorded that manifest at a prescribed time. Karma is embedded in ones subtle body that
gets manifested through his gross body. No one with intent of desire can escape the clutches of karmic
law. Subtle body also leaves the gross body along with the soul at the time of death, to enter another
shape and form. Some scholars are of the opinion that ones karma can be known by the position of
planets at the time of his birth. Whatever it is, karmic account has to be necessarily exhausted through
mind and body. The karmic law is also known as Law of the Lord.
The fourth question is about adhibhta. Adhibhta refers to all those that are perishable. This is in total
contrast to the Brahman who is eternal. When soul interacts with prakriti, the resultant factor is adhibhta.
When adhibhta is formed out of the union of soul and prakriti and both continue to remain in adhibhta.
At the time of cessation of adhibhta (death), soul goes to the place from where it has originated and
gross form gets dissolved into its point of origin, the prakriti.
The essence of every being is called adhidaiva, which is also known as purusha (purua). It is the
cosmic agent operating on a material plane. Every faculty is operated by a devata or a deity. For
example, the essences or deities of hearing, speaking, seeing, etc. The essences of senses in
conjunction with mind and intellect are controlled by adhidaiva. It is the vital energy of creation.
Krishna says that He alone remains in the body as Adhiyaja. Arjuna asks two questions regarding
Adhiyaja, who is Adhiyaja and where does he dwell in the body? If Krishna is Adhiyaja, then where
does He reside in a body? He resides in His subtle form inside the body, witnessing the actions of the
body. Without His presence within as Self, no gross form can function. He remains as the energizing
factor of a form, without getting involved in the actions of the form either directly or indirectly.

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Based on the above interpretations, one can now understand, why realization within is important.
Brahman has two aspects. One is the gross and another is subtle and realization of the Brahman in His
subtle form is called Self-realization. Gross forms undergo modifications and ultimately perish. It is only
the subtle form that keeps the gross form functional. If the subtle form of the body is withdrawn, the gross
form ceases to exist. The energy for the gross form is provided by the subtle form within and this subtle
energy needs to be realised. When a spiritual aspirant, at the time of his death remembers the Brahman,
he attains the Brahman. At the time of death, one should not think about anything else, be it his kin,
wealth, etc and instead fix his consciousness on the Lord, the aspirant, who is worthy of calling him as
yogi, merges with the Lord forever.
This section of Bhagavad Gita clarifies why Self is to be realised within.
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Friday, December 10, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VIII. 1-2


Gita Series 90: Chapter -VIII. Verses 1 2

SHIVA SUTRAS
V RAVI
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The eighth chapter of Bhagavad Gita is known as Akshara (akara) Brahma yoga.
In the previous chapter, we have discussed about Brahman without attributes or
nirguna Brahman and Brahman with attributes or sagurna Brahman. These two
aspects of the Brahman are further discussed in this chapter. Akara in this context
refers to OM, which is also discussed in this chapter. This chapter has 28 verses.
The chapter begins with Arjuna seeking clarifications from Krishna. Krishna! What
is Brahman? What is adhytma? What is karma? What is Adhibhta? What is
Adhidaiva? Who is Adhiyaja and where does he dwell in the body? How are You
to be realised at the time of death by those who have fixed their consciousness on

You?
The questions that Arjuna poses to Krishna linger in the mind of everyone. Arjuna reaches out to the
bottom of spirituality. Unless one knows answers to these fundamental questions, his path of spirituality
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does not begin on a firm footing. True spirituality always revolves around knowledge and experience.
The knowledge of the highest order cannot be attained during the commencement of ones spiritual
journey. Knowledge and experience have to go together. Perfect knowledge leads to true experience
and the culmination of knowledge and experience is Realization. Imperfect knowledge leads to falsified
experience. Falsified experience is more dangerous than inexperience.
Taking all this into mind, Arjuna poses these questions, not only on his behalf, but also on behalf of true
seekers of the Lord. Krishna begins to answer these questions.
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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VII. 2730


Gita Series 89: Chapter -VII. Verses 27 30

Lalita Sahasranama
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Arjuna! Through delusion in the form of pair of opposites, arising from desire and
hatred, all creatures right from their births succumb to them. But those men of
virtuous deeds, whose sins have come to an end are freed from deceptive pairs of
opposites, worship Me with resolute determination. Those, who have surrendered
unto Me, wanting to get liberated from old age and death, get to know the
Brahman, the embodiment of all souls (adhytma). Those who know Me even at
the time of their death, as the One, encompassing all that is physical, astral and
spiritual, continue to perceive Me.

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Delusion arises from opposites. We call someone as good and someone else as
bad. Good and bad is a reference to qualities of concerned persons. When someone is good to us, we
call him as good and when someone hurts us, we call him as bad. Good and bad are opposites.
Sometimes, at the height of ones ego, one begins to dislike a person just because he is not looking at
him. The fact is that there is no difference in souls of all the beings, be it a man, an animal or a plant. If
one tames his mind to look at all the beings as his own self, duality gets dissolved. Duality comes to the
fore only if one begins to look at the gross forms, instead of the subtle forms of the beings. Hatred or
otherwise arises only due to the gross forms. That is why, it is said that materialistic living causes
desires and attachments. But, this does not mean that one should not lead a comfortable life. If comforts
are earned out of ones hard work, nothing prevents him to reap the benefits of hard work. What is

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required is not to get addicted to comfortable living. Addiction alone causes desires and attachments.
Addiction is one of the reasons for inducing a person to indulge in evil actions. When one indulges in evil
actions, his karmic account also swells proportionately. Such men succumb to these dyads and continue
to entangle themselves in the pains of repeated births.
On the contrary, a wise man has trained his mind to look beyond shapes and forms. He knows that
shapes and forms are only veils that cover the souls within. As there is no differentiation in souls, he is
not deluded by opposites. For him nobody is good and nobody is bad. Everyone appears to him as the
Lord. He truly realizes the principle of omnipresence of the Lord. The knowledge that he has gained over
the years, or possibly over many births and the experience that he had acquired out of the knowledge
gained, makes him to perform virtuous acts, all the time. One is instigated to indulge in evil acts only if he
is totally embroiled in ignorance. While pursuing spiritual path, first step is to acquire knowledge and the
next step is to undergo experience.
Those who have surrendered themselves to the Lord for the exclusive purpose of liberation, remain in
His consciousness all the time. They do not think about anything else. They know the pains and miseries
of old age and consequent death that happens at all transmigrations. Due to their persistent efforts, they
have come to know that surrender to the Lord is the only solution to get freed from the pains of
transmigrations. Now, they know that Lord is nothing but the sum total of all the beings, whether movable
or immovable. That is why they do not look at the gross forms, but the Lord within. This does not mean
that the Lord does not exist in gross forms. Being omnipresent, He exists everywhere. But He exists in
the form of my in gross forms, concealing His real form within.
The wise men through their solid experience always stay united with the Lord. Even during the process of
death, they continue to stay connected with the Lord. Krishna says that such men know Him in His real
form. They are freed from the pains of transmigrations and merge with Him, thereby concluding their
spiritual journey.
CHAPTER VII CONCLUDED
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Thursday, December 9, 2010

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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VII. 23 -26


Gita Series 88: Chapter -VII. Verses 23 26

LALITA SAHASRANAMA
V RAVI
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The fulfilled desires of these men of lesser intelligence granted by these gods
are perishable. Worshippers of such gods attain only those gods. But my
devotees, howsoever they worship eventually come to Me alone. These ignorant
men think that I have assumed an ordinary form and fail to understand Me as the
Supreme Spirit, the embodiment of Truth, Knowledge and Bliss and beyond mind
and senses. Because of the supreme power of my my, I stand veiled. Hence,
the ignorant are not able to understand Me as the immutable and unsurpassable
state. Arjuna, I am aware of the past, present and future of all the creatures, but no
one knows Me.

One gets material gains, if he properly worships a particular god. Another one gets something else that
he has prayed for. If a god or goddess is properly worshipped, one gets whatever is prayed for from the
concerned god or goddess. But, ignorant men do not understand that whatever the material gains they
get are all perishable at a later date. The only thing that is non-perishable is the Brahman. In other words,
if an object is bound by time and space, it is perishable. Take for example, a human birth. From the
moment the child is born, it begins the process of degeneration, though on the face of it, it may appear
that the child is growing. But, it is not growing for remaining immutable. Every change that takes place in
a child, ultimately leads to the disintegration of its physical body at a later date. The only thing that
remains immutable is the Brahman and everything originates from this Brahman and everything gets
dissolved into this Brahman. In spite of this, Brahman does not change.
But wise men understand this Reality and straightaway surrender to the Brahman. They do not resort to
any circuitous route. They have acquired real knowledge and they know what is illusionary and what is
Real. They repose faith in the Real, an embodiment of truth, knowledge and bliss. Their ultimate aim is to
get liberated, as they have undergone enough of miseries and sufferings over many of their past births.
But, the ignorant think that I am only a manifested form in a human shape. They go by their gross forms,
as their knowledge is limited to the gross forms. That is why they always seek to derive pleasure from
materialistic world, failing to understand that pleasures and comforts are not eternal, even during ones
life time.

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The ignorant men do not understand the divine potency of my. Unless one knows, what is my, its
effect cannot be transcended. The Reality of the Brahman stands veiled by my, the ever enticing
divine power. Understanding Brahman alone is not knowledge, understanding my is also knowledge.
Unless one knows what is bad, he cannot understand what is good. That which is not bad, is good. In the
same way, That which is not my is the Brahman. This is not Brahman is negation and this is Brahman
is affirmation. What cannot be seen can only be realised either by affirmation or negation. Ignorant men
do not resort to this kind of logical questioning as they do not want to move away from the materialistic
world, severely affected by my. Those who are bound by my, cannot realise the Brahman and they
clearly waste their precious human birth. Lord can be realised only in a human birth, as humans alone
work through mind.
Brahman is totally different from all the beings in this universe. He knows everything, past, present and
future, an exclusive aspect of the Brahman. No other person can claim to possess this quality. Krishna
as a divine incarnation has all the qualities of the Brahman. But as He has wantonly taken a human form,
ignorant men fail to understand His immutable and unsurpassable state. Deluded by my, they look at
the Lord as yet another human form. But the wise men in the battle field, where Bhagavad Gita is
unfolded, know Him as the Lord. For example, Arjuna knows Him as the Lord.
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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VII. 18 - 22


Gita Series 87: Chapter -VII. Verses 18 22

SHIVA SUTRAS
V RAVI
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All these four kinds of men are noble. But I consider a wise man as My very Self.
He possesses unfaltering mind and intellect, established in Me all the time and
this alone is his highest goal in his life. After many births, only during his last
birth, he realizes that everything that prevails is Me. But, such an illuminated soul
is very rare to find. Those, whose wisdom is turned towards different kinds of
desires, worship different gods and perform different rituals as prescribed for such
gods and this largely depends upon their own nature. In whatever form he
chooses to worship with dedication, I stabilize his faith in the form he chooses to
worship. Endowed with that faith, he worships that particular form of god and gets
his desires fulfilled as ordained by Me.

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Krishna has already said (verse 16) that four types of virtuous men worship Him. While saying so, He
highlights the importance of devotion. When one develops sincere devotion, he is considered as
virtuous, irrespective of his other qualities. Krishna chooses to repeat that again in this verse. He calls all
the four types of devotees not only virtuous but also noble. Devotion forms the foundational aspect of
spirituality. Devotion is nothing but the absolute faith. Ones ability to maintain the utmost faith in the god
he worships automatically enables him to make spiritual progression. Lack of faith in god and lack of
devotion are one and the same. As far as the wise men are concerned, they do not have dualistic
thought. Their entire power of concentration is always fixed on the Lord. They go beyond shapes and
forms. Those who seek liberation do not get afflicted by reposing faith in shapes and forms. They truly
understand that Lord is not bound by time and form and is eternal. Those who are bound by time and
space are perishable at some point of time. The wise men who realise this fact always remain
submerged in His consciousness. They cannot keep their minds off from the Lord even for a moment. By
doing so, they acquire the qualities of the Lord to ultimately transform as the Lord Himself. That is why
Krishna says that such wise men are His own manifestations. They are one more step away from
becoming the Lord Himself and this happens at the time of cessation of their physical bodies. At the
time of death, their souls directly merge with the Brahman.
Krishna says such mental transformation is attained only in the final birth of a wise man. The soul of that
wise man gets refined and purified over several births and gets ready for absorption into the Brahman in
the final birth. Even that wise man, who had undertaken a long spiritual journey could realise the
omnipresent nature of the Lord only in his last birth, as detained by his karma. Krishna says that such an
enlightened soul is very rare to find. This is because, the path that is be pursued is very tough and the
only prerequisite is the transformation of ones mind from its inherent nature to absolute purity. Since not
many are willing to undertake this rugged journey, wise men are very rare to find.
There is another group of persons, possibly forming the majority of the spiritual aspirants of today, who
always get associated with material obsession. The degree of their needs vary. For example, one may
want a career elevation, another may need a bungalow, someone may need better education, etc.
Depending upon their requirements, they choose different gods and worship them with a lot of rituals.
One may resort to worshipping goddess of wealth and another may resort to goddess of education.
Krishna says that He alone makes such gods and goddesses to fulfill their desires. But there is a
subjective clause, the dedication. Without dedication and faith, spirituality does not yield any results.
Krishna says that He is the cause of stabilizing faith in the aspirant and He is also the cause in making

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the concerned deity to grant boons to the aspirant. Krishna says in s subtle voice that He alone prevails
everywhere, thereby proving the omnipresent theory of the Lord.
There is a possibility for a small confusion when Krishna talks about worshipping various gods through
rituals. Rituals are associated only in the infant stages of spirituality. Rituals and religions generally go
together. Surely religion and its associated rituals lay a very strong foundation for realizing the Lord. But,
if one chooses to continuously get associated with only rituals and religions, where is the time for him to
realise the Lord? Obviously, he will be wasting his precious time in not realizing the Brahman and he
becomes the cause for postponing his liberation. Spirituality talks about the Lord or the Brahman without
attributes, who is beyond human perception. When one advances spiritually, he looks beyond shapes
and forms of the Lord. Ultimately he comes to know that the Brahman is without form, as He is not bound
by time and space.
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Wednesday, December 8, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VII.15 - 17


Gita Series 86: Chapter -VII. Verses 15 17
Those deluded by illusion become devoid of knowledge and assume demonic nature. Such foolish
men resort to evil deeds and do not seek refuge in Me. Arjuna! Four types of virtuous men worship
Me, the seekers of material prosperity, the afflicted, the seekers of knowledge and men of wisdom. Out
of the four, a man of wisdom who is always established in Me and possessing single pointed devotion
to Me is superior. I am very dear to him and he is very dear to Me.
The one who is constantly bewildered by my transforms as a person of diabolic nature. When one
does not have any spiritual inclination, he acquires demonic qualities. Krishna calls inhuman behaviour
as demonic qualities. Such men do not fear for their own conscience. They do not follow the laid down
principles of normal human life. They transform themselves as notorious and unethical characters and
cause serious disruptions in a scenario of peaceful coexistence. They make the living of other beings
miserable. Krishna calls them as demonic characters. They do not even think about the Brahman, leave
alone taking refuge in Him.
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Krishna says that there are four kinds of people who worship Him. The first category is those who seek
material prosperity. They are religious and not spiritual, as they consider material prosperity more
important than following a spiritual life, which alone could lead to final liberation. They are not willing to
renounce. Their sole aim is to go on multiplying their wealth for generations to come. They are not even
willing to share their material wealth with those who are in dire need of it. In other words, they are also
known as misers. They pray to God only for material prosperity. They are not even willing to spend on
God! God is not willing to mend their ways.
The second one is the afflicted. They resort to God for their miseries, not knowing that they are subjected
to miseries due to their karma. During their happy times, they do not even think about God. But at the
time of their miseries they hang on to God. God does not accede to their prayers. God always remains
as a Judge. In the court of the Lord, not only evil doers, but the thinkers of evil also get punished. A
question may arise as to why God always remains partial. He is not surely partial. God goes by the
principle of surrender, by subjugating ones ego. If one sees God in whatever he sees or affirms that the
God is the doer of all his actions, God is willing to respond. Such men do not ask for favours from the
Lord. God voluntarily offers remedy.
Third category is those who seek knowledge. The knowledge that they seek is not the ordinary
knowledge. They seek the knowledge to realise the Lord. They have begun their spiritual journey and
quite a distance is to be covered for their liberation. They have not yet renounced worldly attachments.
The fourth category is those who have completed the process of knowledge acquirement. They live with
the Lord all the time. They are the realised souls. They do not think anything apart from the Brahman.
They live always in bliss. They are in the form of the Lord Himself. For them, Lord is not different from
their selves. The individual self and the cosmic Self are one and the same. But they continue to exist till
the balance in their karmic accounts is exhausted. Once their karmic accounts are nullified, their body fall
and their soul merges with the Brahman forever. Krishna says that not only He is close to them, but also
they are very dear to Him. Being close to the Lord happens at the penultimate stage of spiritual path that
ultimately culminates when the aspirant becomes very dear to the Lord Himself and merges into Him, not
to be born again.
Krishna calls all the four kinds of men as virtuous as the Lord does not differentiate amongst His
creations.

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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VII. 12-14


Gita Series 85: Chapter -VII. Verses 12 14
Whatever the beings born with sattva or raja or tamo gunas, know, that these gunas originated from
Me. Though they originated from Me, in reality I am not in them. The beings are deluded by the
effects of these gunas. Hence, they fail to know Me, as immutable and distinct from them. This is
because, the divine illusion comprising of these three gunas is difficult to transcend. However, those
who perpetually take refuge in Me alone are able to transcend my illusion.
Krishna not only gives sermons, but also gives guidance. A real spiritual master is the one who teaches
out of his own experience. The word master is now embellished with the newfound epithet guru, who
merely shares what he has memorized from the sacred readings. But, when one speaks out of his own
experience, makes all the difference. However, in this busy world, people do not find quality time to study
the sacred scriptures, these gurus are of immense help in kindling ones spiritual quest.
Krishna is totally different from both types of masters, as everything originates from Him. He is the divine
incarnate. So, whatever He teaches assumes great significance. In the previous verses, prakriti has
been discussed. Prakriti is endowed with these gunas in equal proportion. As a result of souls union with
prakriti, a being is born. Such a being, in the beginning has all the three gunas in equilibrium. As it
grows, only one guna predominates and this is how a character of a being is determined. When one has
more of sattva guna, he turns out to be soft and pious. When one has more of rajo guna, he becomes
hyperactive and aggressive and the one with more of tamo guna remains in inertia. Krishna says, though
they originated from Him, He does not abide in the gunas, as He is beyond them. Here, Krishna makes
a subtle difference between the Brahman with attributes and without attributes. Guna can be explained
as quality. When Krishna is said to be beyond qualities, He is referred as the nirguna Brahman or the
Lord without attributes. Divinity has two forms, one with attributes and another is without attributes. The
one with attributes originate from the one without attributes. The universe can be sustained effectively,
only with both prevailing together. The one without the other becomes ineffective. The Lord with attributes
assumes more importance, as the whole universe revolves only around attributes. Generally, masculine
gender is attributed to the Lord without attributes and feminine gender is attributed to the Lord with
attributes. Though in reality, it is not so, in order to go with the known process of creation, gender

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differentiation is ascribed to the Lord for His different acts.


The Lord with attributes is also known as the illusionary form of the Brahman. The illusion is also known
as my. The nature of my is to cause deception in the minds of all the beings. A spiritual aspirant
makes attempts to go past the influence of my to realise the Brahman without attributes. Only the Lord
without attributes is to be realised and He is referred as the Self. However, realising my becomes a
precondition to realise the Self. Without knowing what is bad, one cannot refrain from bad. Knowing what
is good and bad is called knowledge of discrimination. My acts as a veil covering the Self. Unless one
understands the effects of my, it is difficult to go past my, the ultimate destination of spirituality.
During the process of knowing the effects of my, a true spiritual aspirant understands that what he
sees before his eyes is nothing but illusion, obscuring the Self. The aspirant begins his practice of
transcending my and understands as the first step that Self alone in immutable and all that exists in the
material world is perishable. What the aspirant sees today may not exist at a later date. The aspirant
begins to query within and tries to find an answer. He gets answers by undergoing experience.
Ultimately, his own experience begins to unravel the Supreme Self in stages. Krishna says that men are
bound by illusionary perceptions, failing to remove the veil of my to know Him.
Krishna, being the Supreme Master does not stop by sharing His concern. He shows the way out. Those
who surrender unto Him and taking refuge in Him can transcend the effect of my to realise Him. At the
end of these verses, Krishna makes it amply clear that taking refuge in Him, the one from whom
everything originates, can transcend the effects of my.
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Tuesday, December 7, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VII. 8 - 11


Gita Series 84: Chapter -VII. Verses 8 11
I am the taste in water, light of the moon and the sun, I am the sacred OM of Vedas, the sound in
ether, virility in men. I am the sacred odour of earth and brilliance in fire. I am the life in all creatures
and the non-indulgence of hermits. Know Me as the eternal seed of all beings. I am the intelligence of
the intelligent, glory of glorious. I am the strength of the mighty, who are devoid of passion and desire.
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In normal beings, I am the sexual desire that is not in contradiction with righteousness.
Krishna speaks about the Brahman. The quality of the omnipresence of the Brahman is being
expounded by Krishna. He says that the Lord is the essence of everything. For example, let us take sun
and moon. Krishna does not say that He is sun and moon. He only says that He is in the form of their
radiance. Radiance is the essence of sun and moon. Their form is gross and their radiance is subtle.
Even in the case of water, He only says that He is in the form of taste of water, which is the essence of
water. He does not refer to the gross form of water. OM is considered as the essence of all Vedas as all
Vedas originate from OM. Krishna does not say that He is in the form of Vedas. He merely says that He
is in the form OM, the essence of Vedas.
The subtle form of the God is highlighted through these verses. We have seen in earlier verses, that the
Lord has two forms, para and apara. In other words, His two forms are without attributes and with
attributes. What Krishna refers here is His form with subtle attributes. Without attributes refers to His
incomprehensible form. What Krishna refers to in these verses is His existence in the form of essences
of all the beings.
While declaring His existence in the form of the best amongst all qualities, He says that He exists in the
form of sexual desire that is not in contradiction to principles of righteousness, advocated by scriptures.
Procreation is an important aspect of creation, as long as it is confined for the purpose of procreation.
Krishna only denounces animalist behaviour. Righteousness can be explained as the act upholding the
principles of morality. When He says that He is the strength of the mighty, He refers only to the mental
strength and not the physical strength, as He specifically denounces passion and desire.
In a nutshell, these verses explain that the Lord exists in the form of essences of all matters, which not
only affirm His omnipresent nature, but also confirm that the Lord exists both in gross and subtle forms.
Ultimately, the Brahman is explained as the One, both with attributes and without attributes. This is further
explained in later verses as saguna Brahman and nirguna Brahman.
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Monday, December 6, 2010

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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VII. 4 - 7


Gita Series 83: Chapter -VII. Verses 4 7
Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intellect and ego constitute my Nature. This is My apara prakriti,
which is of lower nature. This is different from my higher nature or para prakriti, the jiva also known as
Self consciousness or life principle, on which the enitre universe is sustained. All beings evolve from
my two fold prakriti. I am the source of entire creation and into Me the entire creation dissolves.
Arjuna, there is nothing beyond Me and all creatures are bound to me like cluster of gems are bound
by a thread.
Krishna begins to reveal the secrets of Divinity. The Brahman has two forms. The higher one is the
Brahman without attributes and the lower one is the Brahman with attributes. A soul, when it is destined
to transmigrate either from its sojourn or from the body of another living being, conjoins with prakriti for
the purpose of manifestation. Soul is considered as the masculine energy and prakriti as the feminine
energy. Ones karmic account is embedded in the soul. Soul is subtle in nature and prakriti is gross in
nature. When the union of soul and prakriti takes place, a being is born. When the being grows, bound by
time, the karmic account embedded in its soul begins to manifest. That being either suffers due to
accumulated ignorance in its previous births, or continues its spiritual journey from where it had left in its
previous birth. This is a gist of principles of creation.
Krishna says that his apara prakriti consists of eight components detailed above. Out of the eight, the
first five are the five basic elements that constitute the gross structure of a being. The next three control
the internal mechanism of a being. Gross elements do not remain the same, but get modified not only as
gross sensory organs, but also form the subtle formulations of the five elements like sound, etc. The soul
cannot independently function without the help of prakriti, nor can prakriti function independently without
the soul. The one without the other become inert and become incapable of germination. That is why
Krishna classifies these two principles as para prakriti or soul or jiva and apara prakriti, the Nature. Para
is considered as the subtle plane and apara is considered as the material plane.
Para and apara form two different aspects of the same Brahman, like a coin having two sides. Again, if
these two aspects do not co-exist, creation cannot happen. The fundamental principle of creation is the
mechanism of interdependence. For existence, one being has to always depend upon another being. As
long as the interdependence mechanism continues in a smooth manner, the universe continues to exist.
If the interdependence mechanism breaks somewhere, the process of annihilation begins to happen.
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If the interdependence mechanism breaks somewhere, the process of annihilation begins to happen.
Therefore, it is apparent, that both para and apara need to exist, irrespective of the fact that one is
Superior in nature and another is inferior in nature. A human form can be taken as an example. The mind
is para and his body apara. Without the mind, a human form cannot exist. But, the subtle is more
important than gross. God realization takes place only through mind, which is para or subtle when
compared to the body, which is gross or apara. In other words, final liberation can be attained only
through the mind, the subtle component of a human form. The gross body acts a supporting mechanism
of the subtle mind. In the same way, the soul is supported by prakriti enabling the soul to unfold its karmic
account. The outcome of this unfoldment could be either pleasure or pain of the combination of both.
This purely depends upon the quality of ones karmic account.
Soul is nothing but the manifestation of the Brahman in the form of a being, be it a plant, an animal or a
human. Soul in a being is known as self and the combined effect of all the souls that exist in the cosmos
is called Self or the Brahman. The awareness of an individual is known as individual consciousness that
has different stages such as awake, dream or deep sleep. The consciousness about the Supreme Self
is known as the Supreme Consciousness. By mundane awareness, individual body can be realised. But
a refined and purified mind is required to understand first the individual soul and finally the Cosmic Soul.
Neither the individual soul nor the Cosmic Soul can be seen, but can be realised through ones mind.
The realization happens in a intense state of joy, known as bliss. The bliss that is being discussed is
unparalleled joy. When an individual soul attempts to know its source, the attempt is known as the
process of Self realization. It is from this cosmic Self, all the individual souls are carved out. Though
individual souls are carved out from the Supreme Self, it does not undergo any modifications. It
continues to remain as before and continues to remain the same, irrespective of the individual souls are
carved from It are merged into It. Even at the time of annihilation, when the entire universe is absorbed
into It, It does not change. Hence, the most significant aspect of the Self is Its non-modification, which is
also known as eternal. Except the Self and Its representatives, souls, everything else is perishable. Even
in the case of a soul, at some point of its subtle existence in different shapes and forms, there is a
possibility that it can cease to exist by merging into the Supreme Self. But the Self never ceases to exist.
Krishna cites an example of beads attached to a thread. Without the support of the thread, beads cannot
exist together. All the beads in a necklace are bound by a supportive thread. This example refers to the
reality of existence, supported by the Self and the individual beings are like the beads. Without the
support of the thread, beads have no value. Because the beads are attached to a thread, they have
value. This can be explained in two ways. One is that Self forms the foundational principle of creation,
without which beings cannot exist. The ideal interpretation would be that without soul, gross body does

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not have any value. The gross body is sustained by the soul and when the soul leaves the body, the body
gets perished, known as death. It must be remembered that soul is nothing but a representative of the
Supreme Soul or Para-Brahman. It is ultimately, the whole universe revolves around the Soul or the
Brahman for its creation, sustenance and absorption.
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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VII. 1 - 3


Gita Series 82: Chapter -VII. Verses 1 3
There are eighteen chapters in Bhagavad Gita, out of which six chapters have been covered so far. In
these six chapters, karma (action, without attaching importance to fruits of action) yoga, bhakti (devotion)
yoga and jnana (knowledge) yoga have been dealt with by Krishna. But these six chapters did not
confine themselves only to one type of yoga. This means when karma yoga is dealt with in one chapter,
other two types of yogas are also dealt with in the same chapter, based on the need of the particular
percept, but not elaborately. Beginning from the Seventh chapter, each chapter confine themselves on a
particular type of yoga. Chapter VII to chapter XII predominantly deal with bhakti yoga, though occasional
references are made to other types of yogas. These six chapters are considered as the most important
part of Bhagavad Gita. Chapters XIII and XIV, deal exclusively with jnana yoga. Again, chapter XV deals
in bhakti yoga. Rest of the chapters deals with variety of things such as godly and demonic properties,
sacrifices, etc. The final chapter gives a summary of all the three types of yoga. At the end of studying
Bhagavad Gita, one is sure to have gained adequate knowledge of seeking the Lord through his mind.
The seventh chapter consists of thirty verses and is known as the chapter on knowledge and wisdom or
jnana-vijnana (jna-vijna) yoga.
Krishna begins this chapter by addressing Arjuna. Partha! Listen! By practicing yoga with intent mind
and taking shelter in Me, I will now tell you how you will know me without any doubts. I will tell you
thoroughly about knowledge and realisation, after knowing of which, there shall remain nothing in this
world for you to know. Among thousands, one endeavours to realise Me. Among these aspirants, only
one understands Me as I am.
Krishna is now going to unravel the mystery of Supreme Divinity that is generally being known as the

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Lord, God, Brahman, Spirit, etc. Such names are used by an aspirant according to his convenience or
probably according to the society he lives in. One may call That as Krishna, another as Shiva, yet
another as Jesus, Buddha, Allah, Brahman etc. The names and forms are of no significance in
spirituality. The names are more to do with religions and their associated rituals. Bhagavad Gita is a
spiritual treatise, like Upanishads. The Ultimate Reality is that God is not limited by time and form. He is
beyond all that and cannot be seen with biological eyes. But, God can be realised. His closeness to us
can be realised. His energy can be realised. Human life span is short and if one wastes his precious
time, in trying to see the God with his biological eyes, it clearly means that he is an embodiment of
ignorance. As one has to move beyond this, Krishna, as a spiritual master, explains the ways to achieve
the ultimate goal of Self realisation or God realisation.
Krishna begins by saying that one should have determined mind with awareness fixed on Him. There are
two important factors that have been advocated here. The first one is the mind, the details of which have
been dealt with elaborately in the previous chapters. Primarily, any spiritual aspirant should have a well
made out mental process to realise the Lord. An aspirant should never nurture any doubt regarding the
existence of the Lord. This conclusion is paramount. Any inhibitions to the contrary are bound to affect
the process or Self realisation. This is particularly important when there is a delay in progress. One will
be constrained to think that he is pursuing something that not even exists. Delayed results could result in
kindling negative thoughts. That is why Krishna first talks about ones intent.
The second aspect that Krishna gives importance is surrender. Surrender refers to that stage, where
one could affirm with confidence that whatever happens is due to His will. If one unhesitatingly surrenders
unto Him, the pleasures and pains of life will not have any difference for the aspirant, as he knows they
happen to him at His will. Both these aspects, the total faith in the Lord and total surrender to Him are the
foundational principles of spirituality. That is why, Krishna as Arjunas spiritual master says that he has to
listen to His sermons with these two conditions fulfilled as the first step. Once these preliminaries are
complied with, Krishna says that he would teach Arjuna, the perfect steps that are needed to realise Him.
Krishna does not use the word see, but uses only realise. After His sermons, Krishna assures Arjuna that
there will be nothing left to be known in this world. Such is the kind of knowledge about realisation that
Krishna is willing to impart on his disciple Arjuna. The situation in which Krishna is going to impart
knowledge about the Supreme is very significant. This is not going to happen in a peaceful hermitage.
Arjuna is going to be taught in a battle field, where a terrifying war is going to take place with Arjunaas
relatives and masters on the side of his opponent. Even listening to Krishnas sermons in that situation is
extremely difficult as ones concentration cannot be fixed on His teachings. Ones mind at that time is

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prone to weigh the consequences of the war. Another subtle message is also conveyed to Arjuna.
Krishna, being an incarnation of the Lord, is capable of conferring only the good, on those who repose
faith in Him. This message can be decoded as, Arjuna, just do not worry. I am the Lord. Have faith in
me. Listen to what I say. You will succeed.
Finally, Krishna says that a true spiritual seeker is hard to find. In the whole of humanity, only a few
thousands are seriously interested in pursuing the true spiritual path. Amongst them, only one could
reach the logical end of spiritual path, by truly realising the Self within. Others, either do not pursue the
correct spiritual path, or could not continue the practice till the end out of frustrations and failures.
Realisation is not going to happen that easily, as Krishna Himself says that after such realisation, there
will be nothing remaining to be known.
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