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Which process would include a net movement of sugar molecules through a membrane from a
region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration? (a) osmosis (b) cyclosis (c)
active transport (d) passive transport

2. In the human body, the potassium ion can pass easily through cell membranes, yet the
potassium ion concentration is higher inside many cells than it is outside these cells. This
condition is mainly a result of the process of (a) passive transport (b) active transport (c) osmosis
(d) pinocytosis

3. Chemical analysis indicates that the cell membrane is composed mainly of (a) proteins and
starch (b) proteins and cellulose (c) lipids and starch (d) lipids and proteins

4. The net flow of materials through the membrane of a cell against a concentration gradient is
known as (a) passive transport (b) active transport (c) osmosis (d) pinocytosis

5. The natural streaming of the cytoplasm that occurs within all cells is called (a) pinocytosis (b)
phagocytosis (c) osmosis (d) cyclosis

6. When a cell uses energy to move materials across a cell membrane, the process is known as (a)
osmosis (b) active transport (c) diffusion (d) passive transport

7. The diffusion of water molecules into and out of cells is called (a) cyclosis (b) pinocytosis (c)
osmosis (d) homeostasis

8. The net movement of molecules into cells is most dependent upon the
(a) selectivity of the plasma membrane
(b) selectivity of the cell wal
(c) number of nucleoli
(d) number of chromosomes

9. A red blood cell placed in distilled water will swell and burst due to the diffusion of
(a) salt from the red blood cell into the water
(b) water into the red blood cel
(c) water from the blood cell into its environmen
(d) salts from the water into the red blood cell

10.The primary function of root hairs in a plant is to

(a) prevent excessive loss of water
(b) provide increased surface area for absorption
(c) conduct water and minerals upward
(d) conduct organic food materials upward and downward

11. Which structures are found in the veins of a maple leaf? (a) phloem cells (b) guard cells (c)
chloroplasts (d) capillaries

12. The mechanism by which water moves from the roots to the leaves of a tall tree is known as
(a) evaporation (b) transpiration (c) adhesion (d) transpirational pull

13.The destruction of xylem tissues in a maple tree most directly interferes with the movement of
(a) carbon dioxide out of the leaves
(b) water to the leaves
(c) oxygen out of the leaves
(d) nutrients down to the roots

14. The tissue that conducts organic food throughout a vascular plant is composed of (a) cambium
cells (b) xylem cells (c) phloem cells (d) epidermal cells

15. The process by which water evaporates from the leaves of a plant is called (a) cohesion (b)
respiration (c) active transport (d) transpiration

16. The dissolved sugars produced in the leaves of a maple tree move to the tree's roots through
the (a) xylem (b) phloem (c) epidermis (d) guard cells

17. When a living geranium plant is enclosed in a large jar, water droplets appear on the inner
surface of the jar. These water droplets are most likely the direct result of (a) hydrolysis and
photosynthesis (b) light absorption and reflection (c) transpiration and condensation
(d)intracellular and extracellular digestion

18. The circulatory system of the earthworm is most similar in structure and function to that of a
(a) hydra (b) protozoan (c) grasshopper (d) human

19. Which organism contains an open circulatory system? (a) earthworm (b) grasshopper (c) hydra
(d) ameba

20.How are nutrients transported from the blood of an earthworm to the muscle cells of its body
(a) The blood flows directly into the muscle cells.
(b) The nutrients diffuse through capillary walls and through the cell membranes.
(c) The nutrients pass through pores at the ends of nephridia.
(d) The nutrients diffuse through the skin from the outside environment.

21. Which organism has an internal, closed c 21. Which organism has an internal, closed
circulatory system that brings materials from the external environment into contact with its cells?
(a) ameba (b) paramecium (c) hydra (d) earthworm

22. Materials are circulated within the cells of a liydra by (a) osmosis, only (b) osmosis and
diffusion (c) cyclosis and diffusion (d) a transport system

23. Hemoglobin is found in the blood of (a) humans and earthworms (b) earthworms and
grasshoppers (c) grasshoppers and humans (d) humans, only

24. A circulatory system in which the blood remains within vessels is called a(n) (a)closed
circulatory system (b)open circulatory system (c)internal circulatory system (d) external
circulatory system

25. The intestinal fold of the earthworm and the villi of the human small intestine function
primarily to
(a) increase the surface area for absorption of digested nutrients
(b) excrete metabolic wastes
(c) circulate blood
(d) force the movement of food in one direction through the digestive tract

26. Pairs of aortic arches are found in the circulatory system of the (a) hydra (b) grasshopper (c)
earthworm (d) paramecium

27. Which compounds are produced in human muscle cells as a result of the oxidation of glucose

in the absence of oxygen? (a) lipase and water (b) sucrase and carbon dioxide (c) ethyl alcohol and
ATP (d) lactic acid and ATP

28. Most animals make energy available for cell activity by transferring the potential energy of
glucose to ATP. This process occurs during (a) aerobic respiration, only (b) anaerobic respiration,
only (c) both aerobic and anaerobic respiration (d) neither aerobic nor anaerobic respiration

29. Which of the following processes releases the greatest amount of energy?
(a) the oxidation of one glucose molecule to lactic acid molecules
(b) the oxidation of one glucose molecule to carbon dioxide and water molecules
(c) the conversion of two glucose molecules to a maltose molecule
(d) the conversion of one glucose molecule to alcohol and carbon dioxide molecules

30. Alcohol fermentation and aerobic respiration are similar in that both processes (a) utilize
light (b) produce ethyl alcohol (c) require free oxygen (d) release carbon dioxide

31. Respiratory enzymes are present in

(a) animal cells, but not plant cells
(b) plant cells, but not animal cells
(c) neither animal nor plant cells
(d) both animal and plant cells

32. In animal cells, the energy to convert ADP to ATP comes directly from (a) hormones (b)
sunlight (c) organic molecules (d) inorganic molecules

33. Vigorous activity of human voluntary muscle tissues may result in the production of lactic
acid. Insufficient amount of which gas would result in the buildup of lactic acid in muscle cells?
(a) carbon dioxide (b) nitrogen (c) oxygen (d) hydrogen

34. The organelles in which most of the reactions of aerobic cellular respiration take place are (a)
ribosomes (b) chloroplasts (c) lysosomes (d) mitochondria

35. Anaerobic respiration of glucose is a less efficient energy-releasing system than aerobic
respiration of glucose. One of the reasons for this is that in anaerobic respiration
(a) lactic acid contains much unreleased potential energy
(b) water contains much released potential energy

(c) oxygen serves as the final hydrogen acceptor

(d) chlorophyll is hydrolyzed into PGAL molecules

36. The tracheal tubes of the grasshopper and the air spaces of a geranium leaf are similar in that
they both
(a) regulate the flow of urea into and out of the organism
(b) are the major sites for the ingestion of nutrients
(c) contain enzymes that convert light energy to chemical bond energy
(d) are surrounded by moist internal surfaces where gas exchange occurs

37. In the earthworm, the exchange of gases with the external environment occurs through the (a)
skin (b) lungs (c) nephridia (d) pharynx

38. Protists obtain oxygen from the environment through (a) spiracles (b) cell membranes (c)
contractile vacuoles (d) mitochondria
39. Openings in plant tissues that allow the exchange of respiratory gases are (a) tracheae and
spiracles (b) spiracles and lenticels (c) lenticels and stomates (d) spiracles and stomates

40. The mucus secreted by cells of the external body wall of the earthworm
(a) acts as a stimulus upon the paired nephridia
(b) permits transpiration to be accomplished
(c) is an excretory waste product
(d) provides a moist surface for gas exchange

41. In the hydra, the exchange of respiratory gases takes place by

(a) diffusion through the cell membranes
(b)active transport through the skin
(c)pinocytosis through the cell membranes
(d) diffusion through lenticels
11. A
21. D
31. D
41. a
12. D
22. C
32. c
13. B
23. A
33. c
14. C
24. A
34. d
15. D
25. A
35. a
16. B
26. C
36. d
17. C
27. D
37. a


18. D
19. B
20. B

28. C
29. B
30. D

38. b
39. c
40. D

1.To separate the parts of a cell by differences in density, a biologist would probably use (a) a
micro-dissection instrument (b) an ultracentrifuge (c) a phase-contrast microscope (d)an

2. Which microscope magnification should be used to observe the largest field of view of an insect
wing? (a) 20x (b) 100 x (c) 400 x (d) 900 x

3.The diameter of the field of vision of a compound light microscope is 1.5 millimeters. This may
also be expressed as (a) 15 micrometers (b) 150 micrometers (c) 1,500 micrometers (d) 15,000

4. To transplant a nucleus from one cell to another cell, a scientist would use (a) an electron
microscope (b) an ultracentrifuge (c) microdissection instruments (d) staining techniques

5. A student using a compound microscope measured several red blood cells and found that the
average cell length was 0.008 millimeter. What is the average length of a single red blood cell in
micrometers? (a) 0.8 (b) 8 (c) 80 (d) 800

6. A student using a compound microscope estimated the diameter of a cheek cell to be 50

micrometers. What is the diameter of this cheek cell in millimeters? (a) 0.050 mm (b) 0.500 mm
(c) 5.00 mm (d) 50.9 mm

7. What is the principal inorganic solvent in cells? (a) salt (b) water (c) alcohol (d) carbon

8. Fats that are stored in human tissue contain molecules of (a) glycerol and fatty acids (b)
amino acids (c) monosaccharides and disaccharides (d) nucleotides

9. One of the carbon compounds found in a cell has twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen
atoms. This compound most likely belongs to the group of substances known as (a) nucleic acids
(b) lipids (c) proteins (d) carbohydrates

10. Which formula represents an organic compound? (a) NH3 (b) H20 (c) NaCl (d) C12H22011

11. When two molecules are joined together chemically, a molecule of water is released. This
process is known as (a) dehydration synthesis (b) hydrolysis (c) absorption (d) transpiration pull

12. A rotten egg may give off a foul-smelling gas containing sulfur. Which decomposing chemical
compounds in the egg are most likely the source of this odor? (a) proteins (b) nucleic acids (c)
carbohydrates (d) lipids

13. Starch is classified as a (a) disaccharide (b) polypeptide (c) nucleotide (d) polysaccharide

14. What two molecules are produced when two glucose molecules are chemically bonded
together? (a) a lipid and an enzyme (b) a polypeptide and oxygen (c) a polysaccharide and carbon
dioxide (d) a disaccharide and water

15. Which organic compound is correctly matched with the subunit that composes it? (a)
maltoseamino acid (b) starch-glucose (c) protein-fatty acid (d) lipid-sucrose

16. A chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair of electrons is referred to as (a) covalent (b)
acidic (c) ionic (d) double

17. A chemical bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another is referred to as
(a) covalent (b) acidic (c) ionic (d) double

18.Which of the following is characteristic of an enzyme?

(a) It is an inorganic catalyst.
(b) It is destroyed after each chemical reaction.
(c) It provides energy for any chemical reaction
(d) It regulates the rate of a specific chemical reaction.

19. The "lock-and-key" model of enzyme action illustrates that a particular enzyme molecule
(a) forms a permanent enzyme-substrate complex
(b) may be destroyed and resynthesized several times
(c) interacts with a specific type of substrate molecule

(d) reacts at identical rates under all conditions

20. An enzyme-substrate complex may result from the interaction of molecules of (a) glucose and
lipase (b) fat and amylase (c) sucrose and maltase (d)protein and protease

21.The part of the enzyme molecule into which the substrate fits is called the (a) active site (b)
coenzyme (c) polypeptide (d) protease

22. A nonprotein molecule necessary for the functioning of a certain enzyme is called a (a) catalyst
(b) polypeptide (c) coenzyme (d) substrate

23. Which of the following variables has the least direct effect on the rate of an enzyme-regulated
reaction? (a) temperature (b) pH (c) carbon dioxide concentration (d) enzyme concentration

24. By which process are C02 and H20converted to carbohydrates? (a) transpiration (b)
respiration (c) fermentation (d) photosynthesis

25. The conversion of light energy into chemical bond energy occurs within the cells of (a) molds
(b) yeasts (c) algae (d) grasshoppers

26. Glucose molecules may be stored in plants in the form of (a) oxygen (b) starch (c) nucleic
acids (d) amino acids

26. Knowing that red glass transmits mainly red light, green glass mainly green light, yellow glass
mainly yellow light, and orange glass mainly orange light, a stdent set up an experiment to
determine the effect of light color on glucose production. She selected jars of each of the above
colors and grew a bean plant in each jar under controlled conditions in the presence of natural
light. The greatest amount of glucose would most likely be produced by the bean plant growing in
the jar whose color was
(a) red (b) yellow (c) green (d) orange

27. The basic raw materials for photosynthesis are

(a)water and carbon dioxide (b) oxygen and water (c)sugar and carbon dioxide (d) water and

28. In autotrophic plants, stored starch may be converted into small organic molecules by the
process of (a) transpiration (b) aerobic respiration (c) intracellular digestion (d) extracellular

29. Which word equation represents the process of photosynthesis?

(a) carbon dioxide + water <--> glucose + oxygen + water

(b) glucose <--> alcohol + carbon dioxide
(c) maltose + water <--> glucose + glucose
(d) glucose + oxygen <--> carbon dioxide + water

30. Autotrophic activity in green plant cells is most closely associated with organelles called (a)
mitochondria (b) ribosomes (c) vacuoles (d) chloroplasts

31. Bromthymol blue turns to bromthymol yellow in the presence of carbon dioxide. When the
carbon dioxideis removed, the solution will return to a blue color. Two green water plants were
placed in separate test tubes, each containing water and bromthymol yellow. Both test tubes were
corked. One tube was placed in the light, the other in the dark. After several days, the liquid in the
tube exposed to the light turned blue. This demonstration illustrates that, during photosynthesis,
green plants
(a) take in carbon dioxide (b) need bromthymol blue (c) give off oxygen gas
(d) form ATP

32. A functional difference between animals and green plants is that green plants are able to
(a) synthesize glucose (b) break down carbohydrates (c) carry on aerobic respiration (d) form ATP

33. Which compound is formed in the process of photosynthesis? (a) DNA (b) PGAL (c)
colchicine (d) ammonia

34. Which form of energy is absorbed by green plants during phase I? (a) heat energy (b) light
energy (c) nuclear energy (d) chemical energy

35. The oxygen present in the water molecule in phase I is

(a) released as molecular oxygen (b) released as chemical energy (c) incorporated into PGAL (d)
incorporated into glucose

36. Phase II is often referred to as (a) oxidation (b) hydrolysis (c) carbon fixation (d) aerobic

37. A three-carbon sugar formed during phase II is (a) carbon dioxide (b) glucose (c) ATP (d)

38. The reaction in phase I occurs in the (a) grana (b) stroma (c) Golgi apparatus (d) cell wall

39. Which statement correctly describes part of the photosynthetic process in plants?
(a) Oxygen is used in the dark reactions. (b) Carbon dioxide is released in the dark reactions. (c)
Water is split in the light reactions. (d) Alcohol is produced by the light reactions.

40. During photosynthesis, molecules of oxygen are liberated from the "splitting" of water
molecules due to the (a) dark reactions (b) light reactions (c) formation of PGAL (d) formation Of

41. During chemical digestion, large food molecules are broken down to smaller molecules by
the process of (a) synthesis (b) absorption (c) hydrolysis (d) excretion

42. Based on their pattern of nutrition, most animals are classified as (a) autotrophic (b)
heterotrophic (c) photosynthetic (d) phagocytic

43. Which occurs as a result of the action of hydrolytic enzymes?

(a) Inorganic substances are converted directly to organic substances.
(b) Complex organic molecules are made more soluble.
(c) Glucose molecules are converted to starches.
(d) Glucose molecules are converted to maltase molecules.

44. Which is an example of enzyme-controlled intracellular digestion?

(a) An ameba digests a microorganism within its food vacuole.
(b) A human digests food mechanically within its stomach.
(c) A grasshopper digests a piece of grass within its intestine.

(d) An earthworm grinds food within its gizzard.

45. A fruit fly is classified as a heterotroph, rather than as an autotroph, because it is unable to
(a) transport needed materials through the body
(b) release energy from organic molecules
(c) manufacture its own food
(d) divide its cells mitotically

46. What are the end products of carbohydrate hydrolysis? (a) amino acids (b) simple sugars (c)
hydrogen ions (d) fatty acids

47. The principal function of mechanical digestion is the

(a) hydrolysis of food molecules for storage in the liver
(b) production of more surface area for enzyme action
(c) synthesis of enzymes necessary for food absorption
(d) breakdown of large molecules to smaller ones by the addition of water

48. The process by which digestive enzymes catalyze the breakdown of larger molecules with the
addition of water is known as (a) synthesis (b) pinocytosis (c) hydrolysis (d) photosynthesis

49. The end products of protein digestion are (a) amino acids (b) fatty acids (c) simple sugars (d)

50. An organism with a one-way digestive tube is the (a) paramecium (b) earthworm (c) ameba (d)

51. In paramecia, most intracellular hydrolysis occurs within structures known as (a) ribosomes
(b) endoplasmic reticula (c) mitochondria (d) food vacuoles

52. Which organism ingests food by engulfing it with pseudopods? (a) grasshopper (b)
paramecium (c)earthworm (d) ameba

53. Which organism lacks a one-way (tube-within-a-tube) digestive system? (a) hydra (b)
earthworm (c) grasshopper (d) human

54. The grinding action on food that occurs in the gizzard of a grasshopper is an example of
which nutritional process? (a) ingestion (b) egestion (c) chemical digestion (d) mechanical
13. D
25. C
37. D
49. a
14. D
26. A
38. A
50. b
15. B
27. A
39. C
51. d
16. A
28. B
40. B
52. d
17. C
29. A
41. C
53. a
18. D
30. D
42. B
54. d
19. C
31. A
43. B
20. D
32. A
44. a
21. A
33. B
45. c
D 22. C
34. B
46. b
23. C
35. A
47. b
24. D
36. C
48. C


16. A
33. d
19. B
34. b
20. A
35. a
21. A
36. a
22. B
37. a
23. D
38. a
24. D
39. b
25. C
40. d
26. D
41. c
27. c
28. b
29. a
30. d
31. a
32. c
1) A friend has discovered a new plant and brings it to you to classify. The plant has the following
characteristics: a fibrous root system; no petioles; parallel leaf veins; thick, lignified cell walls;
and a vascular cambium. Which of the following best describes the new plant?
A) herbaceous monocot
B) woody monocot
C) woody dicot
D) herbaceous dicot

E) woody annual
2) Most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil by a plant are absorbed by
A) storage roots.
B) taproots.
C) sections of the root that have secondary xylem.
D) root hairs.
E) the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem.
3) An evolutionary adaptation that increases exposure of a plant to light in a dense forest is
A) lateral buds.
B) intercalary meristems.
C) absence of petioles.
D) apical dominance.
E) closing of the stomates.
4) A person working with plants may remove apical dominance by doing which of the following?
A) deep watering of the roots
B) fertilizing
C) pruning
D) transplanting
E) feeding the plants nutrients
The following question is based on parts of a growing primary root.
I. root cap
II. zone of elongation
III. zone of cell division
IV. zone of cell maturation
V. apical meristem
5) Which of the following is the correct sequence from the growing tips of the root upward?
A) IV, II, III, I, V B) I, II, V, III, IV C) III, V, I, II, IV D) II, IV, I, V, III E) I, V, III, II, IV
6) What effect does "pinching back" a houseplant have on the plant?
A) increases the flow of auxin down the shoot
B) inhibits the growth of lateral buds
C) produces a plant that will grow taller
D) produces a plant that will grow fuller
E) increases apical dominance
7) Land plants are composed of all the following tissue types except
A) ground tissue. B) meristematic. C) vascular. D) epidermal. E) mesoderm.
8) Plant vascular tissue includes all of the following cell types except
A) tracheids.
B) cambium cells.
C) sieve cells.
D) vessel elements.
E) companion cells.
9) Which functional plant cells lack a nucleus?
A) xylem only

B) sieve-tube cell only

C) companion cells only
D) both companion and parenchyma cells
E) both xylem and sieve-tube cells
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the
The questions below use the following answers. Each answer may be used once, more than once,
or not at all.
A. parenchyma
B. collenchyma
C. sclerenchyma
D. tracheids
E. sieve-tube cells
10) long, thin, tapered cells with lignified cell walls that function in support and permit water flow
through pits
11) living cells that lack nuclei and ribosomes; they transport sucrose and other organic nutrients
12) the least specialized plant cells, which serve general metabolic, synthetic, and storage
13) cells with unevenly thickened primary walls that support young parts of the plant
14) mature cells without protoplasts but with thick, lignified secondary walls that may form fibers
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the
15) What is the largest organelle in most mature living plant cells?
A) dictyosome (Golgi apparatus)
B) mitochondrion
C) chloroplast
D) nucleus
E) central vacuole
1) Answer: B 2) Answer: D 3) Answer: D 4) Answer: C 5) Answer: E 6) Answer: D 7) Answer: E
8) Answer: B 9) Answer: E 10) Answer: D 11) Answer: E 12) Answer: A 13) Answer: B 14)
Answer: C 15) Answer: E