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# Sag-tension Calculations

A Tutorial Developed for the IEEE
TP&C Line Design Subcommittee
Based on a CIGRE WG B2.12 Technical
Brochure under Development
Dale Douglass June, 2005

June 6/13/05

IEEE TP&C Tutorial

CIGRE & IEEE Websites
• CIGRE WG B2.12 – Electrical Effects in Lines
http://www.geocities.com/wg_12/index.htm
– Technical Brochure 244 – Conductors for Uprating of
Existing Lines
– Probabilistic Ratings & Joints

• IEEE Towers Poles & Conductors
http://www.geocities.com/ieee_tpc/index.htm
– IEEE Standard 738 – 1993
– Panel Sessions Jan 28 (Las Vegas) June 4 (SF)

June 6/13/05

IEEE TP&C Tutorial

Sag-tension Envelope
Span Length

Initial Installed Sag @15C

Sag @ Max Electrical

Minimum Electrical
Clearance
GROUND LEVEL

June 6/13/05

IEEE TP&C Tutorial

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

A Bit of Perspective 10C-15C Uncertainty IPC measurements.AW eq2 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 measurement number June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial 9 10 11 12 13 . Why? 35 30 Tcdr (IEEE) 25 Tcdr (meas) 20 Tcdr (H) .xls 60 55 ? 50 45 deg C 40 Tcdr_measured is much higher than predicted with alumoweld model (Hbased) or weather based model for these 3 points.AW eq1 15 Tcdr (H) . 1997 data_during_tempmeas.

Some Questions • Why can we do calculations for a single span and use for an entire line section? • How are initial and final conditions defined? • Why not run the maximum tension to 60% as the NESC Code allows? • Why do I see negative tensions (compression) in aluminum at high temperature? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

The Catenary Curve • • • • • HyperbolicFunctions & Parabolas Sag vs weight & tension Length between supports What is Slack? What if the span isn’t level? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

The Catenary – Level Span H y ( x) = w H D= w ⎡ w ⋅ x2 ⎛ w⋅ x ⎞ ⎤ ⋅ ⎢cosh⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ≅ 2⋅ H ⎝ H ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎧ ⎛ w⋅ S ⎞ ⎫ w⋅ S ⋅ ⎨cosh⎜ ⎟ − 1⎬ ≅ ⎝ 2⋅ H ⎠ ⎭ 8⋅ H ⎩ 2 2 ⎛ ⎛ 2H ⎞ ⎛ Sw ⎞ S w L = ⎜ ⎟ sinh ⎜ ⎟ ≅ S ⎜⎜ 1 + 24 H 2 ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ 2H ⎠ ⎝ June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ .

094 ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⋅ 6300 ⎠⎦ 2 * 6300 ⎛ 1.31.963 m) 1.094 lbs/ft Bare Weight .Catenary Sample Calcs for Drake ACSR .094 ⎝ 2 * 6300 ⎠ June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .500 lbs Rated Breaking Strength .094 ⋅ 600 ⎞⎤ D= cosh⎜ ⎟⎥ = 7.1.272 ft (182.387 m) ⎢ 1.094 * 600 ⎞ L= sinh⎜ ⎟ = 600.831 ft (2.600 ft span 6300 ⎡ ⎛ 1.

Catenary Calculations What Happens when the weight of the conductor changes June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Ice & Wind Loading • • • Radial ice (Quebec) Wind Pressure (Florida) Wind & Ice Combined (Illinois) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

0 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial 0 0 0 0 See Fig 2-4 .5 0.30 4.50 0.0 0.5 Horizontal wind pressure (lb/ft2) (Pa) 4 190 4 190 9 430 Temperature (oF) (oC) 0 -20 +15 -10 +30 -1 +60 +15 NESC safety factors to be added to the resultant (lb/ft) (N/m) 0.NESC Loading District Heavy Medium Light Extreme wind loading Radial thickness of ice (in) (mm) 0.70 0.50 12.20 2.40 0.25 6.05 0.

6570 0.8 477 kcmil-26/7 “Hawk” 0.858 0.1452 0.Iced Conductor Weight wice = 1.3 1590 kcmil-54/19 “Falcon" 1.244t ( D c + t ) ACSR Conductor Dc.545 2.559 4.044 1. lb/ft wice.845 2. in wbare.398 0.6 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . lb/ft wbare + wice wbare #1/0 AWG -6/1 “Raven” 0.272 1.

60 lb/ft • Tension increases by a factor of 3. June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .094 + 1.6 unless the length of the conductor changes.What happens when the conductor weight changes? • Bare weight of Drake ACSR is 1.244*1.0) = 3.094 lb/ft • Iced weight is: – 1.0*(1.108+1.

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

%RBS) Designing with less sag June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .Conductor tension limits • • • Avoiding tension failure (Safety factor) Limiting vibration (H/w.

kN 31.4 43.7 38.6 44.6 10.9 9.4 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .Tension Limits and Sag Tension at 15C unloaded initial .0 Initial Sag at 100C .8 61.%RTS 22.meters Final Sag at 100C .meters 14.%RTS 10 15 20 25 June 6/13/05 Tension at max ice and wind load .5 Tension at max ice and wind load .6 11.4 8.4 53.8 14.0 9.6 31.0 7.

Conductor Elongation • • Elastic elongation (springs) Settlement & Short-term creep (before sagging) • Thermal elongation • Long term creep (After sagging. over the life of the line) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Conductor Elongation Manufactured Length June 6/13/05 Settlement &1-hr creep Strain IEEE TP&C Tutorial Thermal Strain Elastic Strain Long-time Creep Strain .

00 61.4 12.8 6.Thermal Elongation International Annealed Copper Standard Commercial Hard-Drawn Copper Wire Standard 1350-H19 Aluminum Wire Galv. Steel Core Wire Conductivity.00 97.4 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .0 Coefficient of Linear Expansion 10-6 per oF 9. % IACS @ 20oC 100.2 8.4 9.

000 0 0.300 0.250 Strain % %Strain June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial 0.450 .150 0.000 35.000 100 30% RBS 10.000 70% RBS 50% RBS 15.000 0.Courtesy of Southwire Corp.200 0.000 Stress [MPa] 20.350 0. Stress-Strain Test 45.100 0.000 Final Modulus 5.400 0.000 200 25.050 0.000 300 One Hour Modulus 40.000 Initial Modulus 30.

3 0.1 0.15 0.35 0.2 0.Stress-strain & creep elongation curves for 37 strand A1 conductor 140000 120000 Initial "1-hour" Aluminum 70% RBS 100000 Linear Modulus Stress.4 0.45 .25 Percent Elongation June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial 0.05 0.kPa 80000 50% RBS 12 mo creep 60000 6 mo creep 30% RBS Final Alum after load to 122 MPa 40000 10 yr creep 20000 0 -0.05 0 0.

Conductor Elongation • • Elastic elongation (reversible) Settlement & Short-term creep (permanent) • Thermal elongation (reversible) • Long term creep (permanent after years or high loads) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

30 0.10 0.05 0.15 0.45 % Increase in Length June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial 0.25 0.20 0.35 0.100 % of Tensile Strength 80 Plastic Elong at High Tension 60 Creep for 1 year 40 Initial Settlement 20 0 0.40 0.50 .

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

What is a ruling span? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Li .Pivot Attachment Point Tilt Angle T Tension equalization at suspension points. Winsul The basis of the ruling span concept. Hspan1 Hspan2 IEEE TP&C Tutorial Wspan2 Wspan1 June 6/13/05 Insulator Length.

+ S n 3 3 3 600 + 900 + 600 RS = = 745 ft 600 + 900 + 600 • • Based on Tension equalization Used for Stringing sags • Sag = (w/8H)*S2 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial ...The “Ruling Span” 3 3 3 + + + S S S 1 2 n RS = S1 + S 2 + ..

June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . • Minimum sag to control structure uplift problems. • H/w during “coldest month” to limit aeolian vibration.Sag-tension Calculations Deliverables • Maximum sag so that clearance to ground and other conductors can be maintained. • Maximum tension so that structures can be designed to withstand it.

Summary of Some Key Points • Tension equalization between suspension spans allows use of the ruling span • Initial and final conditions occur at sagging and after high loads and multiple years • For large conductors. max tension is typically below 60% in order to limit wind vibration & uplift • Negative tensions (compression) in aluminum occur at high temperature for ACSR because of the 2:1 diff in thermal elongation between alum & steel June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

F. FL. “Computing tensions in transmission lines”.. and Nigol. Vol. IEEE Working Group.2. 380-386. and Nigol. Feb. “Limitations of the Ruling Span Method for Overhead Line Conductors at High Operating Temperatures”. 3. pp 485-493 Electrical Technical Committee of the Aluminum Association. Dutta S. Vol. E. No. O. 3. Characteristics of A1/S1A (ACSR) Conductors as High Temperatures and Stresses. June 1959. March 1983. July 12. 2. PAS-89. Report of IEEE WG on Thermal Aspects of Conductors. JS. Vol. Feb. IEEE Trans. JS. “Stress-Strain-Creep Curves for Aluminum Overhead Electrical Conductors. IEEE Trans. pp....”. IEEE Trans. Tampa. 3. Vol. A New Computer Model of A1/S1A (ACSR) Conductors... DC 20006. The aluminum Association. January. USA. P. “Some Effects of Mill Practice on the Stress-Strain Behaviour of ACSR”.B.” Published 7/15/74.S. June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . IEEE WPM 1998. Washington. PAS-102. No. no. Use of Elevated Temperature Creep Data in Sag-Tension Calculations. March 1970 Rawlins. 1924 Aluminum Association. Varney T. FL. IEEE WPM 1998. 1998 Thayer. ECH-56" Southwire Company "Overhead Conductor Manual“ Barrett.. Electrical World. “A Method of Stress-Strain Testing of Aluminum Conductor and ACSR” and “A Test Method for Determining the Long Time Tensile Creep of Aluminum Conductors in Overhead Lines”. AIEE Paper 59-900. O. Harvey.84. 1927 Winkelman.. 1999. Barrett. “Sag-Tension Computations and Field Measurements of Bonneville Power Administration. PAS-100. JR and Larson RE. 1998. C. pp 614-621.General Sag-Ten References • • • • • • • • • • • • Aluminum Association Aluminum Electrical Conductor Handbook Publication No. Pittsburg... Tampa. “Graphic Method for Sag Tension Calculations for A1/S1A (ACSR) and Other Conductors. No. February 1981. Aluminum Company of America.

The End A Sag-tension Tutorial Prepared for the IEEE TP&C Subcommittee by Dale Douglass June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .