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Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

Environmental Guidelines for

Industry Description and Practices (exclusive of cooling waters). Untreated
effluents typically contain suspended solids in
Beer is a fermented beverage with low alcohol the range 10-60 milligrams per liter (mg/L),
content made from various types of grains. BOD5 in the range 1,000-1,500 mg/L range,
Barley, wheat, maize and other grains can be COD in the range 1,800-3,000 mg/L, and
used (barley predominates). The production nitrogen in the range 30-100 mg/L.
steps include:
• Malt production and handling—grain Water Consumption Reported For
delivery and cleaning; steeping of the grain in German Brewing Industry
water to start germination; growth of rootlets Process step Water
and development of enzymes (enzymes convert consumption
starch into maltose); kilning and polishing of (m3/m3 of
the malt to remove rootlets; storage of the sold beer)
cleaned malt.
Gyle (unfermented wort) to 2.0 (1.8-2.2)
• Wort production—grinding of the malt to
grist; mixing grist with water to produce a mash
Wort cooling 0.0 (0.0-2.4)
in the mash tun; heating of the mash to activate
Ferment. cellar and yeast treat. 0.6 (0.5-0.8)
enzymes; separation of grist residues in the
lauter tun to leave a liquid wort; boiling of the Filter and pressure tank room 0.3 (0.1-0.5)
wort with hops; separation of the wort from the Storage cellar 0.5 (0.3-0.6)
trub/hot break (precipitated residues) with the Bottling (70% of beer is bottles) 1.1 (0.9-2.1)
liquid part of the trub being returned to the Barrel filling (30% in barrels) 0.1 (0.1-0.2)
lauter tub and the spent hops going to a Waste water from cleaning of 1.5 (1.0-3.0)
collection vessel; and cooling of the wort. vehicles, sanitary, etc.
• Beer production—addition of yeast to Steam boiler 0.2 (0.1-0.3)
cooled wort; fermentation; separation of spent Air compressor 0.3 (0.1-0.5)
yeast by filtration, centrifugation or settling; Total 6.6 (4.9-12.6)
and bottling and/or kegging. Numbers have been rounded and values in brackets
Water consumption for breweries generally represent ranges.
ranges 4-8 cubic meter per cubic meter (m3/m3)
of beer produced. Water consumption values Phosphorous can also be present at
for individual process stages are shown in the concentrations in the order of 10-30 mg/L.
following table, as reported for the German Effluents from individual process steps are
brewing industry: variable. For example, bottle washing results in
a large volume but it contains only a minor part
Waste Characteristics of the total organics discharged from the
brewery, whereas effluents from fermentation
Breweries can achieve an effluent discharge of and filtering are high in organics/ biochemical
3-5 meter per cubic meter (m3/m3) of sold beer oxygen demand (BOD) but low in volume,

330 Breweries

accounting for about 3% of the total wastewater

volume but 97% of the BOD. Effluent pH Consideration should be given to the use of
averages about 7 for the combined effluent, but non-phosphate containing cleaning agents.
can fluctuate from 3 to 12 depending on the use Breweries have a favorable steam to electricity
of acid and alkaline cleaning agents. Effluent ratio and consideration should be given to
temperatures will average about 300 C. inclusion of cogeneration in the design and
Solid wastes for disposal include: grit, weed operation of the brewery.
seed and grain of less than 2.2 millimeters
diameter removed when grain is cleaned; spent Treatment Technologies
grain and yeast; spent hops; broken bottles or
bottles that cannot be recycled to the process; Where the brewery does not discharge to a
and cardboard and other solid waste associated municipal sewer then primary and secondary
with the process such as kieselguhr treatment of the effluent is required. Primary
(diatomaceous earth used for clarifying). treatment facilities may include: pH adjustment;
Breweries do not discharge air pollutants roughing screens; grit settling chambers; and a
other than some odors. clarifier. Choices of processes to remove BOD5
in a secondary treatment stage include:
Pollution Prevention and Control anaerobic treatment followed by aerobic
treatment and activated sludge systems.
Pollution prevention and control is best Sludges from the clarifier are dewatered and
practiced through effective management, disposed through incineration, or to an
maintenance and housekeeping of a process approved landfill.
that incorporates water conservation and Where the brewery is permitted to discharge
recycling, energy conservation, and disposal of to a municipal sewer, pretreatment may be
solid wastes as by-products. Some options that required to meet municipal bylaws and/or to
may be considered include: lessen the load on the municipal treatment
• use clean-in-place (CIP) methods for plant. In some cases, sewer discharge fees
decontaminating equipment; imposed on effluent volume, and on the
• use high pressure, low volume hoses for suspended and BOD51 loads, by the
equipment cleaning; municipality may encourage the brewery to
• install recirculating systems on cooling install its own treatment facility.
water circuits; Modern plants using good industrial
• use grit, weed seed and grain from grain practices are able to achieve the following in
cleaning as chicken feed; terms of pollutant loads: Water conservation
• dispose of spent grains as animal feed, and recycling will allow water consumption to
either 80% wet or dry after evaporation; be controlled to a minimum. A new brewery
• dispose of wet hops by adding them to the should target on achieving an effluent range of
spent grains; 3-5 m3/m3 beer produced. Provision for recycle
• dispose of spent hop liquor by mixing of liquors and reuse of wash waters will help
with spent grains; reduce the total volume of liquid effluent. A
• use spent yeast that is not reused for new brewery should target on achieving a
livestock feed; treated effluent that has less than 0.3 kilograms
• add trub to spent grains; (kg) of BOD5/m3 beer produced and 0.3 kg of
• recover spilled beer and add to spent suspended solids/m3 beer produced (assumes
grains that are being dried through evaporation; discharge to receiving waters).
• filter tank bottoms from final fermentation Odor emissions can be minimized if exhaust
tanks and use as animal feed; vapors are condensed before they are released
• reduce energy consumption through reuse to the atmosphere or if they are sent to the
of wort cooling water as the process water for boiler and burned.
the next mash
• send broken glass, bottles that cannot be 1
Biochemical oxygen demand measured over 5
used, and waste cardboard to recyclers days.
331 Breweries

Emission Guidelines initial mixing and dilution takes place. Where the zone is
not defined, use 100 meters from the point of discharge.
Emission levels for the design and operation of
each project must be established through the Note: Effluent requirements are for direct
Environmental Assessment (EA) process, based discharge to surface waters.
on country legislation and the Pollution
Prevention and Abatement Handbook as applied to Ambient Noise
local conditions. The emission levels selected
must be justified in the EA and acceptable to Noise abatement measures should achieve
MIGA. either the following levels or a maximum
The following guidelines present emission increase in background levels of 3 dB(A).
levels normally acceptable to the World Bank Measurements are to be taken at noise receptors
Group in making decisions regarding provision located outside the project property boundary.
of World Bank Group assistance, including
MIGA guarantees; any deviations from these
levels must be described in the project Ambient Noise
Maximum Allowable Leq
The guidelines are expressed as
(hourly), in dB(A)
concentrations to facilitate monitoring. Dilution
of air emissions or effluents to achieve these Receptor Daytime Nighttime
guidelines is unacceptable. 07:00 - 22:00 22:00 - 07:00
All of the maximum levels should be
achieved for at least 95% of the time that the Residential; 55 45
plant or unit is operating, to be calculated as a institutional;
proportion of annual operating hours. educational
Industrial; 70 70
Liquid Effluents commercial
The following effluent levels should be The emission requirements given here can be
achieved: consistently achieved by well-designed, well-
Effluents from Breweries operated and well-maintained pollution control
Parameter Maximum value
milligrams per Monitoring and Reporting
liter (mg/L)
PH 6-9 Monitoring of the final effluent for the
BOD5 50 parameters listed above should be carried out at
least once per month, or more frequently if the
Chemical oxygen demand 250 flows vary significantly.
(COD) Monitoring data should be analyzed and
Total suspended solids 50 reviewed at regular intervals and compared
(TSS) with the operating standards so that any
Oil and grease 10 necessary corrective actions can be taken.
Ammonia nitrogen (NH4- 10 Records of monitoring results should be kept in
N) an acceptable format. These should be reported
to the responsible authorities and relevant
Phosphorus (P) 5
parties, as required, and provided to MIGA if
Temperature increase Less than or requested.
equal to 3oC1
1 The
effluent should result in a temperature increase of no
more than 3 degrees Celsius at the edge of the zone where
332 Breweries

Further Information
Key Issues
The following are suggested as sources of
The following box summarizes the key additional information (these sources are
production and control practices that will lead provided for guidance and are not intended to
to compliance with emission requirements: be comprehensive):

• Implement sound maintenance and World Bank, Environment Department. 1997.

housekeeping procedures. "Industrial Pollution Prevention and
Abatement: Breweries." Draft document.
• Minimize water consumption and effluent
generation through recycle and reuse of
process streams.
• Dispose of process solid wastes as by-
products for animal feed.
• Send broken and reject bottles, and waste
cardboard to recycling plants.
• Maintain effluent treatment facilities to
operating design specifications.