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Chapter 11: Nonverbal Communication

Chapter Outline
Definition and Importance
Analyze the Elements of Nonverbal Communication

Space around you
Objects around you

Definition of Nonverbal Communication

Q# Define Nonverbal Communication. Explain how one can improve his
communication skills?
The most important thing in communication is hearing what isn't said.
(Drucker, 2005)
Nonverbal Communication = Communication without words
Nonverbal communication is a process of communication through sending
and receiving wordless messages by the way you move, speak and appear.
Nonverbal communication between people is communication through
sending and receiving wordless cues/ indications.
We use our voice in verbal communication and we use body signs in nonverbal communication
Importance of Nonverbal Communication
Verbal & nonverbal Communication plays an important role in how people
interact with one another. People are using around 35% verbal
communication and 65% nonverbal communication in daily life. Nonverbal
communication has also cultural meaning.
The most important thing in communication is to hear what isn't being
Peter F. Drucker
Nonverbal communication is the most powerful form of communication. It
is more than voice or even words, nonverbal communication helps to
create your image in others mind and even you can express your emotions
and feelings in front of others, which you are unable to express in words.

Analyze the Elements of Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal Behaviors
Nonverbal behaviors are based on culture and environment. The following
are the types of nonverbal behaviors:

Kinesics or Body Language

Vocalics or Paralanguage
Proxemics or Distance
Haptics or Touch
Chronemics or Time

1. Kinesics or Body Language

Kinesics is word related to Body Language that is postures, gestures, facial
expression and eye contact.
One can express Intimacy, love, hate, anger, affection, agreement
through your eyes.
The face also conveys happiness, sadness, love, redness and hatred
Postures and Gestures are used to call someone close, or instruct to
go away.
Body has its own language. Body language skill is one of the essential
qualities of a professional.
Following are the main aspects of body language

Eye Contact
Facial Expression

A. Postures
How you walk, talk, stand, and sit sends a lot of messages to others.
Postures should be opened and centered.
Letting your body relax, having fluid smooth movements, and facing
your conversation partner all indicate confidence and engaging
conversation skills.
Brisk, erect walk
Standing with hands on hips
Sitting with legs crossed, foot kicking
Sitting, legs apart
B. Gestures

Readiness, aggression
Open, relaxed

A gesture is a characteristic of nonverbal communication in which

visible body actions communicate particular message.
Gestures include movement of the hands, face, or other parts of
the body.
Gestures can add warmth and personality to a conversation.
Gestures are used to gain attention, to emphasis something and to
make transition.
Dont locked-in one gesture and do not repeat the same gesture
Gesture control:
Keep your hands empty & still.
Avoid playing with objects.
Genuine & impressive hand gestures are good to confidence &
Legs should be still & firm.
Speaker should stand firmly.
Dont change place every now & then.
Speaker with interest & enthusiasm.

C. Eye Contact

Eye contact is most important because it is most expressive.

Successful pan handlers establish eye contact (Beebe, 1974)
People are more likely to comply when more eye contact is used
Eye contact conveys a sense of sincerity
Eye contact establishes a connection between persons
Eye contact with the audiences creates intimacy.
Eye contact should be maintained appropriately.
The speaker becomes a part of the audience for some moment.
Shift your vision in all direction with little pause.

D. Facial Expression
The face is capable of conveying 250,000 expressions (Birdwhistle,
Smiling increases sociability, likeability, and attraction(LaFrance &
Hecht, 1995)
Food servers who smile more often earn increased tips (Heslin &
Patterson, 1982)
Studies conducted on students caught cheating found that students
who smiled were treated with more leniency (LaFrance & Hecht,
A speaker must look pleasant & confident.
Avoid fear from mind.
The toilet going facial expression creates bad impression about the

2. Vocalics or Paralanguage
Paralanguage (sometimes called Vocalics) is the study of nonverbal
cues of the voice.
Use of voice to communicate includes elements such as pitch, rate,
pauses, volume, tone of voice, silences, laughs, screams, sighs, etc.
Studies have found that people who talk louder, faster, and more
fluently are more persuasive
Deep voices are often viewed as more credible
Powerless style of communication (pauses, umhs, uhs, tag questions)
lowers perceptions of credibility
3. Proxemics or Distance
Proxemics is the study of how people use and perceive the physical
space around them.
The space between the sender and the receiver of a message
influences the way the message is interpreted.
Different cultures have different comfort levels of distance
As children grow older and become less dependent on parents they
require more space
Men tend to take up more space than women
Edward T. Halls 4 levels of distance

Intimate: 0 to 18 inches
personal: 18 inches to 4 feet
social: 4 to 10 feet
public: 10 feet to infinity

4. Haptics or Touch
The power of touch:
A (1997) study found that strangers that were touched were more
likely to return change left in a phone booth(Klienke)
A (1992) study found that food servers who used touch received
larger tips (Hornick)
Library study (1976) found that students who were slightly
touched by clerk while checking out library books evaluated the
library much more favorably than those who were not touched.
5. Chronemics or Time
Chronemics is the study of the use of time in nonverbal
The way we perceive time, structure our time and react to time is a
powerful communication tool, and helps set the stage for
Time perceptions include punctuality and willingness to wait, the
speed of speech and how long people are willing to listen.
A study conducted by Burgoon (1989) found that people who arrive
15 minutes late are considered dynamic, but much less competent,
composed and sociable than those that arrive on time.

6. Environment
What we surround ourselves with.
Example: The way we decorate our house tells others a lot about us.
Several researchers have found that supermarkets strategically
place products
Staples such as dairy, meat and produce are in the back or on
opposite sides of the store, in order to force shoppers to meander
through aisles where theyll be tempted to buy all kinds of other
Childrens products are usually placed on lower shelves where they
can easily be viewed
Snack foods, which appeal to impulsive buyers are usually placed
near check-out areas and at the end of isles where they are more
likely to be snatched up