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Strip Method

Prof. Dr. S.A.Halkude1, Prof. Akim C.Y.2

Principal, Walchand Institute of Technology, Sholapur

Asst. Professor in Civil Engg.Dept., Deogiri Institute of Engineering and Management Studies, Aurangabad

Abstract Generally a box girder is a beam and hence

bending and shear actions exist in longitudinal direction. Due

to the thin walled and widespread cross-section, the shear is

not uniform even along the width of horizontal plates. When

subjected to eccentric loading, the section exhibits torsion. An

exact close form solution for such a continuum with a complex

behavior is almost impossible. Some approximate analytical

methods with simplifying assumptions for loading and

geometry have been used for analysis. The objective of the

research reported in this paper is to obtain analysis of box

Girder Bridge by Finite Strip Method considering various

values of skew angles considering their effect on each nodal

line at specific distance interval along the span of girder by

considering self weight and point load.

Selection of the best approach and the most suitable type

of strip is based mainly on the bridge geometry, namely the

shape and support conditions. The load conditions should

also be considered. For a right or skew slab of box Girder

Bridge with a constant cross-section and simply supported

ends, the finite strip method is the most efficient method. It

reduces to half bandwidth of the stiffness matrix

significantly. Therefore the time consumption in forming

this matrix is reduced

Generating a finite strip model

Depending upon the objective of analysis and the

loading conditions, the suitable finite strip model can be

chosen. In using the finite strip method for the overall

analysis of a single span skew box girder bridge, the

following modeling will provide adequate accuracy.

Nodal lines, Strips, Load Vector, Stiffness matrix, Strain

energy, Finite Element Method.

plates with equivalent elastic properties.

Each web and flange is divided into minimum three

strips. If only the deflection and longitudinal stress are

required, few strips are sufficient. If more accurate

results are desired more strips should be used

considering load act on a nodal line.

In regions with a higher stress gradient, narrower strips

should be used. The width of strip should change

gradually from one strip to another.

If the cross section and loads are both symmetrical about

the centerline, only half of the bridge needs to be

analyzed.

If the bridge is subjected to uniform load only, five to

ten symmetrical harmonies are adequate for the analysis

I. INTRODUCTION

For a structure with constant cross-section and end

boundary conditions that do not change transversely, stress

analysis can be performed using finite strip instead of finite

elements. In each strip, the displacement component at any

point is expressed in terms of the displacement parameters

of nodal lines by means of simple polynomials in the

transverse direction and continuously differentiable smooth

series in the longitudinal direction. With the stipulation that

such series should satisfy the boundary conditions at the

ends of the strip. Using Strain-displacement relationships,

the strain energy of the structure and the potential energy of

external loads can be expressed in terms of the

displacement parameters should make the total potential

energy of the structure become minimum. This yields a set

of linear algebraic equations with the displacement

parameters, the displacement and stress components at any

point in the structure can be obtained.

In order to minimize the half bandwidth of a stiffness

matrix in a finite strip model, the nodal lines should be

numbered so as to keep the difference between the numbers

of all the nodal lines within each strip at a minimum.

191

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2012)

M(y) = - EI

=0

3.1

w(y) = sin

3.2

potential energy developed in the system become a

minimum.

=U+W

=

3.3

The numbering of nodal lines and strips for the proposed

box girder model is done as shown below. The Fig.2.2

shows the Finite Strip Model of box girder whereas the

Fig.2.3 shows the Finite Element Model of box girder.

=0

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

becomes

w(y) =

sin

3.8

III. THEORETICAL FORMULATION

Consider a simply supported beam carrying a central

point load at centre and having span L.

M(y) =

EI

d 2w

=

dy 2

sin

3.9

r

w(y) =

m sin

m 1

m y

l

3.10

r

w(y) =

m 1

M(y) =

m 1

are,

w(y) = 0

sin

sin

sin

sin

3.11

span

192

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2012)

Proposed work for analysis of bridge is descritized into

no. of strips.

a0 , a1 , a2 , a3 ......

Where

N1 ( x) (1 3 X 2 +2 X 3 )

N2 ( x) x(1 2 X + X 2 )

N 3 ( x) ( 3 X 2 2 X 3 )

N 4 ( x) x( X 2 X )

is

In a matrix form,

r

w(x,y) =

fm( x)sin

m 1

r

(a

m 1

m y

l

a1 x a2 x 2 a3 x3 ....)sin

wim

r

im m y

w(x,y) = [ N1 , N 2 ,N 3 , N 4 ]

sin

l

m 1

w jm

jm

m y

l

3.12

3.16

More concisely

parameters.

Consider deflection amplitudes for a plate strip. As

shown above In this there are four displacement parameters

w(x,y) =

Energy Formulation

m y

l

m 1

r

m y

w j = w jm sin

l

m 1

m 1

wi =

im

[ N ]

sin

m y

3.17

l

sin

3.13

r

dw

m y

)i = im sin

dx

l

m 1

r

dw

m y

j = ( ) j = jm sin

dx

l

m 1

form.

2w

2

x

2

w

dxdy

2

y

2w

2

xy

i = (

To

include

the

four

displacement

3.14

3.14

U= 1

2

parameters

is

required in equation.

fm( x) = a0 a1 x a2 x 2 a3 x3

U= 1

2

193

dxdy

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2012)

The strain energy and the potential energy of the entire

plate is,

1 r

U k m m

2 m1

m

T

W

m 1

Ut

pm

k1

Kii Kij k

b 3

b

k m

Kij K jj k4

b b

k5

symmetrical

k2

k5

k1

k6

k3

13lb 4

12l 2

6l

6l

km Dy

km Dxy km2 D1 3 Dx

70

5b

5b

b

k2

lb3 4

4lb 2

2lb 2

2l

km Dy

km Dxy

km D1 Dx

210

15

15

b

m 1

r

k Im Im

Im

T

Wt

k2

k1

k3

1 S

2 I 1

I 1 m 1

pIm

Im

expressed as

t Ut Wt

In order to obtain the best approximation the total

potential energy developed in the system become a

minimum.

t

0 ,

wim

t

0

im

an unknown displacements and bending moments at any

point inside the structure

11lb 4

l

3l

3l

km Dy km2 Dxy km2 D1 2 Dx

420

5

5

b

k4

9lb 4

12l 2

6l

6l

km Dy

km Dxy km2 D1 3 Dx

140

5b

5b

b

k5

13lb2 4

l

l

3l

km Dy km2 Dxy km2 D1 2 Dx

840

5

10

b

k6

lb3 4

lb

lb

l

km Dy km2 Dxy km2 D1 Dx

280

15

30

b

Load vector

pm

P0 at ( x0 , y0 ) is,

N1 ( x0 )

N ( x )

2 0

p0 sin km y0

N3 ( x0 )

N 4 ( x0 )

194

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2012)

Table No. 4.1

Node no. 01 to 08 and skew angle 150 displacement for distance along

beam

Comments:

Bending Moment is obviously zero at both the supports

and nature of graph observed to be sinusoidal in nature.

Variation of Bending Moment (Mx, My and Mxy)

observed at 3.0 m, 6.0 m and 9.0 m from the left to right

support shown by the graphs is plus or minus 5 % while

comparing program to staad-pro results.

Results and discussion

Comparison of displacement and bending moment

(transverse, longitudinal and twisting) values as obtained

by the computer program and Staad-Pro at 3.0 m, 6.0 m

and 9.0 m from the left to right support shown by the

graphs. It is observed from these graphs that values of

downward displacement and bending moment obtained by

the computer program and that obtained by Staad-Pro is

comparable.

Comments:

Displacement is obviously zero at both the supports and

nature of graph observed to be parabolic in nature.

V. PARAMETRIC WORK

and 9.0 m from the left to right support shown by the

graphs is plus or minus 5 % while comparing program to

staad-pro results.

program based on the finite strip method with those given

by the Staad-Pro confirms that the computer program

developed is accurate and reliable.

195

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2012)

On basis of this the parametric work is done by

considering the skew angles150,300&450 The results

obtained are tabulated in the form of tables and graphs.

Comments:

Node no. 1 to 8 and skew angle 150, 300&450 displacement for distance

along beam

as we go towards the centre displacement decreases with

increase in skew angle i.e. about 5 to 10%

zero.

displacement is reducing

Comments :

Bending moment obviously zero at both the support.

For given skew angle Mx varies in a sinusoidal form

The maximum bending moment observe at centre.

With increase in skew angle Mx decreases up to skew

angle 300 then it again increases

196

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2012)

VI. CONCLUSION

The computer time and effort required for the analysis of

skew box girder using newly developed program is less

as compared to Finite Element Analysis using Staad-Pro.

Finite Strip Method require less input data because of

the smaller number of mesh lines involved due to the

reduction in dimensional analysis but in case of Finite

Element Method it is somewhat tedious and difficult.

Finite Strip Method involves less number of equations

and matrix with narrow bandwidth, consequently much

less computing time for solution, where as Finite

Element Method involves more no. of equations and

matrix so it is time consumable.

In Finite Strip Method it is easy to specify only those

locations at which displacement and bending moments

are required and then accordingly the computations

In an analysis of box Girder Bridge by Finite Strip

Method considering loadings i.e. point load at centre, the

variation of nodal displacement and nodal bending

moments as obtained by computer program is almost

same.

It is observed that the longitudinal bending moment My

decreases and the twisting moments Mxy increases with

an increase in the skew angle.

Comments:

Bending moment obviously zero at both the support.

For given skew angle Mx varies in a sinusoidal form

The maximum bending moment observe at centre.

With increase in skew angle bending moment increases

and its nature reverses.

VII. NOTATIONS

P .. load

w . Displacement

M . Bending Moment

. Total potential energy

W . Potential energy

U . Strain energy

r .. No. of series terms

[N] Matrix of transverse shape function

Mx Transverse bending moment

My Longitudinal bending moment

Mxy . Twisting moment

{M} . Moment vector

Dx Flexural rigidity

Dxy .. Torsional rigidity

D1 Coupling rigidity

Comments:

Bending moment obviously zero at both the support.

For given skew angle Mxy varies in a sinusoidal form

The maximum bending moment observe at centre.

With increase in skew angle bending moment increases

and its nature reverse

197

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2012)

{K} ..

{P}

{} .

s

t

Stiffness matrix

Load vector

Curvature vector

no. of strips

is subscript representing the whole structure.

Madhujit Mukhopadhyay.

[12 ] Matrix methods of structural analysis by Madhu B. Kanchi.

[13 ] Combined boundary element / Finite strip analysis of bridges.

Journal of Structural Engineering ASCE, 120,716-727.

[14 ] Analysis of Curved box girder bridges. Structural Division, ASCE,

99, 799-819

[15 ] Application of the Finite strip method in the analysis of concrete box

bridges ICJ, Jan 1994, 47-52

[16 ] Essential of bridge Vector.

[17 ] Analysis of curved folded plate structures. ASCE, Structural

Division, 97, 2459-2480

[18 ] Bridge Engineering by Phatak.

[19 ] Design of Bridge Structures by T.R.Jagadesh & M.A.Jayaram.

[20 ] Scordelis A.C. ( 1967) Analysis of Continuous box girder

bridgesSESM report 67-25, Univ. of California, Berkeley

[21 ] Concrete box girder bridges as sandwich plates. Structural Division

ASCE, 96, 2353-2371.

[22 ] Behavior of Stiffened Curved plate model ASCE Vol.95, ST 11,

1959.

[23 ] Cusens A R , Loo Y.C. (1974) Application of the Finite Strip

Method in the analysis of concrete box bridges ICE, 57,251-273

[24 ] Finite Element Method for structural Engg. New age

publications.

REFERENCE

[1 ] Cheung Y.K. ( 1969) Analysis of box Girder Bridge by finite strip

methodACI Publication, SP-26, 357-378

[2 ] Finite Strip Method in Structural Analysis by Y.K.Cheung.

[3 ] The Finite Strip Method in Bridge Engg. Dr. Yew-Chaye Loo

[4 ] Cheung M.S. , Georges Akhras. ( 1994) Combined boundary

element/Finite strip analysis of bridges Journal of Structural

Engineering, ASCE, 120, 716-727.

[5 ] Scordelis A.C. ( 1966) Analysis of simply supported box girder

bridgesSESM report 66-17, Univ. of California, Berkeley.

[6 ] Cheung M.S. Cheung Y.K. ( 1971 ) Analysis of curved box girder

bridges by finite strip method IABSE, 1-19

[7 ] Finite Element method by C.S. Desai and J.F.Abel.

[8 ] Buragohain D.N. Analysis of curved box girder bridgesStructural

Division, ASCE, 99, 799-819

[9 ] The Finite Element method by O.C.Zienkiewicz. and R.L.Taylor

Fourth edition (Volume 1)

[10 ] Finite Element Analysis Theory & Programming (Second Edition)

By C.S. Krishnamurthy.

198

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