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Brief Introduction of SH/MH Components

and
Civil Engineering aspects of SH/MH

Janak Das Koirala


Treasurer - Nepal Micro Hydro Power Development Association
(NMHDA)
Executive Director - AG Power Company P. Ltd.
Executive Director - DAT Engineering Consultancy P. Ltd.

INTRODUCTION
A Micro Hydro (Or A Small Hydro) Power Project Is A System Of Electricity Generation By
Water Driven Forces And Power Is Supplied To Villages/Cities For Different Uses.
Generally Hydro Energy From MHP Is Basically Used For Lightening.
Diesel Type Mills For Grain Grinding, Rice Hulling Etc. Are Replaced By Electrical Driven
Type.
History of Micro hydro in Nepal - since 1960 after establishment of Balaju Yantra Shala
assisted by Swiss and at the same period United Mission to Nepal (UMN) support also
initiated.
Water Mills were used extensively during 1970.
Private Manufacturing Companies spread up in eighties.

Contd..
Most of the equipments/components e.g.. Gate Valves, Turbines, Trash
racks, MS Pipes for penstocks, Conductors and Load Controllers are in
general locally manufactured in Nepal.
Generators are imported from abroad especially from India and China, and
also from Europe in some cases.
Standardization started in late eighties.
Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) and Agricultural
Development Bank Nepal (ADB/N) contributed for enhancement of
technological base of the micro hydro installations in the country.
After establishment of Alternative Promotion Centre quality aspects of micro
hydro power project has been given more emphasize and standards has
been

established

installations steps.

in

survey,

design,

manufacturing/fabrication

and

Small Scale Water Power Schemes


Power supply System
S.N.

Type of Scheme

Capacity

Isolated

Grid

1 Full Scale hydro

>10MW

2 Mini Hydro Scheme

300KW- 10
MW

3 Micro Hydro Scheme

<300KW

Note: 1. Above category was made by Adam Harvey and et all, Micro Hydro
Design Manual
2. Micro Hydro Schemes may or may not generate electricity, may be grid
connected also and normally are of Run of River Type.

Nepal hydro power


S.N.

Size

Category

Project < 5kw

Pico Hydro

100 kw > Project > 5 Kw

Micro Hydro

100Kw > Project > 1 MW

Mini Hydro

10MW > Project > 1 MW

Small Hydro

Project > 10MW

Large Hydro

What we do in design of a MHP?


Layout Design:
We Specify the locations, sizes, materials, and other
parameters of all civil engineering structures/components that
are to be constructed or installed at the site.

Design of Electro Mechanical Equipment


We determine the sizes, types of Electrical and Mechanical
equipments, depending up on the proved science and
engineering laws as well as national and international
guidelines and practiced

Economical and financial Analysis


We determine the financial viability of the project by determining
some financial indicators like B/C Ratio, Net Present Value
(NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) etc.

Operation and Maintenance


Designer should mention the level of human resources, spare
parts required, frequency of maintenance of different type of
equipments etc. in the design report.

Ideal Design
Optimize the use of resources.
An ideal design should be such that based on it an experienced installer should be
able to construct the scheme independently of, with only nominal assistance from,
the designer.
Conclude the findings and recommend to the concerned parties developer, donor,
approval committee etc. for required action.

Base for design


The design of the scheme is based primarily on the information obtained during the
various surveys. Therefore, it can only be as good as the results of surveys.
The design process is iterative since the dimensions and other parameters of the
MHP components are interdependent.

Design guidelines
Various organizations and institutions has developed
design guidelines incorporating the national and
international standards, country situation, enhancing
available indigenous technology etc.
Example Micro Hydro Design Manual by Adam
Harvey ITDG
Detail Feasibility Study and Design Guidelines
AEPC, Nepal
Manual for Decentralized Distribution & Generation
Projects (Based on Community Participan)
Uttaranchal Renewable Energy Development Agency
(UREDA), India
Etc.

MHP Project Cycle in Nepal/AEPC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Request for survey by entrepreneur/community


Pre-feasibility study by pre-qualified consultants
Quality Check by AEPC
Detailed feasibility study Consultants: QC -AEPC
Subsidy Approval Further QC - AEPC
Project construction: PQ installation companies &
manufacturers QC by independent Inspectors
Power verification QC by Indpnt. Inspector.
1 year warranty check QC (Indpnt. Inspctr)

CIVIL COMPONENTS
Intake
Weir
Spillway
Desilting Basin
Headrace Canal/ Pipe
Forebay
Support Structures
Support Piers
Anchor blocks

Machine Foundation
Power House
Tailrace

Civil Components
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Trashrack

Intake
Headrace
Canal

Canal

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Forebay

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Anchor Block

Canal

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Support Pier

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Spillway

Anchor Block

Forbay

Support Piers
Spill way

Penstock Pipe

Anchor Block

Source

Power House

Power House
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Tailrace
Major Civil Components Of Micro Hydro Scheme

Diversion Works
The diversion works of a micro-hydropower scheme control the flow
of water from the source river in to the headrace.
The diversion structures comprise

a diversion weir,

an intake, and sometimes

Some river training works.


Collectively the diversion works together with a gravel trap and
spillway is termed as Headwork.

Diversion Weir
A diversion weir is a low structure (small dam) placed across the
river which diverts the river flow safely in to the hydropower system
through side intake.
The weir can be of a permanent, semi -permanent or temporary
nature.
The main function of a weir is to ensure that the channel flow is
maintained with the river in low flow period.

Function of Diversion works


- Maintain the design flow with nominal head
losses during both monsoon and dry season
- prevent, or at least minimize, the bed load
and other floating material entering the canal
- safely contain peak flows in the river and
away from the micro-hydro system so that
damage is not caused to the structures.

Diversion Weir contd


contd

Site selection General


rules/principles:
Extraction of water from the river in a reliable
and controllable way
Use natural features of river if possible . eg.
Natural Permanent pool in the river may provide
the same function as a weir.
Adopt traditional management known to local
people
Adopt traditional method of construction of
temporary weirs as far as possible.
Generally, It should be located 2-10 m
downstream of the intake depending on the site
conditions.
Should be located at a narrow part of the river

Diversion Weir contd


contd

Temporary Weir
Temporary weir is constructed using boulders available at the site,
stone masonry in mud mortars placed across a part or all of the river
width.
This is the traditional method used by Nepali farmers and quite
extensively used in micro hydro schemes in Nepal.
It is simple and low cost but it is not possible to divert all of the river
flow in dry season by this structure.
It is suitable only for the diversion of flows below 1 m3/sec
Semi Permanent Weir
Gabion structures can be use as semi permanent weir.
If there is no significant boulder movement along the river stretch at the
intake area, it may be effective
It can tolerate some ground movement without significant damage on
its body
As the gabion wires are more vulnerable to damage by moving
boulders, it cannot used in the steep streams, which carry such
boulders.
Seepage can be control by using an impermeable membrane.

Diversion Weir contd


contd

Permanent weir

If flow is limited during dry season and river does not carry large boulders
permanent weir may be built across the river.
These are constructed of mass concrete, stone masonry in cement mortar and

using plum concrete.


A reinforced concrete surface layer may be provided to protect the weir body

from damage by boulders moving in flood season.


A permanent weir should be considered in the following conditions, if:

large boulders do not move in the river at the weir site.


the river bed is not eroding, aggrading or shifting course.
there is a scarcity of flow in dry season.
there is sufficient fund for construction.
the site is not in remote areas.
Factors to be considered during design of weirs:

If a weir across part of the river width is sufficient, it should not be extended
across the entire width.
The weir length should allow safe passage of design flood.
The weir height should be as low as possible but should be such that the
water level rises above the upper edge of the intake mouth.
The weir profile should be such that it is possible for the bed load to move
the boulders to roll over it.

Photo : Temporary Weir

Photo : Permanent Weir

Intake/ Function of the intake/Types


An intake is a structure in the diversion works where the water to the power
plant is either abstracted or separated from the river flow.
To ensure the withdrawal of flow from the river in the required quantity and
directing towards water ways of the scheme.
To limit excess flow into the intake during high flow season.
To control the sediment inflow towards water ways from the source river.
Minimizes hydraulic losses.
Prevent formation of air vortices.
Prevents floating debris, trash and ice from entering the water conveyance
system.
Types of intake structure are chiefly distinguished by the method used to
divert water from the river. In MHP generally two types of intake are used:
Side Intake
Bottom Intake
Coanda Intake ( Innovative Intake tested in a MHP in UK)

Side Intake
A structure built along a river bank and in
front of a canal / conduit end for diverting
the required water safely. Side intakes are
simple, less expensive, easy to build and
maintain.

Site Intake

Site selection for Intake


It should be possible to divert the design flow from the river towards the
headrace.
The river should not change its course at the intake location over time.
The river should not have high gradient at the intake site.
Placed it at the side of rock outcrop or behind the large boulder
Place at straight reach as far as possible
In case of bend, it should be on the outer side of the bend never on the
inner side of a bend. (Sediment deposit protection + dry season flow
assurances)

Bottom Intake

Photo : Bottom Intake

HYDROLOGY
 
   

 
   
        
      
  
   
   
     
     
  
    
       
         
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Design Discharge
11 month (~92%) exceedance criteria in MHP context
The installed capacity should be available to the Community
at least 11 months a year (12 Months for REDP Projects)
Maximum demand during the winter season
The driest season (12 month exceedance) is winter (mid Jan
mid Feb) for streams that are snow fed & April May for
streams that come from spring sources.
In the absence of flow exceedance criteria, schemes could be
oversized.
~ 80-85 % of 11/12 months Discharge is taken as the designed
discharge

5-10% for losses consideration


10% for down stream discharge

Civil Works General Requirement


a.
b.
c.
d.

Flow Duration Curve (FDC) shall be established from stream


gauging at least one lean season measurement .
Qdesign < Q minm from FDC for stand alone mode , Down stream
flow requirement must be as per government rules.
Water conveyance system (excluding penstock and tailrace) shall
be designed for 10 20% higher flow.
Specification for drawing, c/s interval, etc.

Diversion and Intake


a. Where to use lateral intake or a bottom intake?
b. Flood period eg. For MHP<30Kw, it is 20years
for MHP>30Kw, it is 50 years.
c. Orifice
d. Stop log
e. Provision for debris etc.

and

Gravel Trap and Sand Trap


a.
b.
c.

d.

Where these are not required- spring source


Sluice gate requirement
Size of grains to be settled are >0.2mm, minm. 90% should be settled
for design head <100m. And it is 95% for head>100m
L- slope should not be < 1:30 for side intake, flushing arrangement,

Forebay
a. Shall house an overflow spillway, a drain valve or stop log
gate to flush sediment, and a trash rack, Disposal
requirement of spilled water
b. Length, width, submergence for PSP, leakage etc. are
mentioned
c. Thickness of concrete
Penstock
a. Excavation/ depth in case of PVC/HDPE
b. Types, sizes, of support piers, anchor blocks
c. Movement and clearances in support structures
d. About acting forces and their transmission
e. Air vent and size

Power house
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Elevation with respect to high flood level


Weather proof requirement, ventilation, doors, windows,
roof, working space, store room, etc.
Hoist for turbine/generator installation for >30kw
Earthing system
Foundation
Drainage in cable ducts

Tailrace
a. Water level with respect to turbine runner
b. V notch weir provision
c. Energy dissipating provision

Weir and Intake

Orifice Intake Design


Set V through the orifice
Calculate Orifice Area required:

Q
A=
V

$%
 % & ' 

 %() '* ) +

Set orifice height or width and calculate the other


parameter:
A

W=

Orifice Intake design (contd)


Check flow through the orifice
using the submerged orifice
equation:

Q = AC 2g(hr hh )

Normal river water (hr) is set


by weir height
Canal height hh is set when
sizing headrace. Ensure orifice
is submerged

,    -




  ,(' . 

  ,(' /

Orifice Intake design (contd)


Repeat calculations for flood flow condition

Size initial headrace canal to accommodate


flood flow
Locate spillway as close as possible & size its
capacity to spill the entire flood flow

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Sp

CREST

B
B

Possible Layout
Left flood wall

Sp

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Headrace canal sizing


Decide on canal type Earthen, cement
masonry, concrete etc.
Based on type of canal chosen, set velocity
& side slopes
Set either canal water depth or width and
calculate the other based on Mannings
equation:
1
Qn
23
Q = AR
S, S =
23
n
AR

Headrace canal sizing


Mannings equation

Q = flow in m3/s
A = cross sectional area of
canal (up to water depth), m2
S = Slope of the energy
grade line ~ ground slope
n = roughness coefficient of
canal, also called Mannings
roughness
R = Hydraulic radius, A/P,
P = Wetted perimeter sum
of lengths of two sides and
width of canal up to water
depth: w + 2h

1
Qn
23
Q = AR
S, S =
23
n
AR




0

 
&''' +

Headrace canal sizing


Check for critical velocity (T = Top width in canal):

VC =

Velocity in canal < 0.8Vc to ensure stable uniform flow

Sediment deposition in canals


Shields formula d = 11RS

d = Particle size transported in canal, m


R Hydraulic radius, m
S = canal slope

Design to ensure no deposition in canal. e.g., if G. trap is


designed to settle particles larger than 2 mm, then, the canal
from G. Trap to S. Basin must be able to transport particles up
to 2 mm.

Ag
T

Canal

Spillway sizing
Spillway required to spill
excess flows during
floods or for canal
maintenance
downstream:

2
1 

hovertop

=
CW xLweir

0.667

1      

,  

2   

Spillway sizing
Cw for different weir
Profile
3  
  

Headrace
4.0 m
1.3 m

0.98 m width = 1.10.74


0.80 m
Canal
mm
Note: required design depth = 0.5 m only, so
add another spillway by reiteration

Note: this headrace will be too expensive if


continued downstream. Therefore, resize
headrace downstream of spillway with design
flow only.

Headrace & Spillway


,  
4

5

Sizing of headrace pipe


1.

2.

Select pipe velocity based on whether upstream of G. Trap/S. basin


or downstream. V ~ 1.5 m/s for headrace u/s of G. trap & ~3.0 m/s
for d/s of G. Trap
Calculate actual velocity:
V = velocity m/s
Q = design flow in m3/s
D = pipe inner diameter in m

3.
4.

Total loss = wall loss + turbulence loss


Calculate head loss in pipe length, inlet & bends

Q 4 xQ
V= =
2
A d

Gravel trap/settling basin


-

Gravel trap/Settling basin


Gravels/particles should
settle in the basin
It should be possible to
safely flush the settled
particles from the basin
Gravels should not
deposit upstream
Max gravel size governed
by coarse trashrack
spacing

Settling Basin Basic theory


Ideal basin:
A particle entering water
surface at beginning
of settling basin (point
X) should reach the
end of the basin
(point Y) if it is to be
settled

Settling Basin Basic theory


L = settling zone length
B = Settling zone width
y = mean water depth
or hydraulic depth
t = time for particle to
travel L (s)
Vp = horizontal velocity
w = fall velocity (from
Shields graph)
Q = discharge

Settling Basin Basic theory


For particle to reach
from X to Y, these
equations have to be
valid:

y = wt  (a)
L = V p t  (b)
Q = BV p y  (c)
=> From a, b, c, Q = BLw

Settling Basin Basic theory


Q = BLw
Therefore, for a given Q, & particle size to be
settled, ideal dimensions can be determined:
In practice larger basin required because:
- turbulence in basin
- imperfect flow distribution at entrance &
- converge flow at exits, curves etc.
Thus, required plan area should be doubled.

Settling Basin-Basic theory


Smooth transition
L/B = 4 10
can be 27o (1:2 1:5).

dlimit
h < 10 m, dlimit = 0.3 0.5 mm
10 m < h < 100 m,
dlimit = 0.2 0.3 mm
h >100 m, dlimit = 0.1 0.2 mm
V=

Q
< 0.44 d lim it
By

If not increase cross sectional area

Desilting Basin

Incorrect: High velocity in centre stream and turbulence in corners

Correct: Low velocity throught width, no turbulence

Desilting Basin

Forebay - design criteria


- Trashrack, V < 0.6
m/s, 3:1 slope
- Spillway must
- Air vent
- Some clearance for
penstock at bottom
- 15 second flow
storage volume above
penstock pipe.
- incorporate a spillway

While, the minimum submergence head


required for the penstock pipe

hsubmergence

V2
= 1.5
2* g

Forebay Cum Desilting Basin


L(exit)
L(entry) = 3.80
L(settling) = 10.00

1
2.5
Trash Rack
Airvent Pipe

A. Block-1

Expansion Joint
Penstock Pipe

HDPE pipe (spill way)

Sluice gate
Over Flow Length = 6.00

W(settling) = 2.50

Forebay

SUPPORT STRUCTURES

Penstock
Alignment
Support piers

Support piers
Use of Tar paper
(asbestos sheet)
minimizes friction
between pipe &
support pier
Base plate
provides
additional safety

Spacing of support piers

Diameter (mm)
Thickness mm
2
4
6

100

200
300
400
support piers spacing in meter
2
2
2.5
3
3
3
3
4
4
4.5
5
5

500
3
4
6

Sizing of Anchor Blocks


Thumb rule for P < 20 KW & h < 60 m
i.
Straight section:
Place 1 anchor block every 30 m by
keying 1 m3 of concrete for every 300
mm pipe dia.

Sizing of Anchor Blocks


ii.Bends < 45o
Double the concrete volume than for
straight section
e.g., if dia=200 mm, bend = 20o
Anchor block volume=2x(200/300)
=1.33 m3

Sizing of Anchor Blocks


iii. bends > 45o
Treble the concrete than for straight
section
e.g., dia. = 350 mm, Bend = 58o
Volume required = 3 x (350/300) = 3.5 m3
Note: 1 anchor block every 30 m even if
there is not a bend at this length.

Sizing of Anchor Blocks

Some construction details

Machine Foundation
Turbine

Tailrace
canal

Generator

A
PLAN

Turbine

Generator

T/G Base frame

100 mm 1 : 1.5 : 3 Pre cast slab


stone soling
1 : 1.5 : 3 RCC

Tailrace canal (Slope = 3.5%)

200 mm RCC ( 1:1.5:3)


300 mm stone soling

SECTION - AA

0.70

ry r
on rta
as mo
e m /s
on c
St 1:4
in

1.2

Anchor rods
(20 mm dia.)

Machine Foundation

Power House
CGI Sheet Roofing
Penstock Pipe

ELC

BT
Valve

W1

OPERATOR
W QUARTER

T
G

D1

Tailrace 1:40 Slope

D1
W1

75 mm PCC (1:2:4)

200 mm soling

Powerhouse and Tailrace

Thank You!