Fun Facts about the Assyrians 1. This usurper to the throne, who ruled 745 B.C. until 727 B.C.

, is regarded as the founder of the second Assyrian empire. What was his name? Tiglath-Pileser III. During the reign of Tiglath-Pileser III Damascus was taken and Israel was captured and made a vassal state. He also crowned himself King of Babylon in 734 BC and established himself among the great line of kings of the Babylonian empire. 2. What was the capital of the Assyrian empire at its founding in 745 B.C.? Nimrud. Nimrud was founded by Shalmaneser I during his reign in the 13th century B.C. and became capital under Ashurnasirpal II. This monumental city was laid out with lush gardens and parks and was surrounded by a great wall enclosing 200 hectares. It remained capital until 710 B.C. when it was replaced by Dur-Sharrukin (the city of Sargon). 3. The second ruler of the Assyrian empire, Shalmaneser V (son of the founder) began his rule in 727 by immediately going to work on reducing Israel to a province. He died while laying siege to Israel's capital, which was located at...? Samaria. Despite the support of Egypt, Israel eventually fell to the Assyrians, but only after a 3 year siege of their capital city at Samaria. Shalmaneser V died during the siege and the credit for its final capture was taken by his successor Sargon II. 4. Shalmaneser's successor, by usurpation, was which great Assyrian king that ruled from 722 B.C. to 705 B.C.? Sargon II. During the reign of Sargon II constant war prevailed, as the Assyrians completed the reduction of Samaria, destroyed their enemies in Urartu and Phrygia and successfully defended their empire against the Cimmerians. 5. An invasion of which people was successfully diverted in 705 B.C.? Cimmerians. The Cimmerians were a people from the area of modern Ukraine (Crimea is named for them) who were forced south by the Scythians in the 8th century B.C. In the area now occupied by modern Turkey, the Cimmerians found a new, fertile ground for themselves, but first they were forced to make room for themselves by warring against the kingdoms already existing there. They successfully defeated the Armenians but were turned back by the Assyrians in 705. Later they laid waste to Phrygia and Lydia but were defeated by the Assyrians once again in the 7th century B.C. 6. It was during the reign of Sennacherib (704-681 B.C.) that the Assyrian capital was moved to which location? Nineveh. Nineveh was made the capital of Assyria by Sennacherib, who decided on a more defensible position than that selected by his father

who had built his new capital at Khorsabad. Hence, Assyria went through three different capitals within 50 years! 7. Which of these important events did not happen during Sennacherib's reign? Jerusalem was looted and destroyed. Babylon had rebelled against Assyria very early in Sennacherib's reign and he elected to destroy the city as a lesson to other potentially rebellious subjects. When the Elamites, who dwelled along the foothills of the Zagros mountains in Persia, came to the aid of the Babylonians, Sennacherib's army defeated them too, but at a high cost to the Assyrian army. In the west, the Egyptians convinced the kingdom of Judah, under the reign of King Hezekiah, to attack the Assyrian position in the levant region. The Assyrians defeated Hezekiah and made him a vassal, but left the city of Jerusalem intact. 8. Perhaps the greatest reign of Assyrian history was enjoyed by Sennacherib's successor. What was the name of this great king? Esarhaddon. While Esarhaddon only reigned for 12 years, from 681 B.C. to 669 B.C., his rule was rather eventful. It included the conquest of Egypt and capture of the capital at Memphis, and the rebuilding of Babylon. The Assyrian empire was at its greatest extent during his reign, which had begun with the quelling of a rebellion started during the latter years of Sennacherib's rule. 9. Who was the last great king of Assyria, ruling from 669 until 627 B.C., and presiding over the disintegration of the empire? Ashurbanipal. It was during the reign of Ashurbanipal that the various vassal states revolted en masse, beginning in Egypt and ending with rebellion of Media. The final collapse of the empire occurred only 15 years after his death when Nineveh was captured and destroyed. 10. The capital of the Assyrian empire was captured and plundered in the year 612 B.C. by which pair of former Assyrian vassals? Babylon and Media. Thus ended the great reign of the later Assyrian empire. Hittites
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Dominated Asia Minor (modern day Turkey) between 1750 and 1180 BC Hittite History is divided into three kingdoms: Old (17501500BC), Middle(1500-1430BC) and the New(1430-1180BC) Were a relatively open minded and liberal civilization in comparisson to those of Mesopotamia - Hittite Laws rarely made use of the death penalty

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Had many deities in fact the Hittites were called the 'people of the thousand gods'. These included: Arinna - the sun goddess, Tarhunt - god of thunder who battles the serpent Illuyanka and Ishara - the goddess of the oath Famous leaders include: Labarnas II(unified people - set up capital at Hattusa), Musilis (grandson of Labarnas - won control of Syrian trading routes and reached Babylon), Suppiluliumas I (defeated Mittanian kingdom - set up Hittite Empire), Muwattlalis (Rival of Egyptian pharaoh Ramases II - fought Ramases' trrops to a stalemate at Kadesh) and Hattusillis III (concluded peace treaty with the Egyptians) The city of Troy is believed to be a Hittite vassal state Its Empire was bought down by attacks from the Sea People and Archaen Greeks. Smaller Hittite kingdoms in Syria and Asia minor survived until the seventh century BC. Kingdoms were finally overrun by the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Hittites spoke an Indo-European language The Hittites should not be confused with Hattians an earlier population that occupied the Asia Minor region Hittites are thought to be an influential force in driving the Iron Age. They were well known for their chariot construction. The Hittites are mentioned in the Bible - in Genesis Abraham buys land from a Hittite for example, Esau marries a Hittite woman. They are also mentioned in Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Chronicles, Kings, Ezekiel and Ezra. Like the Mesopotamians the Hittites used cuneiform letters The Hittites are thought to have had the first constitutional monarchy Another important Hittite city was that of Nesa The Hittites sold Abraham the cave where he buried his wife Sarah, when the Israelites came to Palestine.

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