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25.

1 Distinguish between endotherms and ectotherms, providing


examples of each.
1. Endothermic animals
a. derive body heat mainly from their metabolism and
b. include birds and mammals.
2. Ectothermic animals
a. gain most of their heat from external sources and
b. include many reptiles, fishes, and most invertebrates.
25.1 Describe the four ways that heat is gained or lost by an animal.
Heat exchange with the environment may occur by
a. conductionthe transfer of heat by direct contact,
b. radiationthe emission of electromagnetic waves that can transfer heat between entities
not in direct contact,
c. convectionthe transfer of heat by movement of air or liquid past a surface, or
d. evaporationthe loss of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing
some of its
25.2
Describe the five general categories of adaptations that help animals
thermoregulate. Provide specific examples of each.
1. Endotherms and many ectotherms maintain a fairly constant internal temperature
within an optimal range despite external temperature fluctuations.
2. The adaptations that help animals thermoregulate can be classified into five categories.
a. Metabolic Heat Productionwhen cells perform cellular respiration, chemical energy is
converted to ATP, energy the cell can use to perform work, and heat is produced.
b. Insulationa major thermoregulatory adaptation in mammals and birds is insulation: hair (or
fur), feathers, and fat.
c. Circulatory Adaptations
i. Heat loss can be altered by change in the amount of blood flowing (circulation) to the
skin.
ii. When the surface vessels are constricted, less blood flows from the warm body core to
the body surface, reducing the rate of heat loss through radiation.
iii. Conversely, dilated surface blood vessels increase the rate of heat loss.
iv. In countercurrent heat exchange, warm and cold blood flow in opposite
(countercurrent) directions in two adjacent blood vessels.
d. Evaporative Cooling
i. Evaporative cooling occurs when water absorbs heat from the body surface.
ii. As the water evaporates, the vapor it produces takes large amounts of body heat away.
e. Behavioral Responses
i. All animals control body temperature by adjusting their behavior in response to the
environment.
ii. Some birds and butterflies migrate seasonally to more suitable climates.
iii. Other animals, such as desert lizards, warm themselves in the sun through
radiation when it is cold and find cool, damp areas or burrows when it is hot.

25.3
Describe the way emperor penguin huddling behavior changes and why this
is adaptive
1. Emperor penguins huddle during the Antarctic winter.
2. Metabolic heat generated by individual penguins is easily lost through radiation and
convection in the cold, but the huddling behavior promotes conduction that
counteracts this heat loss.
3. The center of a huddle is warmest.
4. The periphery, with a lot of exposed surface area, is the coldest.
5. Scientists observing these huddles have wondered if each penguin has access to the center.
a. One hypothesis is that huddles are statica penguin on the periphery of a huddle remains
there.
b. An alternative hypothesis is that huddles are changinga penguin on the periphery can
eventually find itself in the center of a huddle.
6. A German study in 2011 used time-lapse photography and tracked individual birds.
7. The study supports the hypothesis that huddles rearrange, allowing all penguins time in the
warmest parts of these masses.
25.4 Describe the osmoregulatory challenges and associated adaptations of
freshwater and saltwater fish, terrestrial arthropods, and terrestrial vertebrates.
1. Osmoregulation is the homeostatic maintenance of solute concentrations and the
balance of water gain and loss.
2. Osmosis is the passive diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, from a
solution with a lower solute concentration (and thus more water) to one with a higher solute
concentration.
3. When an animal cell is in an environment where the solute concentration is lower than that
inside the cell (hypotonic), water diffuses into the cell, causing it to swell and
potentially burst.
4. When an animal cell is in an environment where the solute concentration is higher than that
of the cell (hypertonic), water diffuses out of the cell, causing it to shrivel and possibly die.
5. Osmoconformers
a. have body fluids with a solute concentration equal to that of seawater,
b. face no substantial challenges in water balance, and
c. include many marine invertebrates.
6. Osmoregulators
a. have body fluids whose solute concentrations differ from that of their environment,
b. must actively regulate water movement, and
c. include
i. many land animals,
ii. freshwater animals such as perch, and
iii. marine vertebrates such as cod.
7. Saltwater fish

a. live in a hypertonic environment,


b. lose water by osmosis from their body surfaces,
c. drink seawater, and
d balance solutes by pumping out excess salt through their gills.
8. Freshwater fish
a. live in a hypotonic environment,
b. gain water by osmosis through their body surface, especially through the gills,
c. lose salt by diffusion to the more dilute environment,
d. take in salt through their gills and in food, and
e. excrete excess water by producing large amounts of dilute urine.
9. Land animals
a. face the risk of dehydration,
b. lose water across their skin and moist respiratory surfaces and in urine and feces,
c. gain water by drinking, eating, and performing cellular respiration, and
d. conserve water by external and internal adaptations such as a waterproof exoskeleton,
watertight egg shells, and kidneys that conserve water.
25.5 Describe the three ways that animals eliminate nitrogenous
wastes and the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
1. Waste disposal is a crucial part of osmoregulation because most metabolic wastes must be
dissolved in water to be removed from the body.
2. Metabolism produces a number of toxic by-products, such as the nitrogenous wastes that
result from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids.
3. An animal disposes of these metabolic wastes by converting them to chemicals that can be
excreted through an opening in the body.
4. The type of waste product produced and how the animal disposes of it depends on
a. adaptations and
b. habitat.
5. Ammonia (NH3) is
a. too toxic to be stored in the body,
b. highly soluble in water, and
c. easily disposed of by aquatic animals.
6. Urea is
a. produced in the vertebrate liver by combining ammonia and carbon dioxide,
b. less toxic, and
c. a soluble form of nitrogenous waste.
7. Uric acid is
a. excreted by some land animals (insects, land snails, and many reptiles),
b. relatively nontoxic,
c. water-insoluble,
d. excreted as a semisolid paste, conserving water, but
e. more energy-expensive to produce.

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25.6
Describe the general and specific structure of the human
kidney. Explain how this organ promotes homeostasis. 1.
The
urinary system
a. forms and excretes urine and
b. regulates the amount of water and solutes in body fluids.
In humans, the kidneys are the main processing centers of the urinary system.
Our kidneys extract about 180 L of fluid, called filtrate, consisting of
a. water,
b. urea, and
c. a number of valuable solutes, including glucose, amino acids, ions, and vitamins.
Our kidneys refine the filtrate,
a. concentrating the urea and
b. recycling most of the water and useful solutes to the blood.
In a typical day, we excrete only about 1.5 L of urine, the refined filtrate containing wastes.
During filtration, the pressure of the blood forces water and other small molecules through a
capillary wall into the start of a kidney tubule, forming filtrate.
Urine, the final product of filtration, leaves each kidney through a duct called a ureter.
Both ureters drain into the urinary bladder.
During urination, urine is expelled from the bladder through a tube called the urethra.
The kidney has two main regions:
a. an outer renal cortex and
b. an inner renal medulla.
Nephrons
a. are the functional units of the kidneys,
b. extract a fluid filtrate from the blood, and
c. refine the filtrate to produce urine.
Blood enters the nephron through the renal artery and flows into a ball of capillaries called
the glomerulus (plural, glomeruli).
The glomerulus and the surrounding Bowmans capsule make up the blood-filtering unit of
the nephron.
The filtrate forced into Bowmans capsule flows into the nephron tubule where it will be
refined.
The important association between a nephron tubule and a capillary is illustrated in Figure
25.6C.
Two processes refine the filtrate.
a. In reabsorption, water and valuable solutes (such as glucose, salt, and amino acids) are
claimed from the filtrate.
b. In secretion, excess H+ and toxins are added to the filtrate.
Finally, in excretion, urine is expelled.

25.625.7
Describe the process by which the human
excretory system produces filtrate and converts filtrate into urine.
1. After filtration, reabsorption reclaims substances from the filtrate for the blood, and secretion
extracts substances from the blood for deposit into the filtrate.

2. Figure 25.7 provides us with a closer look at how reabsorption and secretion occur along the
nephron tubule.
3. Nutrients, salt, and water are reabsorbed from the proximal and distal tubules within the
nephron.
4. Secretion of H+ and reabsorption of HCO3 help regulate pH.
5. High NaCl concentration in the medulla promotes reabsorption of water.
25.8 Explain how antidiuretic hormone contributes to homeostasis.
1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates the amount of water excreted by the kidneys by
a. signaling nephrons to reabsorb water from the filtrate, returning it to the blood, and
b. decreasing the amount of water excreted.
2. Diuretics
a. inhibit the release of ADH and
b. include alcohol and caffeine.
25.9 Explain how a dialysis machine functions.
1. Kidney failure can result from
a. hypertension,
b. diabetes, and
c. prolonged use of common drugs, including alcohol.
2. A dialysis machine removes wastes from the blood and maintains its solute
concentration.