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The Smithsonian Institution

“It’s Only a Paper Moon”: The Cyborg Eye of Vija Celmins
Author(s): Cécile Whiting
Source: American Art, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Spring 2009), pp. 36-55
Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Smithsonian American Art Museum
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/599063 .
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Vija Celmins, Moon Surface (Surveyor 1), 1971–72. Graphite on acrylic ground on paper, 14 x 18 1/2 in.
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, Gift of Edward R. Broida © 2009 Vija Celmins. Photo,
McKee Gallery, New York

This content downloaded from 140.180.241.227 on Mon, 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM
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much less to contain in a single image. on La Cienega Boulevard at the epicenter of the thriving contemporary art scene. In them Celmins explored how being able to see a faraway and unattainable place entailed both human and technological means.241. these drawings. both perceptual proximity and distance. opened the first exhibition devoted exclusively to the work of Vija Celmins.1 While Celmins based her mesmerizing drawings of ocean waves (fig. California. 37 Volume 23. Proximate and faraway places would coexist in Celmins’s oeuvre throughout the 1970s. something more than a dozen. 1) on photographs of the Pacific that she snapped with her own camera while standing on the pier near her studio in Venice. That same year Celmins undertook her first drawings of galaxies inspired by a photograph of the Coma Berenices constellation she obtained from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena. California. Simply in resembling photographs so closely.180. were split between images of the ocean and depictions of the surface of the moon. In essence. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . with their framing white borders and precise. In her oneperson show at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York in 1973.“It’s Only a Paper Moon” The Cyborg Eye of Vija Celmins Cécile Whiting In 1969 the Riko Mizuno Gallery in Los Angeles. minute graphic marks. and New Mexico.227 on Mon. look like photographs when seen from a distance and reveal their status as drawings only up close. Number 1 © 2009 Smithsonian Institution American Art This content downloaded from 140. In contrast to the ocean and desert snapshots that Celmins took herself. she exhibited drawings of the desert derived from photographs she took during walks through the deserts in Arizona. these remarkable images re-create within their own internal dynamic the same play between near and far that characterized the full set of works on display at the Riko Mizuno Gallery in 1969. the moon drawings were based on photographs produced by the most advanced technology of the age. Celmins’s drawings implicitly refer to her photographic sources as well as to the geographic places they depict. however. All these artworks court the sublime by representing places that because of their expansiveness are difficult to measure and comprehend in their entirety. The drawings on view. her lunar images (frontispiece) reproduced photographs of a distant terrain taken by unmanned spacecraft and disseminated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). As viewers of her first exhibition in Los Angeles were quick to note. The moon drawings. foreground the collaboration between body and machine that made details of the alien lunar landscape visible to the human eye. in fact.

key moment in the space race: the unmanned moon landings of the mid-1960s.227 on Mon. working together. Others duplicate scenes relayed by the American Surveyor 1 spacecraft. her images differed from the predominant approach of the day for depicting space exploration in art. 1969. recast visual experience in the age of space exploration. Untitled (Big Sea #2). 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .180. when “one small step for man” could represent “one giant leap for mankind. Graphite on acrylic ground on paper. In this regard. Using photographs from these unmanned lunar landings. New York Celmins’s lunar drawings. Webb not only oversaw the development of an exhaustive photographic archive documenting efforts by the United States to put a man on the moon but also established. Photo. including the first images in color. Celmins strived to forge an amalgam of human eye and mechanized vision in the extraterrestrial realm. James E. in Spring 2009 This content downloaded from 140. NASA and Art During his term as the second NASA administrator (1961–68).1 Vija Celmins.241. which set down on the moon several months after Luna 9 and sent eleven thousand photographs back to earth. were begun after Neil Armstrong’s famous stroll on the moon. all produced between 1969 and 1972. which tended to humanize men at the Kennedy Space Center and in space. It is within this triumphal context of the space race—one ideological battle within the larger cold war—that Celmins’s drawings explore the ways in which American scientists and their high-tech instruments. Private collection © 2009 Vija Celmins. yet they document an earlier. McKee Gallery. For some of her drawings Celmins relied on the first close-up photographs of the lunar landscape transmitted by the Soviet spacecraft Luna 9 when it made the first soft landing on the moon in February 1966. Celmins highlighted the nexus of humans and machines that took a back seat to the tale of the astronauts’ heroism emphasized during the heady days of the Apollo 11 landing. 34 x 45 in.” with nary a mention of a machine in that pithy 38 formulation.

and the lunar landscape played a key role in fueling the space race between the United States and the Soviet Union. Every nut. Thus. for instance. could single out an astonishing scene and impart deeper human insight into the meaning and significance of space exploration. more than two hundred cameras record every split second of the activity. Anne Collins Goodyear. but the image has still gone through the catalyst of his imagination and has been transformed in the process. were widely exhibited and reproduced.consultation with the U. an art program that produced images featuring moments from NASA’s history of space exploration. Concerned that the photographic documentation of space was too objective. astronauts would sink and disappear. An artist may depict exactly what he thinks he sees. Cooke and Dean commissioned the artist “to contribute his imagination and his interpretation. Providing new scientific information about the moon.241. But. they presumed. as [French artist Honoré] Daumier pointed out about a century ago. were appointed to direct the NASA Art Program. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Such broadcasts transformed the space race into an audiovisual public event.2 NASA supplemented its media blitz with commissioned artworks. Between 1963 and 1973 Cooke and Dean invited fifty-three painters to observe and represent astronauts and rocket launches. some scientists had feared. The artist can add very little to all this in the way of factual record. too cold.” A painting or a drawing. and miniaturized electronic device is photographed from every angle.180. astronauts. who has written extensively about the NASA Art American Art This content downloaded from 140. Hereward Lester Cooke. fine artists received commissions from NASA on the assumption that their special understanding enabled them to achieve a greater degree of gravitas than the mechanically produced photograph. most of whom were realists.S.227 on Mon.3 Artists commissioned by NASA. like the photographs. and in the years following the Apollo 11 landing major milestones as well as serious setbacks would be played and replayed on television as NASA continued its exploration of outer space. prepared the way for the Apollo astronauts by revealing that the moon was not covered with a thick layer of dust into which. D. interpretation. and artist James Dean. Circulated in the print media. To form an exhaustive photographic record without a thought toward emphasizing distinctive features was apparently to risk making the space race mundane. the camera sees everything and understands nothing.C. depicted the preparatory and the triumphal aspects of the space program. whose implicit goal was to promote public understanding of and enthusiasm for the space program. Cooke and Dean explained the agency’s rationale for supplementing the photographic archive with artworks: 39 When a major launch takes place at Cape Kennedy.. It is the emotional impact. Commission of Fine Arts and the National Gallery of Art in Washington. curator of painting at the National Gallery of Art. In letters to invited artists and in later exhibition catalogues of their work. The photographs highlighting rockets. even as photography and eventually television generated emotional excitement about the race to the moon. the close-up photographs of the lunar surface taken by Luna 9 and Surveyor 1. tending either to naturalize the spacecraft within the geographic setting and buzz of human activities at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida or to cast the astronauts’ mission as a cosmic and spiritual journey through outer space. director of NASA’s Educational Media Division. even dull. Coverage of the space race culminated in the live televised broadcast of the moonwalk by the Apollo 11 astronauts in July 1969. and hidden significance of these events which lie within the scope of the artist’s vision. bolt. these stunning views of an alien terrain provoked awe and shored up public support for manned trips to the moon. which.

2 Robert Rauschenberg. lake. 40 Rauschenberg. 1969.L. he produced thirty-three lithographs titled the Stoned Moon Series. and palm trees. The faces of two men. and the NASA control center. published by Gemini G. Sky Garden (Stoned Moon Series).4 In the 1960s many commentators echoed NASA’s belief that artists could redeem science and technology with their special. interjecting a dose of imagination into the realm of objective theorems. Though working in a more abstract mode than most of the artists commissioned by NASA. appear on the right edge of the soaring rocket. At the center of the print and reaching its entire height is a labeled diagram of the Saturn rocket with the Apollo spacecraft at its apex.E. Based on both his firsthand experience and his access to NASA’s photographic archive. when the program had established itself more securely. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 89 1/4 x 42 in. New York.L. 2). N. Color lithograph and screenprint on paper. their spacecraft.180. The artist was charged with bridging the chasm between Spring 2009 This content downloaded from 140. which included references to the Apollo 11 astronauts. Cooke and Dean ventured to invite some wellknown modernists such as Morris Graves and Robert Rauschenberg to participate.E. / Licensed by VAGA. creative insights. form a blue arc above the fiery red body of the rocket. Sky Garden (fig.” Later. was one of seven artists who witnessed the blastoff of Apollo 11 in July 1969. Program. © Rauschenberg Estate and Gemini G. and an egret. Numerous exhibitions and books document the widespread collaboration that was undertaken in that decade with the assumption that the artist could shed an intuitive light on science or produce an aesthetic experience with technological means. Rauschenberg joined many of his realist colleagues not only in documenting specific benchmarks in the space race but also in demystifying technology with references to people and nature. in the early days of the program it was the work of ‘realists’ that was solicited. the Kennedy Space Center. is nearly seven and one half feet tall.. states that “despite the ‘freedom’ promised to artists in terms of subject matter and even style.241. one a famous scientist and the other unidentified.227 on Mon. the most ambitious print in the series. who had already incorporated numerous references to the exploration of space in his prints before being asked to join the NASA Art Program. typical of the landscape around the space center. as Goodyear points out. Goodyear suggests that even the choice to privilege the graphic artist over the mechanical camera as a tool of public history making humanized the space program.Y.

Taking advantage of the raking perspective of the camera. Rather. painstaking precision on a larger scale than the original photographs. nor did she depict astronauts and rocket launches. the shadow cast by the Surveyor landing craft. indeed. 3). approximately fourteen by eighteen inches. Nor do her drawings include the explanatory text that almost invariably accompanied the lunar photographs as distributed by NASA or published in the popular press. The masking tape Celmins placed on the source photograph isolates the area of the terrain that the artist duplicated in her drawing. From a distance. P. they nonetheless get at the heart of NASA’s scientific project. replicates a section of a photograph from the Surveyor 1 mission (fig. In contrast. and began to reproduce the lunar landscape in the medium of pencil on paper. for instance. and ridges of the landscape. for they highlight the ways in which a scientific exploration of the moon already entailed a pairing of the human and the machine. her drawings of the moon challenged the founding assumption of NASA’s Art Program by mimicking rather than repudiating the mechanical eye. Snow first characterized in a famous 1959 lecture (“The Two Cultures”) as the distinct and separate cultures of the humanities and science. that is. while incorporating NASA photographs and relying on the reproductive medium of 41 lithography. Celmins rendered with her fine pencil marks the rills. as well as the glare of light illuminating the harsh lunar landscape. reproductions of Celmins’s drawings in magazines and catalogues fail to convey their typical size. In that regard they differ significantly from Rauschenberg’s Stoned Moon Series. The drawing Moon Surface (Surveyor 1) of 1971–72 (see frontispiece). in which the artist. and touches them up with color. stones. viewers can uncover evidence of Celmins’s hand only if they approach her drawings to scrutinize her careful graphite marks on the paper. Celmins’s drawings. it also emphasizes the partnership between the scientist and the machine that made the lunar surface visible to the human observer. the hollows of the craters. Yet even as her drawings implicitly take issue with the ambitions of NASA’s Art Program. California.241. shifts their orientation. Celmins’s drawings reconstruct the physical features of the lunar landscape with extraordinary.180. If anything. examine how the conflation of automated and artistic vision reconfigure visual experience in the space age. Celmins’s drawings look as if they were themselves mechanical reproductions.5 Celmins’s Lunar Drawings 3 Source photograph for Moon Surface (Surveyor 1) with masking tape added © Vija Celmins Celmins was never approached by NASA to participate in its art program.what British physicist C. foregrounds his aesthetic manipulations: Rauschenberg recombines his photographic sources. Yet Moon Surface (Surveyor 1) does more than reproduce the moon as seen from the camera’s eye. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The footpad American Art This content downloaded from 140. in 1969 she acquired some photographic stills from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena.227 on Mon.

” Newell’s hint of the monstrous. 42 Celmins’s drawings testify to a scientific practice that. Celmins carefully preserved them. As explained in the caption of the source photograph included on Celmins’s own copy of it. National Geographic Image Collection of the Surveyor 1 spacecraft that took the photographs is clearly visible in the lower left corner of the drawing. R. The Soviet spacecraft Luna 9 was also conceived as a substitute for a human eye. Technicians at Work. a mechanized “cyclops. its camera apparatus covering 360° and sending to earth views of the rock-strewn. As the article in National Geographic marveled: “Surveyor bridges a quarter-million-mile gulf to present earthlings with a view of the moon almost as clear as if man himself stood there. in overcoming the quarter-million-mile distance between earth and moon to photograph the lunar surface and to reassemble the images back on earth. Eyerman. 1966.180. 4). the spacecraft became a prosthetic device. Photograph. not much higher than the height of a man. Rather than effacing these signs. the Surveyor 1 robot earned acclaim as man’s first eye on the moon.227 on Mon. extending human sight as well as the human body across the vast distance separating the earth Spring 2009 This content downloaded from 140. In so doing. however. when Life magazine reproduced photographs from Luna 9. transforming it into a surrogate human presence on the moon. which would have been an easy enough human task during the transcription into drawing. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 5).” The Luna and Surveyor spacecrafts prepared the way for manned landings not just by communicating factual data about the lunar surface but also by answering the question of what it would be like for a human to see on the moon. allowed uncertainties to arise about the identity of machines and humans. Moreover. Surveyor 1 spacecraft. was exceptional. National Geographic Image Collection 5 Rick Hall. Homer E. associate administrator at NASA. anthropomorphized the Surveyor spacecraft when he identified it as a monstrous offspring of human and machine. Generally. 1966. Newell Jr. pock-marked embankments around it—the first close-up photographs of this bleak ball ever to be seen by the human eye.241. For instance. The vertical ridges formed by the overlapping edges of the photographs register the technician’s role in reconstructing the lunar panorama here on earth from the many electronic signals relayed by the spacecraft. Celmins mimics the mosaic effect caused when human hands pieced together the individual photographs transmitted electronically by the camera on the moon to the laboratory on earth. National Geographic Image Collection 6 Davis Meltzer. each two-inch-square “chip” (the term used to refer to the photographic pieces) represents a 6-degree field of view as seen from the camera.”6 In fact. The three-legged Surveyor 1 spacecraft was equipped with a camera placed at the height of an average person (fig. she recorded both the lunar landscape and the traces of the human technician’s work—as if she were herself a machine.Eye on the Moon 4 J. Glued together by hand—as they had to be in that protodigital age—the photographs offer a panoramic perspective of the lunar landscape approximately 130 degrees across the horizon (fig. 1966. Acrylic. Surveyor blastoff and Surveyor beaming messages to earth. it proclaimed: “There it stood in a crater of the moon.. in 1966.

swivels left or right.180. The lunar spacecraft.227 on Mon. . implicitly described the spacecraft’s movements as if it shared the movable limbs and comprehending eye of the lab technician: “When NASA’s deep-space tracking antenna at Goldstone. illustrating the informational circuit connecting human bodies and minds with humanoid spacecraft (fig. for instance. the camera ‘reads off’ the image. Responding to human instruction. which reacted to commands issued from earth. 43 American Art This content downloaded from 140. The graphic re-creations of the flight path of spacecraft landing on the moon and of the camera’s electronic transmission of images back to technicians on earth traced an umbilical cord. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the camera’s mirror obediently adjusts elevation. relays an order from JPL [Jet Propulsion Laboratory]. 6). it moved its camera head and registered what it saw.”7 Electronic transmission enabled the scientist to overcome the confines of the physical human body to occupy a virtual position on the moon and to see the distant landscape up close.241. and . . The substitution of the term “television” for “still camera” probably resulted from the similarity between broadcast technology and the process of transmission by which the lunar cameras relayed photographs back to earth as electronic signals: the photographs arrived in the form of a pulsating signal registering the changes in luminosity as a scanning sensor passed repeatedly over the source image in a series of parallel strips. Newell. behaved as an extension of the scientist in his lab. In the 1960s scientists and journalists consistently referred to the lunar cameras as television cameras even though they produced still images. California. This joint work of people and machines continued on earth because technicians reconstituted the images taken from a variety of camera angles and assembled panoramas of the lunar landscape for analysis as well as for publication in the print media.from the moon.

In a word.227 on Mon. the scientists explained that their goal was to develop exogenous equipment that would permit a living organism to survive in inhospitable spaces. and reconfigure human perception. a slow-scan television camera was placed on the moon to record the first Spring 2009 This content downloaded from 140. they believed. these spaceships offered humans a virtual presence on the moon from which the moon’s surface could be scanned. pace Dean. Cyborg experimentation. what it appears to overcome thereby is the body. the lunar camera did not so much deny the body as enable it to extend itself.180.10 The actual practices of astronautics as exemplified by both the unmanned and manned landings on the moon broaden the conception of the cyborg to encompass any amalgam of human and machine for the sake of extending earthlings’ grasp of the moon. the spatial limitations placed by the body upon seeing and hearing. As prosthetic extensions of scientists on earth. most particularly in outer space. Literary theorist Samuel Weber. the word “television” emphasized the enormous spatial distance involved in acquiring views of the lunar surface. To identify the lunar camera as a television highlighted the camera’s promise of the body’s magical proximity to the seemingly distant more than the technology of transmission.” writes: “If television thus names seeing at a distance. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .” Armstrong’s historic steps on the moon were possible precisely because he carried a highly mechanized life-support system on his back. would ultimately alter “man’s bodily functions to meet the requirements of extraterrestrial environments. occupy a virtual position in space. The photographs transmitted electronically back to earth completed the loop between robot and scientist and enabled the cyborg’s view of the moon to be disseminated to others. In this instance. The space race required a televised crossing of the finish line to verify the winner. Outlining their research.” which was published in Astronautics. Cyborgs and the Televisual If the unmanned mechanical spacecraft of 1966 served as a human surrogate. or more precisely. I would argue. he was a cyborg body. whether it was a man kept alive by machines on his back or a machine directed by a technician from afar. The repeated reference to television cameras on the moon also spoke to the social imperative to document the anticipated Apollo 11 landing with livefeed images and sound. the astronaut of 1969 arrived on the moon as a highly mechanized being.Moreover. who has analyzed the etymology of the word “television. With this definition in mind.”8 In a twist on Weber’s formulation.9 Celmins strengthened the sense of a technological continuity in lunar exploration by relying on photographs sent back to earth by the unmanned Surveyor 1 to make her drawings during precisely those days when the astronauts were performing their American triumph for television sets around the world. that the lunar spacecraft equipped with a camera eye actually amounted to the first cyborg to land successfully on the moon. Indeed. The term “cyborg”—shorthand for cybernetic organism—was coined in 1960 by scientists Manfred 44 Clynes and Nathan Kline in a jointly authored article entitled “Cyborgs and Space. equipped to explore outer space. Live television transmission as the means by which the cyborg made close-up views of the distant moon available to earthlings became a reality with the Apollo 11 mission. NASA devoted considerable thought to making the Apollo 11 landing immediately visible on television. the extent of the astronaut’s fusion with machinery and his integration into space technology recently prompted political scientist Jodi Dean to label Armstrong not the first man but the first cyborg on the moon.241.

7). that televisions were sentient beings. When Armstrong and Aldrin eyed the TV camera.180. The visor on the astronaut’s helmet. July 1969. they listened to a jargon-filled and static-altered verbal exchange that sounded like so many machines in dialogue. These works.7 Astronaut Buzz (Edwin) Aldrin walks on the moon during the Apollo 11 mission. some of which were published in Harper’s Bazaar in 1963. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . moreover. As television viewers watched the astronauts’ unwieldy movements. In a sense. bore an uncanny resemblance to a television screen. and movements of astronauts mediated by audiovisual equipment. Friedlander’s televisions gave form to an anxiety. the astronaut qua cyborg actually wore his televisual identity on his visor. as much as the art commissioned by NASA to humanize technology. sounds. If humans on earth watched the astronauts on television. In Friedlander’s photographs the screen does not depict a prospect to be viewed at home but instead assumes the capacity to watch its television audience with the same proximate intimacy as a human being occupying the same space. For instance. Photograph taken by Neil A. Photo. inanimate furniture because they have become human. the mechanized camera needed to be established on the surface of the moon before Armstrong could step out the door. A number of artists explored the conflation between the human and the televisual during this period.11 To the extent that Friedlander’s televisions assume human agency by looking back at their American Art This content downloaded from 140. To the extent that the face divulges personality. Friedlander’s televisions stand out from the surrounding. provide the context for understanding Celmins’s drawings. the visor thus identified the astronaut with the visual images that he projected back to the audience at home. and thus indirectly their viewers on earth. Sporting enormous eyes. the astronauts themselves looked as if they had morphed into walking television sets (fig. the reflective windows of their helmets mirrored back a distorted and miniaturized view of the lunar landscape. during their moonwalk. Armstrong with a 70mm lunar surface camera. astronauts Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. whose dimensions in popular culture of the 1960s have been fully analyzed by television scholar Jeffrey Sconce. NASA steps taken by the second-generation of cyborgs. in a series of haunting blackand-white photographs (fig. A human embedded within the communications system of television. and perhaps the spacecraft or the distant earth floating above the horizon. monitor. Artists who in the 1960s and 1970s pictured “human televisions” imagined figures who belonged to the same genus as the 45 astronaut qua cyborg by virtue of having television screens substituting for faces. the imperative of publicity demanded as much. Exploration of the moon culminated in the sights. relayed electronically and preserved on magnetic tapes for viewing by an audience on earth.241. Lee Friedlander made male and female faces and eyes interrupt the flow of television programs and expand to fill the entire screen. 8).227 on Mon. With their screens that gaze back. in particular. haunting homes. and demand to be seen by a presumed viewer within the room. they face. and even swallowing unsuspecting viewers into their electromagnetic field.

Gelatin silver print. For the work The Human Television. As she moved her bow across the television screens that made up the “cello.13 Rather than tantalize her audience with the sounds of her cello. artist and performer Charlotte Moorman put on her TV Glasses and played her TV Cello—both artifacts designed by Nam June Paik—to transform herself into a cyborg for the opening of Paik’s exhibition Electronic Art III at the Galeria Bonino in New York City in 1971 (fig. dating back at least to Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein of 1818. the human-television observes a miniaturized newscaster on a portable television. converted a television set into the mythical man-in-the-gray-flannel-suit and granted to this figure. 10). they also reiterated a long-standing concern about the consequences of conjoining humans and machines. transforming material objects into rippling abstractions and ghostly 46 shadows floating without gravity. Moorman provided a televisual experience that filled the room with ambient electronic sounds. including the talking head on the portable television. Sitting in a diner sipping coffee.. in the meantime. the ability to peruse its milieu (fig. 9). Doug Michels. a character created by artist Doug Michels ca. Washington.” they. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 14 x 11 in. D.180. Doug Hall and Sally Jo Fifer (Aperture.12 The news anchor presumably informs his audience about world events while looking through the screen as if addressing his viewers directly. Whereas Friedlander and Michels granted televisions human form.241. San Francisco 9 The Human Television. Image reproduced from Illuminating Video: An Essential Guide to Video Art. 2005) viewers. a member of the Ant Farm artists’ collective that undertook multiple television projects in the late 1960s and early 1970s.C. in a manner similar to Friedlander. 1976. His screen mirrors his surroundings. Appearing on screens of different sizes. together with the screens on Moorman’s TV Glasses.227 on Mon. the faces of the performers were distorted Spring 2009 This content downloaded from 140. ed.8 Lee Friedlander. Like the astronaut’s visor. The human-television. presents his screen-face as both a reflective surface and a three-dimensional depth. © Lee Friedlander. the screen of the humantelevision reflects for its audience a view of what it sees around it. projected videotapes of the artist and other musicians (including Janis Joplin) performing. Fraenkel Gallery. as well as live images of Moorman and her surroundings shot by a nearby camera. Photo. 1962.

As a cyborg. much like Friedlander’s televisions and Moorman’s eyeglasses. Distance and Intimacy 10 Jud Yalkut and Nam June Paik.view of its immediate surroundings and. This generation of cyborg put televisual seeing itself on view.241. 1971. TV Cello Premiere. listening to classical music in concert halls. to reconfigure visual experience in an era of space exploration. The marks copy the amount and precision of detail supplied by the lunar camera as well as the gray tonalities and shadows determined by the illumination of the sun. challenged conventional expectations about nearby and familiar spaces and the cultural rituals of viewing here on earth. Moorman-as-cyborg returned the viewer’s gaze to invite a multisensorial.227 on Mon. at least when viewed from a distance. The astronaut’s visor provided proximity to a far-off and strange lunar landscape. they maintained the fiction that the human was close at hand. Moorman. and intermachinic exchange between her and the viewers standing before her in the art gallery. in fact. and the astronaut to see their surroundings and.14 Like the cyborg’s camera. to be seen by their television audiences—seen.180. seeing and making. near to us. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . looking at art in galleries. Moorman invited viewers to confuse the protocols of television viewing. being watched. Like Friedlander’s television sets. while the white light of the television projection made them as visually illegible as the stringless “cello” that produced nothing that could be heard. Photo. Her lunar drawings explore the ways in which an alliance between cyborg and artist blurs distinctions between the automated and the handcrafted. while the Human Television projected a radically distorted 47 Rather than depicting cyborgs. The drawings American Art This content downloaded from 140. Screens doubling as faces enabled Friedlander’s televisions. she also examined the ways in which cyborg vision might accommodate an affective bond through the sense of touch. watching them. At the same time viewers were necessarily aware that she was always looking back at them through the lenses of her TV Glasses. they disappear into the craters and mountain peaks they delineate. Whether or not the scenes these cyborgs projected ultimately proved unsettling for their human audiences. as televisions. Celmins carefully duplicated her source photographs bit by bit with pencil marks so fine that. while highlighting how electronic transmission made possible the human direction of machines over a vast distance. Celmins’s drawings pull the far-away in. and eyeing a female. Celmins and a few other artists—Nancy Graves comes to mind—instead entered the cyborg’s body to assume its visual perspective of the moon and to reproduce what it saw when it observed the lunar landscape. In transcribing with pencil on paper what and how the cyborg saw on the moon. Michels’s Human Television. interpersonal. near and remote. in turn. Celmins did more than mimic. and even masculinity and femininity. New York as much by scale as by graininess. Electronic Arts Intermix (EAI).

11 Vija Celmins. the juxtaposition of a smaller version of the lunar landscape. New York also mimic the format of a photographic print. New York. seen in sharp detail with its larger.227 on Mon. Mrs. Celmins’s drawings also retain evidence of the electronic 48 processes by which the camera dispatched photographs from the moon to technicians in labs on earth. The inclusion Spring 2009 This content downloaded from 140. Graphite on acrylic ground on paper. by including a thin white border along all four sides of the paper. Schoenborn Fund © 2009 Vija Celmins. Florene M. As they mimic the form and format of the photograph. Celmins ensured that her lunar drawings themselves assumed the appearance of photographs. 1969. as television camera and lab technician worked together across a vast expanse of space. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In Moon Surface (Luna 9) #1 (fig. Digital Image © The Museum of Modern Art / Licensed by SCALA / Art Resource. its flow and interruptions. The Museum of Modern Art. 13 3/4 x 18 1/2 in. In Moon Surface (Luna 9) #1 Celmins included the white perpendicular lines visible in some of the lunar photographs that testify to the momentary signal dropouts that interrupted the televisual transmission. Moon Surface (Luna 9) #1.241.180. Celmins’s drawings emphasize the technology of cyborg vision. Duplicating photographs of the moon with machinelike fidelity. blurry duplicate in the background. evokes the effect of a zoom lens going in and out of focus. 11) the uneven white borders along three edges of the detail superimposed at the center distinguish the detail from the surrounding field—which is in fact a larger version of the same image—in addition to casting the central image as a photographic print. In this drawing.

In Untitled (Moon Surface #1). 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Photo. Untitled (Moon Surface #1). yet the broad sweep of the panorama propels viewers to a position in space from which they scan the expanse. New York 49 not simply of the moon itself but of the means of picturing the moon.241. never added such orienting devices to make the visible intelligible.227 on Mon. they included arrows. The photographs in which the lunar terrain filled the visual field because the camera had not tilted up to include the horizon—precisely the images Celmins chose to reproduce—lacked any measure of scale indicating either the size of the topographic features or the interval of space between the moon and the viewer. 1969. Viewers experience a bewildering simultaneity of perceptual proximity to and distance from the lunar landscape.of abutments caused by overlapping photographs in Moon Surface (Surveyor 1) (see frontispiece) not only points to the JPL technician’s craft in assembling photographs of the moon but also makes it clear that we are not looking at the moon so much as at a collection of smaller transmitted images of the moon.180. the relatively uniform character of the terrain does not provide any clues about scale (fig. in which case the crater could be just five feet across? Like the ocean waves and desert landscape Celmins also pictured during this period. however. Eventually photos of astronauts walking on the moon and planting the American flag located the horizon and provided a sense of human scale (fig. Photo. The print media relied on text and diagrams to make such disorienting lunar views legible to their audience. NASA 13 Vija Celmins. Just as the drawings acknowledge the technical means by which the human overcame vast distances to bring views of the moon back to earth. 1969. Graphite on acrylic ground on paper. by retaining evidence of electronic processes by which the camera dispatched photographs from the moon to technicians who reworked them in labs on earth. Celmins. in which case the crater could be five miles in diameter. Private collection © 2009 Vija Celmins. American Art This content downloaded from 140. and captions to identify craters. 14 x 18 3/4 in. rocks. Other drawings combine two virtual perspectives in space. McKee Gallery. and debris from meteorites. Are those mere pockmarks or huge craters? Are we close to or far away from them? Are we looking at the lunar landscape from an approaching spacecraft. The drawings. 12). became pictures 12 Astronaut Buzz Aldrin with American flag planted on the moon. 13). Each individual frame in Moon Surface (Surveyor 1) conveys what is seen up close by the camera. labels. July 19. for instance. or from a robot standing on the moon. so they provide a perceptual experience that confuses distance and proximity.

New York the lunar drawings evoke vast. in both physical and affective senses. as if she were a mechanicohuman cyborg herself (fig. A confusion of spatial distance and proximity occurs both within the thematics of the drawings and with the drawings as material objects themselves. Celmins relied on technological detachment and personal fondness to create drawings that appeared to reproduce the cyborg’s view of the moon.241. In the case of her lunar drawings.180. affective bond with her visual materials. We might assume in looking at Celmins’s lunar drawings that the work required to reproduce a lunar photograph in pencil would entail a physical proximity and a state of emotional detachment in equal measure to achieve the level of detail and reproductive fidelity manifest here. Celmins’s drawings also demand distance and proximity from viewers.14 Leo Holub. One can only marvel at the obsessive attentiveness combined with technical 50 skill that enabled Celmins to emulate lunar photographs with such precision in graphite. Photo. crater. In fact. It allowed me to enter that grey world in a personal way and I would draw my way out of it. Celmins recollected her working process during this period in her career in a 1991 interview with artist Chuck Close: “I would scrutinize these little images in great detail. adopting the type of exacting scrutiny Celmins demanded of herself when she probed her sources— they recognize that her images are not camera-made. 14). meticulous touches of graphite. Celmins’s drawings do not always remain fully faithful to their Spring 2009 This content downloaded from 140.”15 In this same exchange with Close. In the first instance. as the artist and subsequent viewers relate to them. the artist nurtures a close. these drawings invite viewers standing at a distance to confuse them with photographs. But when spectators move closer—looking carefully rather than glancing quickly. the small scale of her photographic sources as well as the mindfulness they demanded encouraged in her an emotional bond with the source photographs as much as with her drawings.227 on Mon. and compared it to her drawing apparently nourished an intimate relationship with her imagery. Their small size allowed for an intimacy with the subject. Vija Celmins © Vija Celmins. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Working closely with her imagery. McKee Gallery. The proximity and concentration required as she looked at the photograph. As we have seen. the artist construed her constant reexamination of photographs as an indication of her affection for them. Yet. as she herself claimed. recorded it. unlimited spaces because no horizons and orienting figures are set against their endless grounds. and mountain peak of the landscape with innumerable. her knowledge of the photographs in turn permitted her to recreate each fissure.

Untitled (Double Moon Surface). Traces of the artist’s varying pressure of the pencil on paper turn the act of looking at these drawings into a recognition of Celmins’s touch and inspire admiration of her skill American Art This content downloaded from 140.180. The drawings are not selfsame with their photographic sources in a second way. Museum Purchase © Vija Celmins. Celmins replicated cyborg vision but never manufactured replicants. Untitled (Double Moon Surface) of 1969 (fig. Graphite and resin on paper. Moon Surface (Luna 9) #1. For instance. 13) but doubles certain distinctive features of the landscape seen in the first drawing: crater. 1969. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 15) essentially reiterates Untitled (Moon Surface #1) of the same year (see fig. Washington.241.227 on Mon. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . producing her work in series. Smithsonian Institution. Her manipulation of her sources emphasized the creative license of the artist over mindless mechanical reproduction. to the extent that copying yielded an original offspring.. at times inserted variations into the drawings and allowed them as much as her source photographs to generate the next image in the series. Lee Stalsworth photographic originals.15 Vija Celmins. 14 1/16 x 18 5/16 in. Celmins. The viewer’s physical intimacy with these images encourages an appreciation of the handiwork necessary to render a crater or a fissure with graphite.C. ensuring that none is the same as the 51 original. and mountains. D. And. repeats its source twice at different sizes. also of 1969 (see fig. peaks. Celmins stressed the generative capacity of reproduction. Photo. 11). laying one image on top of the other: the juxtaposition of the two highlights the ability of reproductions to change scale at will.

227 on Mon. A number of scholars. “involve intimate. including Marks. have strategically associated haptic traditions and intimate observation with the feminine and at times with feminism. In the case of these drawings. 16). Moon Surface (Surveyor 1). The mechanical fidelity of Celmins’s artistic process points to the crafted character of the scientific image. detailed images that invite a small. by eliminating the horizon and spatial recession. The original photograph. contained by four edges of a piece of paper. of course. undermines any such bifurcation between mechanical and human vision.”16 Celmins’s drawings of the lunar terrain exhibit the characteristics identified by Marks in that her landscapes form a continuous surface over the paper that invites the eye to linger on the material traces of her touch. Whether seen from afar or close up. however. that feels and is felt. If the physical qualities of drawing affirm tactility. carefully and meticulously stroke the paper with her pencil. the artist did. on a surface exemplified as much by Islamic painting as by weaving. and visible from up close as material traces of pencil. This particular image posits a homology between the ridges left by the technician in the JPL lab and the graphite traces of the artist. finding a density that felt right.” Skin is a thin. breathing sheath that touches and invites touch. Celmins’s application of graphite marks over the paper to 52 emphasize surface rather than the optical illusion of depth further conflates looking and touching. Miriam Schapiro. All of these visual traditions. It was a matter then of maintaining an even tension so that the surface was just lying there.241. whether the cyborg’s photograph or Celmins’s own apparently mechanical reproduction of it. the abutments included in Moon Surface (Surveyor 1) acknowledge that the human hand as much as the televisual transmission produced the cyborg’s vision of the moon. Certainly in the late 1960s and early 1970s. on earth. Celmins’s lunar landscapes encourage a phenomenological experience whereby a viewer moves physically closer to the image.and her craft (fig. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Celmins brought the relatively uniform lunar terrain up close. the very material surface of the drawing converts matter broadcast electronically across a vast distance of space into a tactile surface that presents its image only from nearby. a number of second-wave feminist artists. between the patience of the technician who meticulously reconstructed electronic signals into analog images by piecing chips together into lunar panoramas and the attentiveness and devotion of time expended by the artist to copy the photograph in pencil. Media theorist Laura Marks has borrowed the word “haptic” from Alois Riegl to privilege those images that combine seeing and tactility without giving precedence to one sense over the other. Moreover. shifts from an optical to a tactile mode of perception. “haptic” designates a unified visual field. combines opticality and tactility—and the drawing’s overt tactility elicits our recognition of the source photograph’s tactility as well. including Judy Chicago. filling the visual field. knowable within the terms of the possibilities and limits of drawing. caressing gaze. Moreover. reworked into a series.180. according to Marks. began to practice crafts such as embroidery and quilting that had traditionally been Spring 2009 This content downloaded from 140. The drawings transform the cyborg’s lunar landscape into something that is understandable as an aesthetic feat. flattening it so that it covered the paper like a membrane. In a conversation with art historian Susan Larsen in 1978. and embraces the image as a drawing rather than as a photograph. Celmins noted that her drawing technique during this period furnished a new layer over the paper: “The graphite pencil was a very fine point. The paper has a skin and I put another skin on it. In Marks’s analysis. It was a matter of keeping a certain skin. typically abstract or decorative. here in front of us. and Faith Ringgold. like the drawing of it.

Rejecting an antagonism between feminism and science. To the extent that the material surfaces of her drawings convert matter that is incomprehensible in its distance and scale into something that is close and tactile. These artists questioned a value system that prioritized large-scale. through her interaction with the cyborg.16 Vija Celmins. she also claimed the cyborg for purposes unintended by its creators when she entered its body and drew the moon through its eyes. Untitled (Double Moon Surface) (detail). when feminist scholar Donna Haraway published her famous essay. saying. and the appreciation that close looking at the crafts cultivated for the materiality of surface. the demand placed by craft on both the artist and the viewer for their proximity. she explored and defined a form of embodied vision that avoided binaries. Nevertheless. and attentiveness.241. Celmins would seem to rehumanize. without granting one priority over the other. As most photographs from the 1960s documented. the astronaut was a man in space. according to Haraway. even feminize. The cyborg’s potential for feminist politics did not emerge until 1985. abstract. Haraway. the exchange between the cyborg and the artist cut both ways. she did not simply reclaim the cyborg for the human. care. she too highlighted the creative labor of craft. In other words.180. through the practice of drawing. cyborg vision by making it haptic rather than virtual. While Celmins may not herself have used the word “feminist” to describe either her working process or her drawings. the cyborg as envisioned by the practices of astronautics in the 1960s did not capture the feminist imagination. Haraway promoted the cyborg as a figure that broke down boundaries between the human and the animal. Not surprisingly. among other institutions. or between masculine and feminine.” Among the audiences Haraway meant to address was precisely that strain of radical American feminism that challenged notions of “patriarchy” by repudiating science and technology in favor of a return to nature and the natural. drawing in the late 1960s and early 1970s. embraced the cyborg as the means to imagine a world without gender. that the role of the artist was to humanize science.17 Where Celmins differed from secondwave feminists artists was in her embrace of cyborg visuality. Rather. 1969 correlated with domestic labor and subordinated to the arts of painting and sculpture. between organisms and machines. between the physical and the nonphysical. Even the scientists and technicians involved in the first generation of cyborg exploration of the moon were overwhelmingly male. Nor did she subscribe to the view promoted by NASA.227 on Mon. however. whether between human and machine. an ultimate self untied at last from all dependency. “The cyborg is also the awful apocalyptic telos of the ‘West’s’ escalating dominations of abstract individuation. and aesthetic skill required by the domestic crafts. a man in space. “A Cyborg Manifesto. Nevertheless. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . perhaps. in 1962 NASA decided to ban women astronauts from the space missions. Celmins. Celmins secured the compatibility of the artist with the cyborg. In joining with the cyborg she did not simply adopt an implicitly masculine perspective in outer space. and specifically the feminine.”18 Despite the history of the concept. had utopian implications for a feminist politics that wished to move beyond gender binaries. and brought attention to the patience. the cyborg. and it was not until 1983 that Sally Ride overcame this gender barrier to become the first American woman in outer space. did not voice a feminist perspective of the sort developed in Haraway’s manifesto. her meticulous craft was also informed by the cyborg and accommodated its viewing position in outer American Art This content downloaded from 140. geometric oil paintings over personalized and decorative design. She acknowledged that the cyborg’s history was tainted by man’s effort to conquer outer space. Indeed. and the feminine with the masculine. arguing for the pleasures and 53 advantages of such confusions. time.

moving closer to it. John Zukowsky (New York: Harry N. 1966. On the one hand. Propelled into outer space. See Peter Plagens. able to see from multiple positions in space. Notes My thanks to Rachael DeLue and Nancy Troy. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of Exeter Press. October 1966. 26– 54 30. Abrams.180. Apollo’s Eye: A Cartographic Genealogy of the Earth in the Western Imagination (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. extending the body to encompass the virtual. they recognize that the craft entailed in translating cyborg vision with pencil demanded an exactitude worthy of the machine. the very tactility of the drawings situates viewers in the physical space in front of them. from the Art Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1963 to 1969) (New York: Harry N. “Vija Celmins. encouraging an intimate encounter. viewers cannot gauge their precise location and distance from the moon’s terrain. Selected with a Few Exceptions. 1971). respectively. the act of looking in the age of space exploration entails both a physical body occupying the space before the picture.” National Geographic. Nye argues that public support for the space program in the 1960s was in fact quite tempered. to make it legible as either the disorienting view of the machine or the familiar and proximate caress of the human hand. Celmins’s drawings refuse to stabilize the cyborg’s vision.” Artforum 8 (March 1970): 84.” Life. Press. 1 Reviews of the show disagree as to whether fourteen or fifteen drawings were on view. These drawings explore the ways in which the cyborg challenges us to imagine new forms of vision that reconfigure assumptions of what it means to be and to see as an embodied human being. touching its surface skin with the eyes. and with more than one sense. Eyewitness to Space: Paintings and Drawings Related to the Apollo Mission to the Moon. Walter McDougall. The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Other writers document the political debate surrounding the need for a manned mission to the moon.C. and the subsequent exhibit The Artist and Space at the same venue in 1969 attracted record audiences while a book by Hereward Lester Cooke and James D. “Neil Maher on Shooting the Moon. February 11. “Los Angeles. simultaneously encompassing the spaces of the embodied and the virtual viewer. Press. On the other hand. For historical and theoretical analyses of space photography. See esp.241. even as viewers move in closer to the drawings. becoming more intimate with the graphite surface as if touching the marks with their eyes. Narratives and Spaces: Technology and the Construction of American Culture (Exeter: Univ. Dean. see Denis Cosgrove.” in 2001: Building for Space Travel. 3 Anne Collins Goodyear reports that the exhibit Eyewitness to Space: Paintings and Drawings Done for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1965 at the National Gallery of Art in Washington. and a virtual body seeing from both near to and far away from the lunar terrain. 2001). who says fifteen.” Art International 14 (March 1970): 86. 2001). Peter Bacon Hales. D. who invited me to present shortened versions of this essay at. and Homer E. in an added twist. The phenomenological experience of viewing the drawings also blurs the difference between the human and machine by exploring the spatial dimensions of vision. 153. And. Moon Surface (Surveyor 1) revealed that cyborg vision itself entailed both the televisual and human craft. Princeton University in May 2007 and the College Art Association Annual Conference in Dallas in February 2008. 1997). 2 The Luna 9 and Surveyor 1 missions received focused news coverage in the following two articles: “Right Down on the Moon. Newell. Young. Nye. 1997). 96–107. and Neil Maher. 578–92. who says fourteen. and Joseph E. In the end. her drawings redefine the notion of embodied vision. with at least half the public concerned that it took funds away from social services. “Surveyor: Candid Camera on the Moon.227 on Mon.. According to these drawings. the lack of orienting features in the lunar landscapes opens up an immeasurable chasm of space between the drawings and their viewers.space. I am particularly grateful for the insights of four anonymous readers for American Art and to the critical yet enthusiastic comments I received from Jim Herbert and Sarah Whiting. Abrams. As a consequence.” Environmental History 9 (July 2004): 526–31. David E. viewers flip back and forth between appreciating a flat plane right in front of them and experiencing a recession into depicted deep space. ed. “Shooting the Moon: Icons of Space Photography. Spring 2009 This content downloaded from 140. Rather.

: MIT Press. see Dean’s website: www. Science and Technology in Art Today (New York: Praeger. American Art This content downloaded from 140. “We the People: The Art of Robert Rauschenberg and the Construction of American National Identity. D. who use the term “haptic” rather than “tactile” to define smooth space because haptic “does not establish an opposition between two sense organs but rather invites the assumption that the eye itself may fulfill this nonoptical function”. 23 Mar 2015 09:58:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .” 582. See as well C. 13 On Nam June Paik. and the American Space Program. 1974) documented these various collaborations. Aliens in America. Bartman (New York: A.227 on Mon.” and “human. see Margaret Weitekamp.” 578. 1987). and the Software exhibition at the Jewish Museum in New York in 1970.” Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 3 (September 1978): 244. and Donna Haraway. September 1960. 1962– 1972. 2006). see John G. the author discusses the humanizing role of art on page 10 of this same article. Graves’s images. 8 Samuel Weber. Aliens in America: Conspiracy Cultures from Outerspace to Cyberspace (Ithaca. For the agency’s rationale in mounting the art program.” in Simians. a means of distinguishing the United States from the Soviet Union.. and Snow.quickly sold out of its first printing. ed. Global Groove 2004 (New York: Guggenheim Museum Publications. 264–65. 10 Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline. see Collins [Goodyear]. 4 On the style of artists invited to join the NASA Art Program.” The quote from Life is from “Right Down on the Moon. an exhibition organized by Pontus Hulten at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1968. “The Relationship of Art to Science and Technology in the United States. 15 Vija Celmins. Mass Mediauras: Forms.. see Cooke and Dean. Deleuze and Guattari. and his The Worlds of Nam June Paik (New York: Solomon R. 12 The exact date and whereabouts of the photograph of the Human Television are unknown.C. Technology. 1964).” Intertexts 3. 2007). Nam June Paik: Video Time. I have relied on Robert S. “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science. interview by Chuck Close. and Christin Mamiya. “Surveyor: Candid Camera on the Moon. Press.. See also Mary Lynn Kotz. Mass. 1998). of Texas. 2 (Fall 1999): 11.” 3.241. as Dean points out. 582. 17 In 1976 Celmins became friendly with Barbara Kruger and gave a talk at the Woman’s Building of the Otis College of Art and Design in Los Angeles. Hanhardt’s Nam June Paik (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art. 1991). Press. of Minnesota Press. Press. Media (Palo Alto: Stanford Univ.: Duke Univ. but media artist and scholar Chip Lord.: National Gallery of Art. A Century of Drawing: Works on Paper from Degas to LeWitt (Washington. Laura U.” Astronautics. 2002). and Stewart Kranz. Demonstrating open access to information was. of Minnesota Press.C. Jonas Strovse. 5 Important examples of the collaboration between art and science include the Art and Technology Program launched by Maurice Tuchman at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 1967. Feedback: Television against Democracy (Cambridge. 2000). Press. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. and Cyberculture (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. “The Artist and Space. Technics.: Cornell Univ. Doug Michels died in 2003. Margaret Morse analyzes the fictions of presence in television viewing and specifically discusses the relation between the television anchor and the viewer in Virtualities: Television. and the American Space Program. 2003).180. 150–51. 5–6. Marks. Marks relies on Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. and Toni Stooss and Thomas Kellein. eds.T.” American Art 7 (Summer 1993): 41–63. Books such as Jonathan Benthall. 2002). Abrams. 26. 18 For the role of women in the space program. Nam June Paik: Fluxus/Video (Bremen: Kunsthalle Bremen. For her definition of the haptic. “Art. 95. Dean. 1993). Wulf Herzogenrath and Sabine Maria Schmidt. 2004). For the call to artists to use their creativity and imagination. more obviously favor the artistic and human over the scientific and mechanical. Mattison’s thorough account of the Stoned Moon Series in Robert Rauschenberg: Breaking Boundaries (New Haven: Yale Univ. Rauschenberg: Art and Life (New York: Harry N. Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York: Routledge. trans. “Cyborgs and Space. 1957–1971: Five Case Studies” (PhD diss. Hanhardt and Caitlin Jones. 2004). N. Technology.” “robot. Touch: Sensuous Theory and Multisensory Media (Minneapolis: Univ. 492. Snow. 1959). see James D.shtml. Science and Technology in the Arts: A Tour through the Realm of Science/Art (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. See also Goodyear. Vija Celmins Dessins/Drawings (Paris: Centre Pompidou. Press. 1992). see Dean. no. David Joselit.: MIT Press. and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century. 2004). Anne F. eds. P. Guggenheim Museum. For related comments. 1996). Univ.theotherjamesdean . 2001). 55 6 The quotes from Newell are from “Surveyor: Candid Camera on the Moon. Mass.. 115. 11 Jeffrey Sconce. Exploring some of the same tensions of distance and proximity as Celmins’s drawings. William S. Press. Newell refers to Surveyor 1 as “cyclops. Right Stuff. In this same article.” 27. Collins [Goodyear]. Video Space (New York: Harry N. Media Art. One of the Graves images is reproduced and discussed in Judith Brodie and Andrew Robison.Y. Abrams. Wrong Sex: America’s First Women in Space Program (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. who used the Human Television for a poster in 1983. The Two Cultures: and a Second Look (New York: New American Library. N. 1999). The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution (New York: Cambridge Univ. 62–97. Pamela Lee usefully summarizes the debates about art and technology in the 1960s in Chronophobia: On Time in the Art of the 1960s (Cambridge. 16 Susan Larsen. 14 Nancy Graves re-created lunar maps in ten gouaches entitled the Lunar Orbiter Series.” LAICA [Los Angeles Institute of Contemporary Art] Journal 20 (October–November 1978): 38. 11. “Art. 1972).com/spaceart. On the astronauts as cyborgs. Dean. Brian Massumi (Minneapolis: Univ.R. because of their pointillist dabs and the liberties they took with their sources. Press. Haunted Media: Electronic Presence from Telegraphy to Television (Durham. The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age. 1982). Technology. Press. “A Conversation with Vija Celmins. has in his files correspondence from Michels dating the image to about 1976. 2004). but did not become actively involved in the feminist movement. 9 Jodi Dean explores the importance NASA placed on verifying the Apollo 11 mission with televised images. 158. 7 Newell. 2000). 1998).