COMMUNICATION: PENALOSA * PICARDAL * MAGNO * PAJANTOY *RUBIAS * MATE * REAL * MILAN

COMMUNICATION
What is Communication?

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Man, being a social animal, doesn’t stand alone directly confronting the tumult of events around him. He finds himself living in second-hand worlds, in which he is aware of more than what he has personally experienced. His own awareness is mainly indirect; since his life is determined by knowledge – meanings, if you will – he has received from others…. One of the essential activities of the human race, communication is transmission of thoughts from one mind to others. It is a process in which people share thoughts, ideas and feelings with each other. It is a skill which enables one to saw millions.2 The American disaster at Pearl Harbor is one of the dramatic examples in modern times of possible consequences of failure of an organization communication system…. Less dramatic, but equal importance is the role that communication plays in the day-to-day work of every organization. Without communication, not even the first steps can be taken toward human cooperation, and it is impossible to speak about organizational problems without speaking about communication, or at least taking it for granted.3 Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence4. It is also the art of introducing others to interpret an idea in the manner intended by the speaker or writer5 by which people are linked together in an organization to achieve a central purpose6.

1 Leveriza, J. (2009). Public administration: The business of government. pp. 251-261 2 Flores, C. & Lopez, E. (2003). Effective speech communication. p.5 3 Stillman II, R. (1996). Public administration : Concepts & Cases. p. 266 4 Koontz, H. & O’Donnell, C. (1972). Principles of management : An analysis of managerial functions. p.536 5 Flippo, E. (1976). Principles of management. p.448. 6 Barnard, C. (1938). The functions of the executive. p.175.

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COMMUNICATION: PENALOSA * PICARDAL * MAGNO * PAJANTOY *RUBIAS * MATE * REAL * MILAN
This is also an entity in the societal or organizational l scenario by which the effectiveness of decision making & organizational performance in general depends great deal on the adequacy of communication in all its phases.7 Communication is of Latin origin. It is derived from the comminis, which means common. As a fundamental social process, communication is the attempt to establish common understanding with someone. In this way, it could be deduced that communication is an act between two or more people. In public administration, communication performs vital function in management of organization. Management function cannot be performed without communication. An understanding of the role of communication in organization cannot be overemphasized. It is not only the mainstream of the organization but also its lifeblood. It is an essential part of any management plan and operations.

COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT
INTERORGANIZATI MANAGEMENT EMPLOY ONAL COOPERATION EES

7 Nigro, F. & Nigro, L. (1980). Modern public administration. p.236

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COMMUNICATION: PENALOSA * PICARDAL * MAGNO * PAJANTOY *RUBIAS * MATE * REAL * MILAN

FIVE FUNCTIONS OF UPWARD COMMUNICATION IN AN ORGANIZATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. It It It It It provides management with needed information for the decision making. helps employees relieve the pressures and frustrations of the work situation. enhances employee’s sense of participation in the enterprise. serves as a measure of the effectiveness of downward communication. suggests more rewarding uses of downward communication for the future.

UPWARD COMMUNICATION MAY BE ESTABLISHED AS FOLLOWS:

➢ Open-door policy – refers to the practice of always being ready to talk to any subordinate. ➢ Committees - are an excellent device for making lower levels more aware of the problems
of the higher levels and vice versa.

➢ Interview – the most useful means for establishing upward communication. ➢ Grievance system – the means by which employee’s complaints can be resolved by ➢ ➢ ➢
appeal to higher levels. Suggestion system – it is another simple, economical means of upward communication. Staff service – the responsibility for maintaining two-way communication is an inherent obligation of every organization staff. Internal audits & Surveys – every major function in the company should be studied regularly to determine whether it is effectively meeting its objectives.

INTERPRESONAL COMMUNICATION vs. MASS COMMUNICATION ➢ ➢ Interpersonal – face to face communication Mass Communication – requires the use of mass media to reach the planned audiences

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COMMUNICATION: PENALOSA * PICARDAL * MAGNO * PAJANTOY *RUBIAS * MATE * REAL * MILAN
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION is an essential management tool in attaining the goals of an organization. I .COMMUNICATION PROCESS

A. SENDER – initiator of the process. B. MESSAGE – information which the sender wishes to his receiver to understand, accept & act
upon.

C. CHANNEL – means by which a message gets across from a sender to a receiver. D. RECEIVER – audience, decoder or communicatee.
II.PRINCIPLES & GUIDELINES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The credibility of the communicator & the motives attributed to him has a profound influence on the reception of his message. The most successful communications are those which reinforce at least some audience’s beliefs, those which state conclusions as well as premises, and which call for action. People are interested first in people, then in things, last in ideas,. Their attitudes & opinions are strongly influenced by the group to which they belong or want to belong. It is better to communicate information little by little over a period of time than all at once. Repeating a communication obviously prolongs its influence. Short sentences, familiar words and active verbs help make communications both interesting & persuasive. In changing opinion, oral presentation tends to be more effective than written word. It is rarely possible for communication, particularly over the short range, to change deepseated attitudes or beliefs.

8. Mass communication alone is hardly ever an effective agent of change.
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION8

A. Downward Communication refers to the directives and other messages that originate with
the officials at the top of the organization and transmitted down through the hierarchy – through the intervening levels of supervision – until they reach the lowest-ranking worker in the chain.

B. Upward Communication by which messages are passed from the lower levels of hierarchy
up to the management.

8 Nigro, F. & Nigro, L. (1980). Modern public administration. pp. 236-244.

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COMMUNICATION: PENALOSA * PICARDAL * MAGNO * PAJANTOY *RUBIAS * MATE * REAL * MILAN C. Lateral Communication takes place among workers of the same level of hierarchy, among
individuals of different levels who are not in a superior-subordinate relationship; this kind of communication go from one agency to another agency and are not restricted to initiate agency relationships.

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