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What is physics a) Albert Einstein and Stephen hawking are two famous physicists b) Physics uses math as it's primary language c) Many inventions made with the aid of physics • atomic bombs • computer chips • Graphite-epoxy materials used in guitars and golf clubs • CDs • Computer games • Movie recording and playback • Lasers d) There are physicists in everywhere • Men and women who work at universities • at two-year colleges • high-schools • industrial and government labs • hospitals • wall street 1.2.Physics: the search for understanding a) Physics – a branch of knowledge that involves the study of the physical world. • The study of objects can range from subatomic particles to the universe • they study matter and energy and their relation to each other • They ask questions about what they see • to answer these questions they will make observations, do experiments, and create models or theories • This questioning leads to descriptions for many phenomena and various predictions • This leads to a better understanding of the universe • Some of their work only other physicists will care about however, some of there work changes our daily life like the invention of the computer b) The wanderers: mars • Mars is among the brightest plants in the night sky. • Ancient people observed celestial objects in order to define time of year and help in travel. • Mars is one of the five “wanderers” • the “wanderers” generally followed an eastern course through the constellations, yet, unlike the stars, they also moved westward for periods of time. • The deep red color of mars cause the Babylonians to associated it with disaster and the romans to name it after their god of war • Records of the motions of mars help develop the early concepts of the solar system. c) Are the stars and planets like the earth? • 2500 years again Greek philosophers tried to determine what the world was made of by making observations of everyday occurrences • believed that all matter on or near earth was made up for four elements: earth, water, air, fire
each element thought to have it's place by it's heaviness the order of the four elements follow • fire • air • water • earth • Motion was thought to occur because an element traveled in straight line towards its own natural place • Since the motion of the celestial objects did not fit the Greek belief, the Greeks added a fifth element called quintessence • In the twelfth century the writings made their way to europe and accept as truth • this theory remained unchallenged until Galileo Galilei d) Galileo and scientific Methods • in 1609 built a telescope • he found that the moon was not a perfect sphere but had mountains • he could find the height of these mountains buy the shadow they casted • found four moons circling the planet Jupiter • found that the milky way was made of far more stars then anyone thought before • As a result he argued that earth and the other plants actually circled the sun • As he studied he formed a systematic method of observing, experimenting, analyzing called the scientific method • Rather then writing his result in Latin, the language of scholars he wrote them in native Italian so that any educated person could read and understand • Considered to be the father of modern experiment • The scientific method used every since • knowledge, skill, luck, imagination, trail and error, educated guesses, and great patience all play a part. e) Mars in recent times • people found mars to look much like earth • astronomers found what appeared to be vegetation cycles similar to earth's seasons and dark areas believed to be seas • Strange marking on the surface of mars were misinterpreted as being channels or canals possibly made by intelligent beings • this interpretation became so prevalent that a 1938 radio drama depicting a Martian invasion of earth causing widespread panic in the US • Rockets capable of reaching out neighboring planet were developed in 1960s both the US and USSR sent probes to orbit mars to pictures and return data. • Mars trips in 1964 • US Mariner 4 – first photos from 1,898 to 9846 km above the surface • USSR Zond 2 – failed to send back data • Mars trips in 1969 • US mariner 6 – examination of Martian equatorial region from an altitude of 3430 km • US mariner 7 – examination of martian southern hemisphere and south polar ice cap from an altitude of 3430 • Mars trips in 1971 • USSR mars 2 – Martian orbit • USSR mars 3 – Lander on Martian surface
US mariner 9 - photographs of entire Martian globe from orbit • Mars trips in 1973 • US mars 5 – Martian orbit • Mars trips in 1975 • US viking 1 – panoramic views and close-up photos from the Martian surface • US viking 2 – Automated experiment on the Martian surface • Mars trips in 1988 • USSR Phobos 2 – Martian orbit • Mars trip in 1993 • US mars observer – lost during mission • 1996 • US global surveyor – record of surface features, atmospheric data, and magnetic properties from Martian orbit • US mars pathfinder – Surface landing and release of a mobile vehicle to explore ares vallies • was surrounded by protective airbags, landed on mars on july 1997. • the mission cost less then the production of one hollywood movie. • A 10kg rover named sojourner, was released to explore nearby rocks • the exploration was broadcaster on the Internet • 1998 • US Mars surveyor orbiter – to map Martian surface and weather patterns and act as a communications satellite between landers rovers and earth • 1999 • US Mars surveyor lander – to land at the Martian south pole to sample and analyze the surface • 2001 and beyond • To replace communications relay satellited with new orbiters; to continue analyses of Martian atmosphere and surface with orbiters and landers • To return Martian rock and soil sample to earth b) Why study Mars? • Probes comfirmed that the climate is very different • Mars is an ideal laboratory for scientists interested in geology and atmospheric physics • from the study of mars scientists may learn more about the types of conditions that could lead to dramatic environmental change • these studies could tell us why mars grow so cold • Water was found to aid in any human exploration the search goes on to find the waters that were in the floods that shaped the surface of mars • if there is live on mars it would have to live without oxygen, store water for a long time, live underground from protection from radiation and temperature. c) Who will study mars • the mars exploration team made of of many members these members include • physics, chemists geologists and astronomers • technicaians • graphic designers • managers • they are all cretive curious interested in myseries and in solcing problems • they took science and math classes
working as a team they were able to do more thus the reward was greater • the internet allows a student to look at the whole processes d) Is physics important • the mars mission was based on physics • rocket engines • gyoscopic directional controls • precision clocks • solar panel • nuclear power source • camers, computer radio, transmitters and receivers • science and technology is in constant interaction • some scitific results produce new tech • faster lighter computers • artificial limbs • all of the mars team members used problem solving • this skill allowed them to go on with the project in a perdicament • they also had team work skills • to make presentations to communicate what they have learned to coworkers, their friends and the general public • the goal of this course is to show the student the way physicists view the world and to give you an understanding of the physical world around you. • We will be prepared to answer these questions • how do we know • why do we believe it • what's the evidence for that
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