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Content

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

Objective
Introduction
Theoretical Background
Equipment
Procedure
Data Acquisition
Data Analysis
Discussion
Conclusion

3
3
3
4
4
4
8
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LAB 1
SPACE MEAN SPEED

1.1

OBJECTIVE
The objective of this experiment is to determine the space mean speed and time
mean speed of a road section.

1.2

INTRODUCTION
Level 1 laboratory activity refers to condition where the problem and ways &
means are guided and given to the students. However the answers to the
assignment are left to the students to solve using the group creativity and
innovativeness. The activity is hope to slowly introduced and inculcate
independent learning amongst students and prepare them for a much harder task
of open-ended laboratory activities.
In this laboratory activity students will be exposed to the space mean speed
study to determine the space mean speed and time mean speed of a road.
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Space mean speed is defined as the average speed of all vehicles occupying a
given section of a road over a specified time period. While, time mean speed is
defined as the average speed of all vehicles passing a point on a road over a
specified time period. Space mean speed is required in order to compute the
accuracy of travel times.
1.3

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
Speed values can be calculated using travel times, but there are several types of
speeds that should be distinguished. The time-mean speed is the arithmetic
average speed of all vehicles for a specified period of time. While, the spacemean speed is the average speed of vehicles traveling a given segment of
roadway during a specified period of time and is calculated using the average
travel time and length for the roadway segment. In other words, the time-mean
speed is associated with a point over time, whereas the space-mean speed is
associated with a section of roadway.

1.4

EQUIPMENT
a) Radar speed meter.
b) Clip board and field data form.

1.5

PROCEDURE
1.
2.

A site location of a straight stretch section of road chosen.


A position was selected from where the drivers will not be aware that their

3.

speeds are being recorded.


The radar unit was aimed to the line of vehicle (travel in group) over a short

distance
4. The speeds of the vehicles appeared on the radar meter and recorded on the
field data sheet.
5. The speed samples taken for 100 vehicles with various type of vehicles involved.

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1.6

DATA ACQUISITION
Table 1: Data of type of vehicles and speed(km/hr)
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
No
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.

Type of Vehicle
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Medium weight lorry
Car
Motorcycle
Car
Type of Vehicle
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Motorcycle
Heavy weight lorry
Medium weight lorry
Car
Car
Car
Car
Heavy weight lorry
Car
Van
Car
Motorcycle
Car
Heavy weight lorry
Car
Car
Motorcycle
Car
Medium weight Lorry
Van
Car
Car
Car

Speed (km/hr)
42
37
76
89
63
50
61
64
44
61
56
79
Speed (km/hr)
28
65
49
63
60
70
41
56
51
73
45
60
50
64
57
44
48
54
69
74
55
24
64
52
53
72
57
41
76
70
44
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No
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
No
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.

Type of Vehicle
Car
Car
Motorcycle
Medium weight lorry
Motorcycle
Car
Car
Car
Van
Van
Van
Car
Car
Motorcycle
Motorcycle
Car
Car
Car
Car
Motorcycle
Car
Motorcycle
Car
Car
Car
Medium weight lorry
Car
Car
Car
Car
Motorcycle
Type of Vehicle
Car
Car
Car
Car
Medium Weight Lorry
Heavy Weight Lorry
Car
Heavy Weight Lorry
Car
Car
Motorcycle
Motorcycle
Car
Motorcycle
Motorcycle

Speed (km/hr)
63
48
38
37
72
53
51
75
51
71
55
51
61
45
58
73
63
66
54
50
58
56
65
57
61
37
66
88
71
62
49
Speed (km/hr)
70
69
44
46
51
54
55
48
60
52
53
49
46
40
63
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90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.

Car
Car
Car
Medium Weight Lorry
Motorcycle
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

48
48
48
50
61
55
55
58
49
53
70
Total 5651

1.7

ANALYSIS
No of vehicles according to types:
Car
Van
Motorcycle
Medium Weight Lorry
Heavy Weight Lorry

: 67
:5
: 16
:7
:5

Time mean speed , TMS=

56.51

V
N

5651
100

km/hr

Space mean speed , SMS=

N
V1

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100
1 1 1 1 1
+ + + +
42 37 76 89 63

= 53.77 km/hr

1.8

DISCUSSION
In this experiment, we need to determine the space mean speed and time mean
speed at a road section. We had chosen the study site at a junction near Seri Mutiara
Apartment in Bandar Seri Alam, Masai. This site location is good location as there has a
straight road right from Pasir Gudang to UiTM Pasir Gudang. Actually there is a junction
in between but we only took the reading for vehicles that went straight because the
speed of vehicles constant when it goes straight rather than making a turn.
Moreover, there are various type of vehicles used that particular road. This is
because of the destination at the end of the road are UiTM Pasir Gudang as a high
education institute so there will be students taking buses, cars and motorcycles and
using that road. Other than that, since there is a quarry area in that area, there will be
plenty of heavy weight lorries passing through the road.
Somehow, there is a situation that influence the effectiveness of the data
obtained. Surround that area there is no place to hide properly. The driver itself will
automatically slow down the vehicles when they noticed our presence in that particular
time. Thus, the lack of strategy and planning lead us to notice this kind of disadvantage.
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The picture of study site chosen as below:

Figure 1: Map of study area

To find the Time Mean Speed for that particular time and place, we use formulae

of

Time mean speed , TMS=

V
N

which V represent speed of vehicles and N

represent number of vehicles involved. For Space Mean Speed, we use formulae of

Space mean speed , SMS=

N
V1

Another factor that might affect this study is the time of day and duration along
the study period. The time chosen was not around the peak hour time. Instead we
decided to start our study at 2 in the evening and successfully done within one hour
duration. Within this one hour, we successfully collect approximately 100 vehicles with
various types.

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1.9

CONCLUSION
Based on this laboratory activity of Highway Engineering, which is space mean
speed, we can get the value of time mean speed and space mean speed. Based on the
experiment that have done, among the 100 vehicles spotted, majority the vehicles are
car which is 67 of it. Car categorized included taxi, four wheel drive car and multipurpose
vehicles (MPV). Then, followed by motorcycle which is 16. Median weight lorry is 7
while van and heavy weight lorry are both 5.
All this amount of vehicles influenced by the destination and location of site which
are near to high education institute which are UniKL and UiTM. There will be many
students drive their own car to the campus. Meanwhile, some of them ride their
motorcycle.
Based on the calculation made, the time mean speed for this road at particular
time is 56.51 km/hr while the space mean speed is 53.77 km/hr. The speed limit at this
location supposed to be 60 km/hr. Only 55% of the road user follows this speed limit.
The speed limit at this location must be follow because it near to residential area, such
as Seri Mutiara Apartment, Country Residency, Amansari Residential, etc. Other than
that, we noticed that few police car passing by the area proved that there has a Police
District Headquarter of Seri Alam, Masai.
In this experiment, there are some error that noticed such as systematic error.
For example, the equipment that we used was radar gun. When we shot the vehicle, the
radar gun showed several value of speed due to uncertain speed of that particular
vehicle. To overcome this error, we choose the highest value among it. The second error
is the human error. Human error caused by ourselves. This is because of

lack of

practice using the radar gun before doing the experiment. To avoid this error, the
expertise such as lecture must be at the scene and monitor the student.
As a conclusion, we can determine that our experiment is successful as we got
the value of time mean speed and space mean speed. Other than that, student has
chances to use the radar gun properly.
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