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Q&A session

Q: Is there any European wide regulation expected?

A: Yes, there will be a European regulator (ACER) and there are European
regulations, but the question is to what degree they will have an influence:
binding powers or being implemented by member states is not the same.

Q: Common cost ratio overhead vs underground: 5X1 rural flat

terrain, 10 X1 difficult rural terrain, 20X1 for urban underground
installation. Is that correct?
A: if you talk about costs: probably yes, but as mentioned in the
presentation: if you can't build it, the costs is not important.

Q: In smartgrid, we are trying to implement our control IT &

communication technology to make the distribution grid more
robust, reliable, efficient, etc. Is it possible to use these
technologies at Transmission level in a similar way as for
distribution grid?
A: This is a very open question as there are different aspects to it. First of
all, the transmission system is a meshed system while the distribution
system is usually radial. IT, communication and control techonology are
already used in the transmission system, probably more than in distribution.
Some techniques will be transfered from distribution to transmission or from
transmission to distribution, others will not...

Q: So, increase of RES generation would need a lot af new network

to balance the wind intermittent production, wouldn't it?
A: Depends on where you put the generation, but it would need more grid
than traditional generators.

Q: If we are thinking about the future grids, it seems to me that

HVDC cables should be a big part of it
A: I agree, although they are also not perfect

Q: How grid is used as a storage device?

A: The power system can not store energy, but by reducing increasing other
generators elsewere
connected to the grid, you have some kind of storage device. Only the
energy is not stored in
electricity, but in increased water levels in reservoirs, less fossil fuels

Q: It seems that a lot of obstacles exist to transmission expansion

planning. Do you think an economical-environmental-social DG
capacity expansion planning tool that takes into account all the
spheres of sustainability would be useful for the quicker evolution
of the grid?
A: Answered during webinar

Q: Thank you for your time - What is the present use or benefit (if
known) of Synchrophasors?
A: Answered during webinar, see the recording.

Q: What about High Temperature Low Sag conductors fto uprate

existing lines?
A: Answered during webinar, see the recording.

Q: From presentation, it appears that the political factor is the key

obstacle for future expansion in Europe, so, how to manage it in an
integrated planning?
A: Answered during webinar, see the recording.

Q: How would you assess the current value of back-to-back HVDC

transmission solutions in Europe?
A: Answered during webinar, see the recording.