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Introduction

The golden apple snail, popularly known as "golden kuhol" [Pomacea canaliculata
Lamarck], was introduced into the Philippines between 1982 and 1984. It came from
South America (Brazil and Argentina) via Taiwan. Its high nutritive value as food for
human beings and farm animals generated interest among both public and private
sectors to propagate the production of this organism. However, a few years after its
introduction, the golden apple snail became a major pest of rice.
Of the 3 million (M) hectares of rice lands in the Philippines, 1.2-1.6M hectares are
infested with golden apple snail. In 1990, P212M was spent to control this pest. The
first account that it had become a major pest was recorded in 1986 when about 300
hectares of irrigated rice farms in Region 2 (Cagayan Valley) were heavily damaged.
Since then, rice area infested with this pest has been increasing until it became a
national menace.

Characteristics of adult golden apple snails


The golden apple snail lives for 2-6 years with high fertility.
Shell is tight brown; flesh is creamy white to golden pinkish or orange.
Size depends on the availability of food.
Most destructive stage is when the length of the shell is from 10 mm (about the size of a corn
seed) to 40 mm (about the size of a pingpong ball).*
Female golden apple snail operculum (a1) is concave white it is convex in male (a2).
The shell of the female adult snail (b1) curves inward; the male shell (b2) curves outward.*
Based on the study conducted by MS Dela Cruz, RC Joshi, and AR Martin.

Nutritive value of golden apple snail


Nutritive value of golden apple snail flesh per 100g
- Food energy 83 calories
- Protein 12.2 g
- Fat 0.4 g
- Carbohydrates 6.6 g
- Ash 3.2 g
- Phosphorus 61 mg
- Sodium 40 mg
- Potassium 17 mg
- Riboflavin 12 mg
- Niacin 1.8 mg
- Other food values: Vit. C, zinc, copper, manganese, and iodine

The golden apple snail (Pomacea canalicuta), locally known as golden kuhol, was first
introduced into Philippine farms in 1983 with the hope of providing additional protein source for
dietary improvement of many poor families. But its promising potential turned into a menace for
farmers when the golden apple snail became a prolific pest on rice fields. It grows and increases
rapidly, voraciously feeding on any succulent greens that include newly transplanted rice
seedlings. It destroys farms, livelihood, and has become a burden to rice production.
Although considered a threat in rice production, many farmers are (again) looking at the golden
kuhol at a different perspective. The golden kuhol being remarkably nutritious and easy to digest,
farmers have discovered it to be a good source of supplementary feed for livestock and poultry. It
stimulates fast growth and reproduction. The snail meat provides protein and energy-giving fat
while the shell contains calcium, phosphorous, vitamins, and minerals. Now, a lot of farmers do
not see these golden kuhol as a threat to the fields but rather an opportunity to improve their
livelihood.

Golden kuhol are freshly collected from the fields, crushed, mixed with raw rice bran, and then
fed right away to the animals. There are times when animals are fed with pure golden apple snail
straight from the fields. Studies showed that healthier and heavier livestock are produced using
this feeding scheme. Ducks fed with snail meal can attain more or less than 70% increase in egg
production rate. Further, due to its high nutrition, snail meal could replace fish or meat and bone
meal in broiler diets.

snail eggs
Opportunities abound, but farmers continue to ignore them due to the laborious and timeconsuming task of manually crushing the snails. But as R&D continues to find solution to
farmers problem, researchers from the Department of Engineering and Technology of the
Camarines Sur State Agricultural College led by Engr. Marife L. Pesino designed and developed
a mechanically operated golden kuhol grinder-crusher. This machine does not only minimize
laborious work of crushing but it also saves time from manually picking the snails from the fields
and different farm locations. It also gives opportunity for farmers to culture golden kuhol in one
specific area mainly for feed supplement.
The opportunity of converting golden kuhol into useful feeds also saves a lot of money for our
farmers, as they do not have to buy expensive molluscicide to control it, making it environmentfriendly. Likewise, by converting the snails into feed supplements the farmers spend less for
expensive feeds for their livestock and poultry. This likewise reduces the need for imported
fishmeal feeds and save the countrys foreign exchange.
Generally, farm equipment and machineries i.e., tractor, water pump, fruit loader, thresher, etc.,
are never gender-friendly. Women and children who also work in the farm use machines that are
laborious and strenuous to operate. But with the new kuhol crusher-grinder, which was designed
and conceptualized by a lady engineer, crushing and grinding are no longer tedious as before.
The machine is mobile, making it easy to transport.

Anti- Angiogenic Potential of Golden Kuhol (Pomacea


canaliculata Lam.) Extracts on Duck Embryo
Asia, Jay Francis S.; Ligot, Doux A.; Tapac, Ian Greg D.; Mata, Ritchelle Abigail P.; Tomas,
Ryan Francis V.
Abstract
This study was conducted to test the anti- angiogenic potential of golden kuhol (Pomacea
canaliculata Lam.) extracts. Freshly harvested golden kuhol were processed and then added with
methanol. The filtrate was subjected to a rotary evaporator until the methanol components are
removed to give the extract required for the study. The golden kuhol extracts were prepared and
were formulated into different treatment concentrations.The treatments were then introduced
through Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) Assay to randomly- assigned 9-day old duck eggs
with six replicates per treatment. The set-ups were incubated for three days. After the incubation
period, the eggs were retrieved and were prepared for the Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM)
Assay observation. The blood vessels within the chorioallantoic membrane, which were radially
converging towards the embryo were counted and recorded as non-parametric data. The data
were tabulated and computed using the Kruskal-Wallis Test and Mann- Whitney U for the
percentage inhibition of blood vessels.Examination of the duck embryo based on the blood
vessels converging towards the center showed that there were significant differences between
and among the extracts based on both the average blood vessels and mean percentage inhibition.

Treatment 1 (25 ml golden kuhol extract + 75 ml dH20) proved to be the most effective among
the extracts, having an average blood vessel count of 1 and a mean percentage inhibition of
92.19%. Treatment 2 (50 ml golden kuhol extract + 50 ml dH20), Treatment 3 (75 ml golden
kuhol extract + 25 ml dH20) and Treatment 4 (pure golden kuhol crude extract) exhibited
comparable results. The results show that golden kuhol extracts possess anti-angiogenic
properties on duck embryo. However, it does not guarantee the survival of the embryo as seen
from the results of the experimental set-ups. The treatment concentrations were lethal to some
extent on duck embryos that were studied using the CAM assay.
The golden apple snail (Pomacea Tcanalicuta), locally known as golden kuhol, was first
introduced into Philippine farms in 1983. It is now cultured all over the country because it is
easy to raise and is good for food. An average-sized golden kuhol contains protein,
carbohydrates, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, riboflavin, and niacin.
In addition to its nutritive value, the golden kuhol reproduces fast. It is easier to culture because
it has tough eggs and larvae. It is also adaptable to crowding. As many as 5 kg of the snails can
be stocked in a square metre of space without encountering culture problem. It can survive or
even thrive in water with zero oxygen level, such as stagnant pool, because it has two breathing
gills and a lung. It is also compatible with other fish raised in ponds under a polyculture system.
To raise golden kuhol, you only need minimal capital, space, time, and effort. With 5 to 10
minutes of daily care, you can raise golden kuhol in a tank or container (wooden, metal, or
plastic) measuring at least 1 square meter.
Given proper care and management, the golden kuhol can grow ten times faster than our native
kuhol. It grows nonstop 24 hours a day and has a life-span of three years. It moves constantly
and eats all day. It is omnivorous and is considered a live eating machine. It eats both land and
aquatic plants as well as animal flesh. It feeds on duck weeds, hydrilla, water hyacinth, garden
grass, ipil-ipil leaves, kangkong, camote tops, talinum, kulitis, malunggay, vegetable scraps, and
papaya and gabi leaves. It also feeds and can grow well on livestock and fish feeds like bran,
corn, and chicken mash, but these are not advisable to use because they are expensive. Azolla, a
group of minute water ferns, is best as feed because it entails practically no cost. Avoid sour or
acidic fruits and leaves.
To avoid diseases, there should be a continuous flow of water. If possible, change water two or
three times a week. Scrape all the accumulated foreign matter, especially when the water begins
to discolor and has foul odor.
Keep water temperature at 20C to 25C and the depth of the pond at least 20 cm. Stocking rate
should be from 500 to 1,000 snails per square meter. For commercial purposes, the ratio of male
to female is 2:5. Remember to keep the pond partially shaded.

The golden apple snail


(Pomacea Tcanalicuta), locally known as golden kuhol, was first introduced into Philippine
farms in 1983 with the hope of providing additional protein source for dietary improvement of
many poor families. But its promising potential turned into a menace for farmers when the
golden apple snail became a prolific pest on rice fields. It grows and increases rapidly,
voraciously feeding on any succulent greens that include newly transplanted rice seedlings. It
destroys farms, livelihood, and has become a burden to rice production.
Although considered a threat in rice production, many farmers are (again) looking at the golden
kuhol at a different perspective. The golden kuhol being remarkably nutritious and easy to digest,
farmers have discovered it to be a good source of supplementary feed for livestock and poultry. It
stimulates fast growth and reproduction. The snail meat provides protein and energy-giving fat
while the shell contains calcium, phosphorous, vitamins, and minerals. Now, a lot of farmers do
not see these golden kuhol as a threat to the fields but rather an opportunity to improve their
livelihood.
Golden kuhol are collected from the fields, crushed, mixed with raw rice bran, and then fed right
away to the animals. There are times when animals are fed with pure golden apple snail straight
from the fields. Studies showed that healthier and heavier livestock are produced using this

feeding scheme. Ducks fed with snail meal can attain more or less than 70% increase in egg
production rate. Further, due to its high nutrition, snail meal could replace fish or meat and bone
meal in broiler diets.
Opportunities abound, but farmers continue to ignore them due to the laborious and timeconsuming task of manually crushing the snails. But as R&D continues to find solution to
farmers problem, researchers from the Department of Engineering and Technology of the
Camarines Sur State Agricultural College led by Engr. Marife L. Pesino designed and developed
a mechanically operated golden kuhol grinder-crusher. This machine does not only minimize
laborious work of crushing but it also saves time from manually picking the snails from the fields
and different farm locations. It also gives opportunity for farmers to culture golden kuhol in one
specific area mainly for feed supplement.
The opportunity of converting golden kuhol into useful feeds also saves a lot of money for our
farmers, as they do not have to buy expensive molluscicide to control it, making it environmentfriendly. Likewise, by converting the snails into feed supplements the farmers spend less for
expensive feeds for their livestock and poultry. This likewise reduces the need for imported
fishmeal feeds and save the countrys foreign exchange.

Generally, farm equipment and machineries i.e., tractor, water


pump, fruit loader, thresher, etc., are never gender-friendly. Women and children who also work
in the farm use machines that are laborious and strenuous to operate. But with the new kuhol
crusher-grinder, which was designed and conceptualized by a lady engineer, crushing and
grinding are no longer tedious as before. The machine is mobile, making it easy to transport.
The design and concept of the crusher-grinder was based on the existing hammer mill machines
used in efficiently reducing sizes of feed materials but is comparably more efficient. The
machine is low-cost and affordable as it is made from indigenous materials.

The golden kuhol crusher-grinder has seven main parts: mainframe assembly, hopper assembly,
upper rotor housing assembly, and lower rotor housing assembly. Its rotor assembly consists of a
swinging and rotating hammer blades that crush and grind golden kuhol through a replaceable
perforated screen. The design of the golden kuhol crusher-grinder is not only economical and
environment-friendly but more important, the machine is gender-friendly.
Performance tests showed that the machine could efficiently and perfectly crush and grind
golden kuhol when operated at 1500 rpm and 2070 rpm, respectively, with the desired particle
size recommended for optimum feed digestibility.
source: applesnail.net, photo from www.manandmollusc.net

The golden apple snail, popularly known as golden kuhol (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck), is
one of the major pest problems in rice production. In 1989, the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations estimated that yield tosses owing to this pest ranged from 1%
to 40% of the planted area in the Philippines, resulting in huge production loss. To control this
pest, many farmers resort to the massive use of synthetic molluscicides that are expensive and
broad spectrum, affecting non-target organisms including human beings.
To present additional alternatives and information on golden kuhol management, a new recipe
for golden apple snail is now available. The product is a chicharon (cracker) that is devoid of
water, has no offensive odor, with longer shelf-life, and can be readily used as an ingredient in
other recipes.
Golden Kuhol are well edible and are often considered a protein rich delicacy. Consuming these
snails is therefore an interesting option in those areas where they have become a pest and treat
for the rice and taro production. In such cases, eating these snails has two benefits:
1. Collecting the snails is encouraged;
2. The diet of the farmers (especially in third world countries) is enriched with a
protein source.

Precautions
Precautions have to be taken to kill the possible parasites that these snails can carry. Cook the
snails thoroughly before consumption as this is a simple and effective way to eliminate the risk
of infection. NEVER eat raw or poorly cooked snails!
Some basic tips to prepare the snails:
1. Put the snails in a tank without food for 2 days to make sure that the
intestines are emptied (optional).

2. Boil the snails lightly or freeze them to kill the snails.


3. Remove the snails from their shell with a hook or tweezers.
4. Remove the body and intestines of the snails (only eat the foot). The internal
organs dont taste well; especially the albumen (yolk) gland from the female
apple snail has bad taste (the same bad taste as the eggs, a possible
protection mechanism against predators).
5. Remove the operculum (shell door).

The nutritional value of apple snails is relatively high. More precisely, the protein content of
apple snail can make them a good protein source for humans. For example the protein value of
Pomacea haustrum is reported to be 72.9% for humans. In practice this means that out of 100
gram snail protein, 72.9 gram human body proteins can be made.
Golden Kuhol Chicharon (Kracker)
Ingredients:

4-6 kg apple snails with shell (yields 0.75-1.0 kg of apple snail flesh).

1 tsp. black pepper

cup soy sauce

3 tablespoons vinegar

3 cloves garlic

1-2 red chilli

tsp. alum

1 cup vegetable cooking oil (for frying)

cup cornstarch or flour

1 egg

Procedure:

1. Collect large adults of apple snails (golden Kuhol) in the


paddy, canals, and fishponds during early morning or late in
the afternoon. Use attractants gabi/ azolla/ banana leaves,
or newspaper, to facilitate quick collection.

2. Soak the collected snails in water for 24 hours to remove


undigested food. Remove the dead golden Kuhol.

3. Boil the snails in large container for 20-30 minutes. Boiling


makes it easier to remove the flesh from the shell.

4. Clean flesh again while removing the stomach. Rinse the


flesh with alum (Tawas) to remove the unpleasant odor.

5. Mix the following ingredients (1 tsp. black pepper, cup


soy sauce, 3 tbsp. vinegar, 3 cloves garlic, and 1-2 red chilli)
with the golden Kuhol. Marinade for 24 hours.

6. Sun dry the marinated snails for 2-3 days or place in the
oven at 40C for 48 hours.7. Deep fry in vegetable cooking
oil for 2 minutes.

8. Air-dry the prepared snails for 3 days. Such snails can be


stored. Optional: Roll the snails in batter (cornstarch or flour
with egg mixture) before final cooking.

9. For final cooking, deep fry again for 5 minutes or until the
golden Kuhol is crispy. Let cool. Place in plastic bag and
seal.

Based on the Kibit recipe of Mrs. Corazon M. Pasion, 124 Zamora St. Baler, Aurora
Modified by: M. S. dela Cruz and R. C. Joshi, Crop Protection Division, Department of Agriculture (DA)-Philippine
Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), Maligaya, Muoz, Nueva Ecija-3119. Tel.: 044-4560 285 Local 227 or E-mail:
joshiravi@hotmail.com

Nutritive value of golden apple snail flesh per 100g


- Food Energy 83.0
- Protein 12.2 gramo
- Fat 0.4 gramo
- Carbohydrate 6.6 gramo
- Ash 3.2 gramo
- Phosphorus 61.0 mg.
- Sodium 0.4 mg
- Potassium 17.0 mg
- Riboflavin 12.0 mg
- Niacin 1.8 mg
- Other nutrients includes Vitamin C, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Magnesium, and Iodine.
More recipes:

Hawaiian Escargot Leterc

BoKe Spicy Pupu

Apple snail in white wine

Apple snail croquettes

Borbor chon. (Khmer Snails and rice soup)

Num pachok chon. (Snail noodles soup)

Nhoam Chon. (Snail Salad)

More golden kuhol pest management here.


source: applesnail.net, photo from www.manandmollusc.net
CHEMICAL, COOKING AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF BURGER
PATTIES WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF BANANA PEDUNCLE POWDER
Cristy M. Bueno, Susan A. Sedano, Elizabeth D. Beltran,
Arsenia B. Sapin, Teresita J. Ramirez and Mary Ann T. Tavanlar
ABSTRACT
Burger patties with different levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%) of banana
peduncle powder (BPP) were processed to evaluate the effect on the
chemical composition, cooking recovery, sensory characteristics and cost of
production. The chemical composition such as moisture, crude fiber and nitrogenfree extract contents were similar among treatments. The ash, crude
fat and potassium contents generally increased while crude protein decreased
with increasing level of BPP. Results of the evaluation showed that
the cooking recovery was not affected by the treatment. Sensory evaluation
revealed that all parameters considered were similar, except for off-flavor.
Considering all the sensory parameters evaluated, the inclusion rate of up to
1% can produce a product with similar palatability as that of the control.
There was a 3.2% reduction in the cost of production of patties with every
0.5% BPP substitution in the product.
Keywords: banana peduncle powder, burger patties, chemical composition, sensory
characteristics

INTRODUCTION
Hamburger

INTRODUCTION
Hamburger or burger has been one of the major processed meat products
not only in the country but also all over the world. It is a very popular meal
component or snack food for all ages. It is commonly served in a bread bun
garnished with vegetables, cheese and different dressings. But due to the changes
in the taste and lifestyle of the consumers, there emerge the so-called burger steak
in some of the fast food chains in the country. This product, though, had been
considered as one of the unhealthy foods since it is packed with high amount of
unsaturated fatty acids which is often associated with heart ailments.
The emergence of several lifestyle diseases such as heart ailments,

diabetes, cancer, obesity and others escalated the demand for health food products
with preference for natural and organic sources of nutrients such as fruits and
vegetables. The trend now in the manufacture of ready-to-eat foods in the country is
to include a substantial amount of natural materials that can greatly improve the
nutritional value by increasing the vitamin and mineral contents, and functional value
by increasing the fiber contents of the product.
In recent years, the importance of food fibers has led to the development of
a large and potential market for fiber-rich products and ingredients. Finding new
sources of dietary fiber that can be used as ingredients in the food industry is now
prevalent (Chau and Huang, 2003). Dietary fibers are incorporated in many food
products for their nutritional, functional and technological properties. The
technological effect on foods differs according to the quantity and nature of dietary
fiber (Thebaudin et al., 1997). Fiber has been successful in improving cooking yield,
reducing formulation cost and enhancing texture (Akoh, 1998; Iyengar and Gross,
1991). It has been used by the meat industry to improve the cooking yield and
texture of cooked meat products due to the higher water and fat holding properties
of fiber (Cofrades et al., 2000). Dietary fibers based on pectins, cellulose, soy,
wheat, maize or rice isolates and beet fiber have been found to improve the texture
of meat products, such as sausages, patties and salami. They can be used in the
preparation of low-fat products, such as hamburger, frankfurters, meat loaves, etc.
Their inclusion in the meat matrix contributes to maintain its juiciness, which implies
that the volatile compounds responsible for the flavor of the product are more slowly
released (Chevance et al., 2000).
Banana, being one of the major crops in the country for decades, has been
cultivated primarily for their fruit, leaves, and to a lesser extent for the production of
fiber. However, numerous by-products were also produced which are usually being
disposed. Every year, an estimated amount of 2.5 metric tons of banana peduncle
are discarded and allowed to decompose in the plantation. Currently, studies on the
utilization of banana peduncle as source of fiber for human food are being
undertaken at the National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology,
(BIOTECH) University of the Philippines Los Baos (UPLB). Initial results showed a
very high digestible fiber content of 56% and mineral of 9.95%. This study was
conducted to evaluate the effect of adding different levels of banana peduncle
powder on the chemical and sensory characteristics of burger patties.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Burger patties with different levels of banana peduncle powder (BPP) were
processed. Treatment 1 had no BPP and served as control while treatments 2, 3, 4
and 5 contained 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% BPP, respectively.
The BPP was obtained from Cavendish banana peduncle harvested from a
local contract grower from Davao del Sur in Southern Philippines. The peduncle

samples were washed, peeled, soaked in metabisulfite solution, cut into cubes,
passed through a mechanical presser and dried at 65C for 6-12 hours. The
samples were then milled in a Wiley mill with 200 mesh screen and passed through
a 1 mm sieve. Pesticide residue in the peduncle was kept to a minimum since
harvesting of banana coincides with the pest management schedule of the
plantation and growing banana bunches were kept bagged until harvesting. The
chemical composition of the BPP used in the study is shown in Table 1.
Characteristics of burger patties with banana peduncle powder 47
Table 2. Burger patties formulations with different levels of banana peduncle
powder.
Ingredients, g
Treatment
12345
Beef 440.0 410.0 380.0 350.0 320.0
Pork 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0
Pork Fat 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0
Salt 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0
Sugar 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
Spices 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Binder 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0
Fresh Onion 56.0 56.0 56.0 56.0 56.0
Fresh Egg, 1 whole 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0
Egg Yolk, 2 pcs 38.0 38.0 38.0 38.0 38.0
Water 50.0 75.0 100.0 125.0 150.0
Banana peduncle powder 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0
TOTAL 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0
Table 1. Chemical composition of banana peduncle powder used in the study*.
*Analyzed at the Central Analytical Service Laboratory, BIOTECH, UPLB.