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PHYS 241D Electricity & Optics

Physics Department Home page: http://www.physics.purdue.edu/


Course Home page: http://www.physics.purdue.edu/phys241D/
CHIP Home page: http://chip.physics.purdue.edu/public/241D/spring2015/
Piazza: https://piazza.com/purdue/spring2015/phys241/home

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Room 11 - Help center
Room 290 - Physics Library

Course Home page:


http://www.physics.purdue.edu/phys241D/

Calendar & Syllabus are


under this link.

Calendar/Schedule (posted under Course Information)


*Read the assigned
Chapter sections
prior to watching the
lecture.
*Note Exam Dates
*Homework is due on
Mondays at 11:59 PM.
Homework is done
through CHIP.
*Lecture quizzes are due
on Friday.
*Recitation quizzes are
due on Mondays.

*Check your schedule for the time of your online recitation. See PHYS241D
homepage for the link to the online recitation classroom using WebEx
CHIP Home page: http://chip.physics.purdue.edu/public/241D/spring2014/

Homework: http://chip.physics.purdue.edu/public/241D/spring2014/

Homework: http://chip.physics.purdue.edu/public/241D/spring2014/

Homework: http://chip.physics.purdue.edu/public/241D/spring2014/

Homework: http://chip.physics.purdue.edu/public/241D/spring2014/

*Answer Survey before due date


& receive 10 homework bonus
points

*Note Due
Datesalways
check as the
dates may
change due to
unforeseen
circumstances

*Note: Recitation Quiz 00 takes 30 minutes. Please start prior to 11:00 PM Jan
16, 2015 to have the complete 30 minutes. Remember: Once you open a
quiz and close it, you cannot re-open it.

Course Home page: http://www.physics.purdue.edu/phys241D/

Online Recitations

Link to lecture
notes. Fill in
notes as you
watch the
lecture on
Boilercast

Link for live online


recitations. Meeting
number & password will
be e-mailed to you.
Recitations will also be
recorded for later viewing.

http://www.itap.purdue.edu/learning/tools/webex/

Read the Syllabus for additional details

Online Forum
We will use Piazza for class discussions to assist you in getting
help fast and efficiently from your classmates and the teaching
assistants. Rather than emailing questions to the teaching staff,
you are encouraged to post your questions on Piazza:
You can sign up for a Piazza account and enroll in our class
page at:
https://piazza.com/purdue/spring2015/phys241/

Additional Resource:

Electric & Magnetic Fields


Electric and magnetic fields manifest their existence
through interactions with matter.
Maxwells Equations

Short YouTube Videos on


selected topics.

Differential Form

div ( E ) = E =
o

Integral Form

Q
S E dA = enclosed
o

div B = B = 0


B dA = 0

( )

Lorentz Force


F = qE + qv B

B
curl E = E =
t


B
E

d
l
=

C
S t dA

E
curl B = B = o J + o
t


E
B

d
l
=

I
+

dA
o
o o

t
C
S

( )

( )

Lecture 1 Electric Charges & Coulombs Law

James Clerk Maxwell


(18311879)

Electric Charge
Electric charge is an intrinsic characteristic of the fundamental
particles that make up objects.
Positive Charge

Negative Charge

http://www.diyhappy.com/wpcontent/images/Lightning.bmp
www.ehow.com/how_2180464_ reducestatic-cling.html

Electric Charge

Electric Charge

Net charge of a system:

Electric charge is quantized

$=n

algebraic sum of all the charges

http://scrapetv.com/News/News%20Pages/
Business/images/us%20penny.jpg

Elementary charge:

Law: Conservation of charge


The net charge of a closed system never changes

e = 1.60602176462(63) x 1019 C
Coulomb (C): one coulomb is the amount of charge that is
transferred through the cross section of a wire in 1 second
when there is a current of 1 ampere in the wire.

Charge of Particles

Particles

Charge

neutral atom

Electron
e

Positron
e +

e

+Ze

+
Proton
e

Anti-Proton
e

Interaction of Charges
Charged objects interact by exerting forces on one another.

DEMO: Pith Balls

Neutron
0

nucleus

Photon
0

electron

orbits

Nucleus charge= +Ze, atom with Z electrons is neutral.

Proton charge: |e+ | = 1.60 x 1019 C


Electron charge: |e- | = 1.60 x 1019 C

Conductors versus Insulators

Interaction of Charges: Insulators

Conductors: material in which electric charges can move


around freely.

*Insulators: material in which electric charges are frozen in


place.

Insulators: material in which electric charges are frozen


in place.

Semi-conductor: material in which electric charges can


move around but not as freely as in conductors.

Super-conductor: no resistance to the movement of


charge.

Interaction of Charges: Insulators


Force of Repulsion

Force of Attraction

Mobility of Charge
Conductors: material in which electric charges can move
around freely.

Negatively charged plastic rod


will attract either end of the
electrically isolated copper rod
Reason: charges in copper rod
can redistribute themselves.
Charges with the same
electrical sign repel each
other

Charges with opposite


electrical signs attract each
other.

Conductors versus Insulators


Demo 5A-04: Charges are more readily
transferred by conductors

Charging by Induction

Mobility of Charge
Demo: Pie Tins

Charge Induction

1. Bring a charged rod close3. Break connection to ground,


to conductor.
keeping the
charged rod in place

Demo: Chimes
Charged

Conducting
thread
Grounded

2. Ground the conductor.

4. Remove
the rod. The
sphere is
charged.

Insulating
thread

Coulombs Law of Electro-static Force

Coulombs Law of Electro-static Force

F=

r

q1

Charles-Augustin de
Coulomb
(1736 - 1806)

q2

The electro-static force of attraction/repulsion has a


magnitude:
Coulombs Law
where:

k=

1
= 8.99x10 9 Nm 2 / C 2
4 o

and the permittivity constant is

o = 8.55x10 12 C 2 / Nm 2

Coulombs Law of Electro-static Force


Force exerted by q1 on q2 at a distance r12

kq q
F12 = 12 2 r1,2
r1,2

q1, q2 in coulombs (C)


r12 in meters (m)
F12 in newtons (N)

F12

1 Q1Q2
r
4 o r 2

+
+

*Each particle exerts a force of this magnitude on the other


particle.
*The two forces form an action-reaction pair.

Coulombs Law Analogous to Newtons Equation


of Gravitation

F =k

q1 q2
r2

F =G

m1m2
r2

Analogous
* k electro-static constant
* Inverse Square Law
* Charge

* G gravitational constant
* Inverse Square Law
* Mass
DIFFERS

*Attractive/repulsive
depending on sign of
charges
*Two kinds of charges
*Dominates on small scale

*Always attractive
*One kind of mass
*Dominates on large scales

Electro-Static Force versus Newtons Force of


Gravitational Attraction

DEMO: 2 x 4

Principle of Superposition
When several point charges are put together, the total force on
any one charge is the vector sum of the each of the separate
forces acting on that charge.
Exercise:
y

R=1m

Q2

Q1

600
Determine force on Q1

Q3

Q1=Q2=Q3=1C
x