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From Claude Klotz to Patrick Cauvin : an authors stylistic road to success

J-P Doumeyrou

Hankuk University for Foreign Studies,


French Department

Keyword : style , stylistic analysis , word count ,


literature , author

CONTENTS

Abstract

1. Les Innommables

The French author Claude Klotz enjoyed in the seventies a sudden and lasting

2. e=mc2

success when he began publishing under a new pseudonym : Patrick Cauvin. The

3. Different genres, different


styles ?

present article tries to verify whether changes in style from the persona Klotz to the

4. Sentence length

stylistic analysis has been made regarding the following criteria : Sentence length,

5. Nouns and adjectives

Frequency of Nouns, Adjectives, and Noun phrases, comparison of the Register :

6. Word register analysis

words rarity (in relation to a wide literary corpus).

7. Vocabulary Frequency

Results : in spite of the possible subjective impression felt by a reader, significant

8. Conclusions

differences in style are not found in grammar or syntax. They are however significant

Reference

in the choice of a register : in the samples, Klotz words are considerably rarer than

persona Cauvin may reveal a conscious effort, in order to gain a wider readership. A

Cauvins. This result is compatible with the hypothesis according to which, on the
one hand, Klotz may have deliberately altered his style in order to gain in popularity,
and on the other hand, such a gain is more obviously caused by a simplification in
vocabulary rather than in grammar.

Received : 01 September, 2014.


Revised : 02-30 September, 2014.
Accepted : 20 October, 2014.
Corresponding author : J-P Doumeyrou. 130-791, 107, Imun-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul,
Hankuk University for Foreign Studies, French Department
Tel : +82-02-2173-3168 HP : +82-10-6479-4882
Fax : +82-2-2173-3387

E-Mail : jpdoumeyrou@yahoo.com

: , , , ,

1.

Claude Klotz 70 Patrick Cauvin

2. e=mc2

. Klotz

3. , ?

Cauvin

4.

5.

, , ,

6.

7.

8.

. Klotz

,
.

: 2014. 09. 01.


: 2014. 09. 02-30.
: 2014. 10. 20.
: . 130-791 107
Tel : +82-02-2173-3168
Fax : +82-2-2173-3387

HP : +82-10-6479-4882
E-Mail : jpdoumeyrou@yahoo.com

J-P Doumeyrou

From Claude Klotz to Patrick Cauvin1)


: an authors stylistic road to success

stylistic road

Patrick Cauvin, archetype of the famous and popular


author? If there was, what may the modalities of his
decision have been?

from this, I
ll get the idea that I couldn
t write like
this anymore nowadays

The present work does not aim at denying any

(Klotz/Cauvin, Foreword to the 1997 edition ofLes

talent on the part of the man/author Klotz, nor even

Innommables
)

his persona Cauvin, on the contrary, but it seems


obvious that the sudden and marked changes which

If there is such a thing as a recipe for success, one

one could observe when passing from one (Klotz)

must admit that it may be one of the better kept

to the other (Cauvin) are meaningful in regard to

secrets. It may nevertheless be possible to wonder

the way an author has re-directed and perhaps

whether, in many cases, this hoped-for success isn


t

deliberately limited himself and his style to better fit

conditioned by the artist submitting himself to, or at

the mold of his successful alter-ego. Accordingly, the

least adopting, a new state of mind. To which extent

extreme difference in genres, styles and notoriety2)

is a creator aware of this slide to a maturity where

between Klotz and his later incarnation Cauvin make

he can find himself, where style and audiences meet

the situation an ideal case for observation.

and allow each other to grow? Did Picasso coldly,


a priori, pick Cubism as his style, the one which

We
ll begin by remarking that we will study here

will ensure the public


s approbation he had been

a contrast between on the one hand what can be

looking for ?

considered as a summit of the Klotz style, before his

Was there a particular moment when this

leap to fame, that is to say the prehistoric novel Les


:

particularly obscure writer, Claude Klotz, sat down

Innommables
, and on the other hand the immense

in front of his typewriter and decided to become

3)
success that wase=mc2 , mon amour
. We are

here in a search for significant differences, and do


not wish to study the switch from Klotz to Cauvin

1) If
 both incarnations of this writer are known to French
readers, the latter quasi-universally, a quick note may
be necessary for readership from the English-speaking
world. Claude Klotz spent years publishing, under that
name, relatively unremarked books, then abruptly
changed genre and maybe style, enjoying quasi
instantaneous success in terms of sales under his new
pseudonym Patrick Cauvin. Not unlike Erich Segal
s
positioning (as seen from a Marketing, Readership or
Literary style) forLove Story
, Cauvin
s easy-reading
Romances ended up on most coffee-tables in France,
some of them even so popular as to be immediately
made into film. (George Roy Hill
s 1979A Little
Romance
, with Laurence Olivier, and where Diane
Lane made her cinematographic debut, is an adaptation
of the novel :e=mc2studied in the present work.
Claude Klotz/Patrick Cauvin died in 2010, aged 77.

under a historiographical light. Thus, such works as


4)
Paris-VampireorL
Amour Aveugle
will not be

included : although chronologically between the


two works we will base our analysis upon, they may
be considered as intermediate forms on an
evolutionary scale, when we, and it
s not a
coincidence, wish to compareLes Innommables

2) At least until Cauvin


s success inevitably lead to a
rediscovery of Klotz
s previous works.
3) E = m c 2, my love
, adapted for screen asLittle
Romance
, as mentioned above.
4)Blind Love

JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL WONKWANG CULTURE 2014:4(1):1~16

Neanderthal to the Homo very Sapiens thate=mc2

Fiction period, that Klotz brings to the publisher

is.

Jean-Claude Latt s the manuscript of hisL


Amour
aveugle
, that will soon become the formidable

Claude Klotz (he published under his own name at

success that we know. It is this publisher who

the start of his literary career), born in 1932, started

advises Klotz to publish such books, so different

as a writer when he was a teacher. His first book

from what he was used to writing, under a new

5)

Les Classes, was released in 1968. In great part

pseudonym, thus giving birth to the writer Patrick

inspired by the author


s experience as a conscript

Cauvin.

during the Algerian War, it takes place in a military

The reception is overwhelming and a second book

setting. Next will beSbang-sbang


, a Western in

short follows Monsieur


:
Papa
, almost immediately

Marseille, in which he
ll invoke many of his later

ported to the big screen. At least for the time being,

reocurring themes and artifacts (amongst which

Klotz disappear, ceding his place to Cauvin.

his numerous references to American Cinema),

It is carried on the wings of this new-found

6)

theEt les cris de la F e ), where intemporality is

popularity that Cauvin can now allow himself to

confronted to everyday life.

writee=mc2, mon amour


, the theme of which (the

This is then, in 1971, that Cauvin publishesLes

improbable love story between two intellectually

Innommables
, a prehistoric novel. Wild and primal,

gifted teen-agers) may only seem on the surface

it enjoys a freedom of style and tone that neither

risky to offer a wide and popular audience. It is,

Klotz nor Cauvin will ever allow himself again.

nevertheless, and once again, an immense success.

Follows then a period that one may assimilate to

Les Innommables7)

the learning of trade of writer, during which, for half


a decade, Klotz concentrates on the thirteen volumes
of a crime series, mostly forgotten nowadays. There

Les Innommablesis a prehistoric novel. However

is no doubt that output quantity alone, whatever the

still situated within the limits of a genre that has not

literary qualities of this series, provides the author

really known any definitive slump since the XIXth

with an experience that one can assume precious to

century, (and it is probable that Klotz


s creative

the honing of his writer


s skills. Can
t we imagine

bone was stimulated by one or the other of those

Klotz, the man, leaned over his typewriter, slaving

serious opuses)8), the aim withLes Innommables

over his Noir fiction, while his mind wanders in

certainly is not to educate the reader, and there

search of other territories, other styles, and of

won
t be found any of the concern for scientific

course, other genres?

accuracy that can be found in Rosny


s work, or

It is indeed in 1974, in the deepest of his Crime


7) T he expressioninnomablescarries in French a
flurry of negative, or at least unbecomingly rough,
connotations. The adjective innommable is often used
to describe what should not be spoken of, what is to
vile to be uttered or described.
8) One can think, for example, of Rosny a n
La
s
Guerre
du Feu
.

5)Les
Classesdesignates the instruction period for

new recruits in a situation of military conscription.
The expressionfaire ses classesalso carries strong
connotations of the fact of proving oneself, as well as
of becoming experienced.
6)... and the screams of the fairy

J-P Doumeyrou

stylistic road

9)
even the seriousness of Lecurieux
sRahan
, which

Hugolian grandiloquence reserved to epics which

(coincidentally?) made its debuts the year previous

sing of the destiny of the world.


Overornate neologisms borne from fantasy12)

to the writing of Klotz


s novel.
Les Innommablesis first and foremost humour,

cladistics rub shoulders with abrupt short-cuts 13)

and if one can not plainly ascertain its parodic

belonging more to a everyday trivial and sometimes

10)

intention , its jubilantly extravagance obviously

familiar level, the inadequacy working as comic

precludes any serious intention.

relief amongst other means.

To illustrate it, suffice it to quote the foreword,

What could be called the anascientism of the

where the author, as will do, a quarter of a centuy

book, by analogy with the concept of anachronism,

11)

later, the scenarists of RRRrrrr!!! , specifies that,

conditions the possibility of humor, at the same time

language having not been invented yet, characters

as it is, through the jubilation of iconoclasty, the

couldn
t possibly have had names, and then

pleasure of the writer to feel free and his claim to the

proceeds to arbitrarily, and by convention, name

right to describe the world as he feels it and not as

them Karl, Fran oise, or Jean-Pierre Even before

it can factually and conceptually be observed. One

the start, the novel is solidly situated in the realm of

could assert that this is part of what a writer


s duty.

fantasy.

Some examples of this anascientism can be found in

In the 170 pages of his work, the author guides us

the second eyelid or the retractile head sported by

from antediluvian plains to glaucous marshes, in the

some of those proto-humans, or the way an aging

footsteps of its heroestwo tribes, who inevitably

character complains that fishing has become so

will be the sources of many an advance in the (pre-

much more difficult since little fish (now) have

?)history of mankind, such as bipedal locomotion,

legs
.14)

speech, or Tango, to end in a flourish with the first

This utterly personal approach also is served by a

love poem. The style is a deliberate mix of archaism

style abundant in terms that would not be found in a

and pseudo-scientific complexity, all bathed in an

less primal literature Immobiles,


:
leurs faces chell o
-acheul ennes tourn es vers la tourbe infinie, ils se
15)
tenaient accroupis en leurs c nes de terre,...

9) Lecurieux and Ch ret (drawings)


s comic book series
Rahanwas met with enormous success in France,
making it know by virtually every French person. It
tells the adventures of the eponymous Rahan,the Son
of the Wild Ages
, a prehistoric man. Realistic in style,
it is not, as opposed to Ast rix, for example, a comical
series, and is not totally disconnected from scientific
accuracy.
10) Here again, as opposed to Ast rix, where the historical
setting and the numerous plays with anachronism
makes it evident that the goal is to satirize
contemporary France and French people through the
adventures of Gauls.
11) This

2004 comedy takes place in the Stone Age (lge
de Pierre, in French). Accordingly, all protagonists in
this movie are called Pierre.

The book as a whole deliberately paints a picture


of original chaos, a primordial despair from whence
12) (because fantasized)
13) This is a habit that will never live neither Klotz nor his
Cauvin incarnation.
14) This is at the same time an evolutionary incongruity
(fish species do notgrowlegs in the space of a
human lifetime, even an epic one), and a play on
what arguably is the most famous French nursery
rhyme, in which small boats have legs
.
15)Immobile,

their chelleo-acheulan faces turned
towards the infinite peat, they remained squatting
upon their mud cones

JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL WONKWANG CULTURE 2014:4(1):1~16

is born everything that is human, but where one

old man.

already dies of nostalgia. Beyond this feeling of

Different genres. Different styles?

distantiation from the meaning of existence, or the


notion of Life in general, Klotz still manages to instill
the idea according to which bipedal locomotion

One could argue that switching from pre-historic

(that is to say the human condition)is a dynamic

Fantasy16) fiction to modern Romance can but allow,

equilibrium
, a state of permanent unbalance and

through a wider accessibility, for a facilitation of

fall.

popularity.
Accordingly, the two, or even three (Innommables,

E=mc

Daniel, Lauren) styles may seem to the reader totally


distinct. Heavy exuberance on the one hand, on the

By contrast, the innocuous story of these two

other (the others?) modern simplicity.

intellectually gifted teen-agers may seem tame,

We will try to ascertain to which degree these

without any social commentary other than the one,

styles effectively differ, aiming to verify whether,

under-exploited, about the difference in status

together with the changes in genre and theme, these

between the two protagonistsfamilies. Daniel


s

differences may have had a part in the difference in

father is a blue-collar worker from a disadvantaged

popularity which the two books enjoyed, and thus

suburb, Lauren
s is an industrialist. Both kids are

investigate whether they may have originated in

fourteen, and I
Qs least ten times that. They meet

a deliberate choice by the author, to mutate Klotz

and fall in love, but is such a romance possible in

the free, the personal, into a benign but successful

a n age so remote from Shakespeare


s? Together

Cauvin.

they watch the world up to a last stand of love


and intelligence, doomed from the start to a heart-

We will first look at the sentence length, as it may

breaking final good-bye.

be construed as an indicator of a supposedly

Where Les Innommables was inevitably told by an

arduous style, ine the case ofLes Innommables


,

and a more accessible one fore=mc2


.

omniscient narrator, e=mc switches, every other


chapter, from Daniel
s voice to Lauren
s. Their two

W e ll n e x t c o u n t n o u n s a n d a d j e c t i v e s

styles are obviously distinguishable, with the boy

respectively, particularly the number of adjectives

claiming his lower-class roots, often through a direct

used coinjointedly with nouns, since a greater

and swaggering tone, and Lauren, although also

number of adjectives (over-)determining a noun

lively and direct, speaks in an overtly more educated

could also be taken as a sign of a difficult style.

register, going so far as playfully use an alexandrine

We
ll then study the nature of those nouns and

or two when her mood allows it.

adjectives, particularly their register. We


ll try to

The genre
s quasi compulsory codes replace the

situate them on a frequency scale, from common

chaotically initiatory ride with the theme of the flight

everyday words to hardly ever used ones.

of two oppressed lovers, inevitably helped by the


16) When first released,Les Innommableswas sold
amongst science-fiction titles.

classical character of the eccentric and understanding

J-P Doumeyrou

Sentence length

stylistic road

Emc Daniel : 1, 6-7, 18-19, 33-34, 75


Emc Lauren : 2, 8-9, 16-17, 25-26, 58

A measure has been made of the length of


each sentence in a sample (pp. 13 to 28 for Les

Sentences in Les Innommables range from a

Innommables, 7 to 15 for e=mc2 Daniel, and 17 to

length of 2 words to 60, those in e=mc2 range from

26 for e=mc2 Lauren).

1 to 75 for Daniel, and from 2 to 58 for Lauren.

Here are the results :

This constitutes a first surprise. Indeed, the


prevailing feeling when reading Les Innommables

Range :

is one of over-complicated sentences, when e=mc2

Innommables : from 2 to 60 words

feels simpler. Contrarily, we can see that the style

Emc Daniel : from 1 to 75

where the sentence range is the widest, as well as

Emc Lauren : from 2 to 58

the one using the longest sentences is the one of


which could have been a priori thought that it would

Mean :

be the simplest : the less educated Daniel, whose

Innommables : 19.46

sentences are of a wider range than the erudite

Emc Daniel : 20.12

Lauren or the Les Innommablespedantic narrator,

Emc Lauren : 22.01

the ranges being quite similar for the latter two.

Variance :

This simple difference in range doesn


t seem an

Innommables : 154.25

accidental occurence, since 4 of Daniel


s sentences

(Standard Deviation : 12.42)

are equal or superior in length to any of those of the

Emc Daniel : 278.67 (Standard Deviation : 16.69)

other two styles.

Emc Lauren : 206.88 (Standard Deviation : 14.38)

Of note is Daniel
s over-use of the one word
sentenceBingo !, which is a mark of both his

Median :

personal and literary style.

Innommables : 31
Emc Daniel : 38

If the range of the sentences length is somewhat

Emc Lauren : 30

surprising, the mean length distribution is more


conform to what could be expected, ranging from

Mode :

19.46 words for Les Innommables to 22.01 for

Innommables : 12 (9,16,22)

Lauren (and her Alexandrines?). Although a

17)

Emc Daniel : 1 (Bingo! ) (7,34)

superior mean could have been guessed a priori for

Emc Lauren : 17 (6,9,22...)

Les Innommables, the thre means stay very close


to each-other, probably without really significant

Box plot (quartile Median, see figure below) :

difference.

Innommables : 2, 8-9, 17, 29-28, 60

The sentence length


s variance is the greatest for
Daniel, perhaps simply reflecting his wider range.

17) The one word exclamation Bingo!


:
is one of Daniel
s
favorite utterances.

Once again, a low variance for Les Innommables

JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL WONKWANG CULTURE 2014:4(1):1~16

J-P Doumeyrou

stylistic road

may signal an internally more homogeneous style,

perfect
, a normal curve, such as can be expected.

clustered around sentences which, as we have seen,

The highest point is around a length of ten words,

are somewhat surprisingly short.

then the curve regularly decreases. Lauren


s and

The highest Median is of course Daniel


s.

even more Daniel


s are more surprising. In Lauren

The sentence length mode is both in accordance

s case, after a normal summit around the value of

with the aforementioned results and even more

8, a plateau appears around 20, after which the

unexpected. Once again, Les Innommables do not

frequencies increase again around the values of 50

stand up with a superior length, on the contrary

! A quick verification shows that it is not due to the

: Lauren
s is largely higher. The anomaly is here

Poetic attempts by the young woman, which do not

Daniel
s surprising mode : 1 ! It is obviously due to

go beyond two verses.

hisBingo !
, repeated ten times in the chapter.

The very same phenomenon (plateau around the

The most astounding result probably is the

middle of the length range, then final increase) can

distribution of the sentence length


s distributions,

also be found in Daniel


s style, the main difference

especially with, as shown in the figures above,

being the anomalous frequency value for the length

their moving average. Les Innommables displays a

1, that even a mobile average can


t erase.

A comparison of the Box plots (by quartile) for

quite similar, Daniel


s sentence distribution being

the sentence lengths confirms the absence of a

simply pushed towards a greater length, without the

fundamental difference between the three styles, at

structure being really upset. However, the similarity

least as far as sentence length is concerned. They are

between Lauren
s and Les InnommablesBox Plots

JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL WONKWANG CULTURE 2014:4(1):1~16

figures is striking, confirming the fact that a it is not

Cases with three adjectives : 0.25%

in the sentences lengths that a possible difference

Cases with four adjectives : 0%

between the three, that is to say a clue for Cauvin


s

Emc Daniel

success over Klotz, is to be found.

Nouns/words : 12.71%

Nouns and Adjectives

Adjectives/words : 1.96%
Nouns with adjectives : 13.89%

The second phase was to look at the adjectives

Same, case with one adjective : 12.35%

and the nouns, and especially at groups formed with

Cases with two adjectives : 1.54%

one or several adjectives adjoined to a noun.

Cases with three adjectives : 0%

Have been counted, for each style (Les

Cases with four adjectives : 0%

Innommables, Daniel, Lauren), in the same samples

Emc Lauren

:
The proportion of nouns in relation to the total

Nouns/words : 15.32%

number of words.

Adjectives/words : 4.84%

The proportion of adjectives in relation to the total

Nouns with adjectives : 25.68%

number of words.

Same, case with one adjective : 20.74%

The proportion of nouns joined with adjectives in

Cases with two adjectives : 4.2%

relation to the total number of nouns.

Cases with three adjectives : 0.49%

The proportion of nouns joined with one adjective

Cases with four adjectives : 0.25%

in relation to the total number of nouns.


The proportion of nouns joined with two

Here again, strange similarities appear between

adjectives in relation to the total number of nouns.

the styles of the australopithecines and of the

The proportion of nouns joined with three

modern young woman. Once again, it


s Daniel who

adjectives in relation to the total number of nouns.

s different, as the proportion of nouns and adjectives

The proportion of nouns joined with four

relative to the total number of words are somewhat

adjectives in relation to the total number of nouns.

close for the first two, and markedly different for the

(There is no occurrence of a noun joined with more

young man, who uses almost twice as few nouns

than four adjectives in the sample.)

as Klotz in Les Innommables, and two to three

Here are the results.

times fewer adjectives than his two co-subjects. He


might (although we
ll see in the last part that it is

Les Innommables

not significantly true), have a preference for adverbs

Nouns/words : 21.18%

and verbs, thus lowering his ratio of nouns and

Adjectives/words : 5.82%

adjectives.

Nouns with adjectives : 24.27%

This difference is the first one noticed so far.

Same, case with one adjective : 21.22%

Let us also remark that, although Les

Cases with two adjectives : 2.8%

Innommablesstyle, replete with descriptions, epic

10

J-P Doumeyrou

stylistic road

or related to the world of the senses, could have let

richness of his style may be expressed through

an abundance of adjectives be expected, it is on the

other means, like for example the use of verbs

contrary through the number of nouns that it signals

and adverbs, but this is not part of our immediate

its originality. One could maybe ascribe this to a

scope.) Once again, Les Innommablesand Lauren

certain materiality, where it is important to name

s style seem rather close, this time concerning

all physical things in that primal world, as well as

adjectives and nouns, as they were about the length

the frank desire by Klotz to sprinkle his style with a

of the sentences. Is it a certain lyricism on the art

debauchery of pseudo-scientific terms.

of the young lady, with her use of groups joining

Looking at the proportion of nouns joined

a noun with several adjectives, and some sort of a

with adjectives in relation to the total number of

epico-materialist style for Les Innommables, with the

nouns, this similarity between the two extremes

overbearing importance of nouns?

in evolution that are Les Innommables and Lauren


appears stronger than ever, since here, it
s Lauren

This persistent similarity between two styles

who seems to make the greatest, or at least the most

(Les Innommables and Lauren) which could

frequent, use of groups where nouns and adjectives

have been a priori expected to be as different as

can be found together. In more than one in four

their evolutionary status is, brings us to direct our

cases, the noun is used in conjunction with one or

investigation more towards the meaning of the

several adjectives, making it a higher proportion

words used. If grammatically, Les Innommables

than which can be found in Les Innommables.

and Lauren do not show much chiasm between

Daniel pales in comparison, with a proportion twice

them (still leaving Daniel by the wayside), a look

as low.

at the registers used may shed some light on what

Furthermore, Daniel does not go beyond two

differentiates them.

adjectives for a noun. There are no occurrence

Word register analysis

where a noun is joined with three or more


adjectives, contrarily to Les Innommables and
especially Lauren, the latter not only using as many

To do so, a sample for each of the three styles

as four adjectives in conjunction with a noun,

has been compared to the frequency of their words

but also displaying a higher average number of

as measured in the literary corpus of the Lexique

adjectives per noun. It is not really rare (4.2%) to

2 database. This database, developed by the Paris

encounter in her prose a group with two adjectives,

Descartes University, indicates for each word of the

and her proportion of three-adjective groups is not

database its frequency in the corpus. The lower the

significantly different than Daniel


s proportion of

18)
figure, the rarer the word. The wordChapeau
,

two-adjective ones.

for example, returns a value of 42.48, whereas


19)
Chaperon
has a value of 1.03.

We may simplify these results in a somewhat


abrupt, but enlightening way. Daniel uses a rather

For each sample, nouns, verbs, adjectives and

poor tongue, at least as far as nouns and adjectives


18)Hat
.
19)Chaperone
.

are concerned. (One could object that the possible

11

JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL WONKWANG CULTURE 2014:4(1):1~16

adverbs have been considered. Values have been

Here at last clearly appears a difference, not

added, and a global frequency, corresponding to

only between Daniel on the one hand, and both

the total sum of values divided by the total number

Lauren and Les innommables on the other, but

of words in the sample, has been established.

this time between Lauren and Les Innommables

Moreover, average frequencies have been calculated

themselves. Indeed, Daniel


s global frequency is at

by type of word, that is for example, the total sum

335.16, Lauren
s at 277.46 and Les Innommables

of frequency values for nouns, divided by the total

at 112.42. Words used in Les Innommables are, so

number of nouns in the sample, and so on for

to speak, almost three times rare in literature than

each of the four types of words in each of the three

those used by Daniel, and he and Lauren are in

samples.

that regard closer to each-other that they are to Les

Here are the results.

Innommables. If the global banality of the words


used in the prehistoric novel are set as a base 100,

Vocabulary frequency

the words used by Lauren are at banality = 247, and


for Daniel, banality = 298. The difference is this time

Innommables

more than noticeable.

Frequency of analysed words/total number of

Examining each type of word is even more telling.

words in the sample : 112.42

The frequency of the nouns used is not very

Average frequency for nouns : 131.641

dissimilar between the three : 131, 181, 146. By

Average frequency for verbs : 406.785

contrast, the choice of verbs shows a striking

Average frequency for adjectives : 73.496

division : 407 (Les I.), 1674 (D.), 1487 (L.) The

Average frequency for adverbs : 37.61

two teen-agers make use of vivid sets of relatively


usual verbs, of similar frequency, wheras Les

Emc Daniel

Innommablesverbs are almost four times less

Frequency of analysed words/total number of

frequent !

words in the sample : 335.16

Conversely, Lauren
s adjectives are the rarest, but

Average frequency for nouns : 180.9885

her adverbs are the most common. One can but

Average frequency for verbs : 1674.2964

smile thinking of the stereotype according to which

Average frequency for adjectives : 239.4664

young girls are fond of banal adverbs punctuating

Average frequency for adverbs : 59.79

their every sentence, at the same time that a


feminine sensitivity makes her style bloom with

Emc Lauren

carefully selected adjectives.

Frequency of analysed words/total number of

Conclusions

words in the sample : 277.46


Average frequency for nouns : 146.3451
Average frequency for verbs : 1487.46

The three above approaches, sentence length,

Average frequency for adjectives : 26.0225

proportions of nouns and adjective, and word

Average frequency for adverbs : 697.513

register may lead to the following conclusions.

12

J-P Doumeyrou

stylistic road

There indeed is a difference in the styles of Les

Lauren
s signature is more a careful choice of

InnommablesKlotz and e=mc2


s Cauvin, be it

rare and delicate adjectives, this is her lyricism and

through Daniel the blue-collar or Lauren the rich

femininity speaking.

girl. This difference, however, will not be found

Daniel, the poor boy, isn


t distinguishable through

in syntax, as shown by the fact that there is no

any particular feature, except the length of his

significant difference between Les Innommables

sentences and his exclamation Bingo


:
!
.

on the one hand and e=mc2 on the other hand


egarding sentence length, as a certain heaviness

This choice of different styles has been willingly

in style felt by the reader of the Cro-Magnon epic

made, of course. Klotz simplified his register to

could have led to think. Neither would such a

become Cauvin, and he knows it. Was he simply

difference be found in the use, or abuse, of nouns

influenced by the rules of the Pre-historic novel

and adjectives, which may also have been felt by a

genre, or has he knowingly simplified his speech

reader of Les Innommables. The numerical analysis

so as to become popular? Is it just a normal fact of

shows that it is an illusion.

life that two teen-agers speak more naturaly than an

On the contrary, on these first two aspects,

omniscient narrator from the beginnings of Time?

Les Innommablesstyle is rather reasonable and

To answer with any degree of certitude, it may be

homogenous, however barbaric and wild the feeling

necessary to apply a similar method to the one we

it provokes. Furthermore, on these two points,

have here, to various pre-Cauvin works.

sentence length and noun-adjective groups, it is

One may nevertheless legitimately remain

even closer to the ultra-civilized Lauren than to the

suspicious that the decision was willful, aiming at

benign Daniel.

popularity and success. For that goal, an author


s

The difference, for there is one, is to be looked for

deliberate lowering of his skills

in the meaning of the words, not just their type, or

A goal, in that case, that was perfectly reached.

even, surprisingly, their layout.


Are Les Innommableswords sophisticated or just

We will end by mentioning this fact that seems

strange? They are at least markedly rare than those

to us extremely significant : it is not by a mere

found in Daniel
s as well as Lauren
s styles.

simplification of the from, the structures of the

Verbs in particular, illustrate this difference, which

sentences, that the Cauvin


s style became popular,

should not surprise in an action (be it pre-historic)

but by a simplification in the register of the words

novel, where, in spite of the omniscient point

used, that is to say of the sign itself. What if it were

of view, inner dialogues are limited, somewhat

the same in other fields?

impeding any expression of feelings or opinions

What if Picasso
s secret was in this simplification

through which adjectives might have been favored,

of the sign, the symbol? Instead of a rather uneasily

and where it is the actions of these human-to-be

accessible Cubism, what if the key to his accessibility

protagonists is in the process of building the Human

to (and thus a condition to his approbation by) the

Condition. Those Men are but verb, and strange

widest audience was painting simpler forms, not

verb at that.

changing the laws (Cubism) of their layout and their

13

JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL WONKWANG CULTURE 2014:4(1):1~16

presence?

What if it were the essence of our modern era?

What if Bizet had composed nothing but Carmen?

References and bibliography


1. A quick biography : http://blogs.rue89.nouvelobs.com/cabinet-de-lecture/2010/08/18/deces-de-lecrivain-claude-klotzalias-patrick-cauvin-162969
2. Essential Klotz bibliography : Les classes, C.Bourgeois publisher, 1968, ASIN : B0014UU9RE,Sbang-Sbang
,
C.Bourgeois publisher, 1969, ASIN: B0014UWB02,Les Innommables
, ditions J
ai Lu, 1979 (with illustrations by
Gourmelin) ISBN-13: 978-2277119678
3. Essential Patrick Cauvin bibliography :L
Amour Aveugle
, J-Cl. Latt s publisher, 1974, ISBN-13: 978-2702840870,
Monsieur Papa
, Latt s publisher, 1976, ASIN: B0035ITXHK,E=mc2, mon amourLatt s publisher, 1977, ASIN:
B0000E87RT
4. Klotz before Cauvin, a quick general overview : 1968, first published book Les
:
Classes
1969Sbang-sbang
1970Et les cris de la F e
1971Les Innommables
1973 Co-authoring of Francis Joffo
sUn sac de billes
TheReinierseries of Noir Crime Stories, which will be ported to television:(T1 1971 Micro mic-mac), (T2 1971
Casse cash), (T3 1971 Alpha Berreta), (T4 1971 Jap job), (T5 1972 Dolly dollar), (T6 1972 Bing banque), (T7 1973
Cosmos cross), (T8 1973 Tchin tchin queen), (T9 1973 Flic flash), (T10 1974 A e-heil), (T11 1975 Putsch punch),
(T12 1975 Karat caramel), (T13 1975 Dingo dague)
1974 Paris-Vampire (Dracula p re et fils).
5. For more information on Universit Ren Descarteslexical databaseLexique 2
, see : http://www.lexique.org/

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