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The ideal gas combines all the three laws discussed earlier into one single law due to the

following reason. If you examine all the three laws, the following relationship is evident.

Boyles law:

Charless law:

Avogadros law:

1

P

V T

V n

(at constant pressure)

(at constant pressure and volume)

temperature, and directly proportional to number of moles. Due to this, these three expressions

can be combined into one expression as

V

nT

P

The proportionality sign can be replaced with an equal sign by incorporating a constant R,

known as the gas constant. Thus,

V=

RnT

P

PV = nRT

There are two kinds of gases; (a) ideal gas, and (b) real gas. The ideal gas is the gas where there

are no attractions or repulsions between gaseous molecules and the volume of the gas molecules

is negligible compared to the volume of the container. The real gas is the gas the way it exists

in nature. In reality, there is no such thing as an ideal gas. But the difference between the

behaviors of ideal gas and real gas is not that significant over reasonable temperature and

pressure ranges, and hence the ideal gas equation can be used for calculations. Thus, the ideal

gas is a hypothetical gas whose pressure-volume-temperature relations are completely described

by the ideal gas law.

In order to understand how the value of R is derived, it is necessary to understand (a) standard

temperature and pressure (STP), and (b) molar volume.

The condition of 00C (or 273 K) and 1 atm are called standard temperature and pressure and

abbreviated as STP.

It has been proved experimentally that one mole of any gas occupies the same volume as any

other gas at STP condition. The volume at this condition is known as a molar volume, which

has the value of 22.4 L. Therefore, 22.4 L is the volume of one mole of any gas at STP

condition:

Molar volume = volume of one mole of gas at STP = 22.4 L

The value of the gas constant R is the same for all the gases since they occupy the same volume

at STP, which is,

R = 0.082

L x atm

mol x K

The ideal gas contains four variables, P, V, n, and T. Therefore, any one of them can be

calculated by knowing the other three. But, there is one stringent requirement that must be

satisfied before the above value of R can be used in calculations.

Requirement

The pressure must in atm, the volume must be in L, and the temperature must be in

Kelvin.

Example

Determine the volume in ml occupied by 0.567 moles of oxygen gas at a pressure of 77.5 cm Hg

and a temperature of 30.50C?

Answer

Given :

n = 0.567 mol

pressure = 77.5 cm Hg

temperature = 30.50C

The pressure and the temperature have to be converted into atm and K respectively:

atm = 77.5 cm Hg / 76.0 cm Hg/atm = 1.02 atm

K = 30.5 + 273.15 = 303.65 K

Now substitute these values and evaluate for volume.

V=

nRT

=

P

L x atm

)(303.65 K)

mol x K

= 13.84 L

1.02 atm

(0.567 mol)(0.082

Example

A bicycle tire of 5.45 L volume is filled with 0.255 moles of gas at a temperature of 310 K.

What is the pressure of the tire in atm and psi?

Answer

P=

nRT

=

V

L x atm

)(310 K)

mol x K

= 1.05atm

5.45 L

(0.225 mol)(0.082

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