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The problem of discharging of a pressurized tank is studied. A model was eveloped to predict the pressure and temperature of the air in the tank during discharging process. The model incorporates compressible flow in both sonic and subsonic flow regimes, and models the gas as undergoing a general polytropic process.

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ABSTRACT

The problem of discharging of a pressurized tank is studied. A model was eveloped to

predict the pressure and temperature of the air in the tank during discharging process. The

model incorporates compressible flow in both sonic and subsonic flow regimes, and models

the gas as undergoing a general polytropic process.

INTRODUCTION

The objectives of the analysis are to predict the pressure, temperature, and density of

the gas in the tank and the mass flow rate out of the tank as functions of time during the

discharge process.

The model incorporates compressible flow in both choked and subsonic flow, and

models the air as a general polytropic process of power n.

DEVELOPEMENT OF PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL

A model for the charging or discharging process of a vessel filled with air is applied to the

control volumes depicted in Fig. 1. The air is assumed to behave as an ideal gas, and the flow

through the thoat (exit, in the case of discharging tank) will be approximated as isentropic.

However, because of the possibility of heat transfer to or from the surroundings, the air inside

the tank is assumed to undergo a more general polytropic process, as shown in Eqn. (1). The

model will also allow for the polytropic constant n to vary with time, as will be considered

later in this work. Allowing for a general, time-varying polytropic exponent n precludes a

closed-form solution; therefore a numerical solution is developed.

The model of gas tank comprises the two main element: an enough large reservoir that

allow to assume contant density, pressure and temperature in the entire volume, and a

convergent-divergent nozzle through which the gas is released to the athmosphere. For

evolution of parameters of state three important layers are considered. Layer 1 is a section

through the gas tank where the gas is considered in stagnation state (velocity is very small and

is considere zero). Layer 2 is the a vertical to the throat (the smallest section of the nozzle)

where the gas can reaches the speed of under specifric conditions. Layer 3 is the exist

section of the nozzle.

To accomplish these objectives the control volume shown in Fig. 1, which lies just inside the

vessel walls, is used. In addition, the following assumptions are made:

1. Properties of the gas in the tank are spatially uniform at any instant of time (i.e.,

quasi-steady or uniform state assumption);

2. Average velocity of the gas in the tank is zero;

3. Opening modeled as an ideal converging or converging-diverging nozzle with

isentropic flow to the nozzle throat;

4. One-dimensional flow and properties in the nozzle;

5. Neglect gravitational potential energy;

6. No shear or shaft work for the control volume;

7. Gas is thermally and calorically perfect;

8. Thermodynamic process is politropic.

If we choose the adiabatic process this would be expected to be a good model for very

rapid discharge processes in which case there would be little time for significant heat transfer

between the tank walls and the gas. On the other hand, the isothermal process is expected to

be appropriate for slow vessel discharge processes whereby there is sufficient time for heat

transfer to maintain the temperature of the gas in the vessel constant.

A polytropic process is a quasiequilibrium process described by [1]

p

const.

n

(1)

quasiequilibrium (or quasistatic) process. A quasiequilibrium process is one in which the

departure from thermodynamic equilibrium is at most infinitesimal. All states through which

the system passes in a quasiequilibrium process may be considered equilibrium states.

obain:

p2 2

p1 1

(2)

dm0

1u1 A1 2u2 A2

dt

(3)

where m0 is mass inside the tank volume V, which can be expressed as V, u and are

velocity and density of the gas. It is assumed uniform properties within the tank, a rigid

control volume, and uniform properties along throat and exit surface.

Before developing the compresibble flow equations, the ideal gas properties are

evaluated. The equation of state is:

p RT

(4)

For an ideal gas, internal energy

(

u

is expressed as:

(

du cv dT

(5)

( p

hu

(6)

The entalpy as internal energy is a function of temperature and can be expressed as:

dh c p dT

(7)

where cv, and cp are specific heats at constant volume and pressure. Having definitions

of internal energy and entalpy and equation of state (4) the following relationship can be

derived:

c p cv R

(8)

cp

cv

(9)

cp

R

1

(10)

cv

1

R

1

(11)

important because they are related to loss of available energy.

For any pure substance include ideal gases, the first Tds equationis

1

(

Tds du pd

(12)

Tds dh

dp

(13)

The second law of thermodynamics requires that the adiabatic and frictionless flow of

any fluid results ds=0. Constant entropy flow is called isentropic flow.

For an isentropic flow the most useful relationship is:

p

const.

(14)

Which is similar as form with the polytropic flow which can include even a possible

loss of energy.

Mach number is defined as the ratio of the value of the local flow velocity, u,, to the

local speed of sound c.

u

c

(15)

c

or

dp

d

(16)

(17)

c RT

The main equation which guverns the one dimensional compressible flow in steady

state are:

Mass conservation

d du dA

u

A

(18)

dp udu 0

(19)

c p dT udu 0

(20)

Momentum conservation

Energy conservation

becomes similar.

If we apply the energy equation (20) betwenn the layers of study yealds:

RT0

RT1 u12

RT2 u22

1

1

1

(21)

Rearaging the threms amd using the mach number in above relationships yelds

T0

1 2

1

M

T

2

(22)

Using the adiabatic process relationship followings formulas can be derived [2]

1

(23)

(24)

0

1 2 n 1

1

M

2

p0

1 2 n 1

1

M

p

2

In order to calculate the mass flow we have to consider the energy equation (19)

between layer 1 and ambient layer. The ambient layer is an imaginary layer where the gas

reach the ambient pressure.

ub2 2c pTb T0 Tb 1

(25)

The mass flux per unit of area is obtained from equation (25) by substituting

Tb T0 pb p0

and

b 0 pb p0

p0 RT0 pb p0

m&

2 pb

G p0

A

RT0 1 p0

p

b

1

p0

pb p0 0.528

as:

(26)

2

pb p0

. For air

1.4

derives from mass conservation and energy conservation written between relative to the

ue

ucr

1

T A 1 1

f v e cr

Tcr Ae v

(27)

Te

ucr2

g v

1

1 v2

Tcr

2c pTcr

Solving the equation

f v g v 0

(28)

ue ucr v

References

[1 M. J. Michael, S. N. Howard, B. D. Daisie and B. B. Margaret, Fundamentals of

] Engineering Thermodynamics, 7th ed., Wiley, 2011.

[2 B. R. Muson, T. H. Okiishi, W. W. Huebsch and A. P. Rothmayer, Fundamentals

] of fluid Mechanics, Seventh ed., Wiley, 2013.

[3 F. P. Incropera and P. D. Dewitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer,

] Seventh ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2011.

[4 M. A. Saad , Compressible Fluid Flow, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1985.

]

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