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Pak/Swiss Malakand Fruit and Vegetable Development Project

A Joint Pakistan and Swiss Governments Venture

Control of

Integrated Pest & Disease


in Vegetable Crops

Ikram Mohyuddin and Dr. Angela Berri

P.O.Box 21, Saidu Sharif, Mingora, Swat


NWFP, Pakistan
External (IPDM) Series No.05 - Project Publication No.26
July 1990

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

INTEGRATED PEST & DISEASE


CONTROL OF VEGETABLE CROP IN
MALAKAND DIVISION.
NWFP, PAKISTAN

Dr. A.I.Mohyddin
Principal Entomologists
CAB International Institute of
Biological Control, PARC-CIBC Station
Murree Road, P.O.Box 8
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Dr. A.M.Berrie
Plant Pathologist
MAFF, ADAS, OLANTIGH Road
WYE, Ashford,
KENT, UK

Pak/Swiss Malakand Fruit and Vegetable Development Project


A Joint Pakistan and Swiss Governments Venture
P.O.Box 21, Saidu Sharif, Swat, Pakistan

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

FOREWORD
The indiscriminate use of pesticides can easily endanger the future of horticulture
in NWFP and probably in Pakistan. However, use of pesticides in the Malakand
Division is becoming popular. These chemicals are not only expensive but they
also, if not used correctly, pollute the environment. Another disadvantage of
some pesticides is that they eliminate beneficial insects. This can result in the
outbreak of pests that were of minor importance before the use of pesticides.
With the misuse and overuse of pesticides, the target pests will develop
resistance over a short period of time. There is already evidence of such
resistant populations occurring in the Malakand Division.
There is a need to find alternate methods of pest and disease control and move
away from the total reliance on pesticides. The ideal method is Integrated Pest
Management (IPM) and Integrated Disease Management (IDM). Such control
systems require detailed observations on biology, ecology, phenology etc. of the
pests and their natural enemies and the epidemiology of diseases in relation to
the environmental factors
This book is a step in this direction. At present information required for
developnig IPM and IDM of most pests and diseases is not available. However,
an effort has been made to present all the available information in a logical and
predictable format for IPM and IDM in the Malakand Division. As more
information on various control methods becomes available the book will be
revised.
We hope that this book will be of considerable use to farmers and extension
advisors alike, especially in the Malakand Division, with such control practices
being freely adopted.
The authors are to be commended for producing such a comprehensive
handbook in spite of the, as yet, limited available information.
Finally our appreciation is noted to the Swiss Development Corporation through
Intercooperation, Switzerland for sponsoring the authors in their task and
financing the printing.
ABDUL HAO, Project Director
IAN GIBSON, Chief Technical Advisor
DAVID PARSONS, Horticultural Advisor
June 1990

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 1
INTEGRATED PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 2
SAFE AND EFFICIENT USE OF PESTICIDES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 3
POTATO PESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 5
POTATO - BLACK SCURF AND STEM CANKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 16
POTATO - CYST NEMATODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 18
TOMATO LATE BLIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 21
LEAF SPOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 26
ROOT KNOT NEMATODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 29
ONION PESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 32
ONION DISEASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 35
PURPLE BLOTCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 38
CUCURBITS DISEASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 41
BRASSICA PESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 43
APHIDS ON VEGETABLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 47

SPOTTED JASSID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 48


BRASSICA DISEASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 51

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

INTRODUCTION
Vegetables (potatoes, cucurbits, tomatoes, onions, brassicas) are high
value crops. The pest and diseases are major constraints in vegetable
production because they reduce yield and damage quality.
The survey for pests and diseases was carried out in the Malakand
Division for three weeks each in 1988 and 1989. It was sponsored by
Malakand Fruit and Vegetable Development Project - a joint Pakistan Swiss venture. Many insect pests and diseases were recorded. Some of
these were causing major damage, others occurred at low levels and were
not economically important.
To improve yield and quality of the vegetables, pests and diseases must
be controlled effectively. Effective control means applying the right
treatment at the proper time and for this it is essential pests or diseases
are identified correctly.
This handbook has been produced to provide information on identification
of important pests and diseases and their control.
The handbook is well illustrated with coloured photographs of pests and
diseases where possible - to facilitate their identification by the farmers
and extension workers. Most pests and diseases are small in size and a
magnifying lens (X10) will be needed as an aid to their identification.

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops

INTEGRATED PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT

t present in vegetable crops, insecticides and fungicides are used for


controlling pests and diseases. For insect pests this method of
control is not only expensive but also creates other problems
including hazards to health, environmental pollution and the
appearance of new pest problems, because of the elimination of natural
enemies (parasitoids and predators). Integrated pest management is the
only way to improve pest control. In this, different methods of pest control
such as biological, chemical, cultural, mechanical, use of resistant
varieties and attractants are used in such a way that their effects are
complimentary and the pests are controlled effectively and cheaply without
the harmful side effects.
For most vegetable diseases, natural enemies do not exist and fungicides
are generally required to give adequate control. However, they will be
more effective if they are used as part of an integrated control programme
incorporating cultural control and resistant varieties where appropriate.
Choice of fungicide is also important, as continuous use of certain
fungicides such as Benlate or Topsin M can result in the fungus
developing resistance and the fungicides failing to control the disease.
In this handbook integrated pest and disease management for the major
diseases and insect pests is described. This information is based on the
limited knowledge of the insect pests and diseases available at present.
Detailed studies on disease epidemiology and the biology, ecology,
phenology and behaviour of the pests and their natural enemies are
required. Once these studies have been made more accurate integrated
pest and disease management systems can be formulated and the use of
harmful pesticides minimised.

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops

SAFE AND EFFICIENT USE OF PESTICIDES


All crop protection chemicals are dangerous to human life, pollute the
environment and are expensive to use. Therefore, they must be used carefully
and applied correctly. The following are guidelines for the safe and efficient use
of pesticides.
1. Choice of Pesticide
a. Get the crop problem correctly identified so that the right pesticide can
be selected for control.
b. Is a pesticide really needed or can control be achieved by cultural or
biological methods?
c. Read the pesticides product label will it control the problem?
d. Select the least hazardous, effective product.
2. Safety
a.
-

All pesticides are harmful. They can poison people or animals through
skin, mouth and breathing. Therefore.:
Avoid skin contact - cover as much of the body as possible when
spraying. - Do not eat, drink or smoke when spraying.
Always wash hands after use and especially before eating.
Avoid breathing in spray or dust. Spray with the wind.
Keep domestic animals off treated areas or areas to be treated.

b Protective Clothinq
< Use special clothing for pesticide spraying and cover as much of the body
as possible to reduce the risk of skin contamination. Use adequate head
cover to protect the head and neck.
< Some very hazardous chemicals mention specific clothing to be worn
when using them. If you have not got the clothing do not use the most
hazardous pesticides.
< Wear gloves when mixing and handling the concentrated pesticides. Do
not mix the chemical with your bare hand.
(c) Pesticide Containers
Keep pesticide in its original container. Do not re-pack the chemical in
another container and especially not in food or drink containers.
Avoid damage to pesticide containers. Take care not to damage the label
or instructions for use.
Dispose off the empty pesticide containers safely. Do not leave them lying
about. Bury them deep (at least 20 ins or 50 cm below ground).NEVER
use old pesticide containers for food or drinking water.
3. Pesticide Application
(a)
Read pesticide label before use, Le., check:
< Will it control the problem?
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IPDM in Vegetable Crops


<
<

poison hazards;
safety precautions

b. Read pesticide label for dose rate. Stick to the dose rate stated. If you use
more, you may damage the crop or harm yourself. If you use less the
pesticide may not control the problem.
c. Check pesticide label for mixing instructions and type of spray equipment
needed.
d. Stand up-wind when mixing the pesticides so splashes and dust blow away.
Never mix or measure the pesticide with bare hand -always wear gloves. Do
not use the mixing buckets for other purposes and especially not for
collecting drinking water.
e. Keep children and animals away when spraying and do not leave pesticide
containers or spray equipment unattended.
f. Do not use faulty or contaminated equipment wash the outside of the sprayer
after each filling.
g. Do not spray into the wind. Do not work in strong winds.
h. Do not spray during the hottest time of the day crop damage may occur
i. and perspiring makes the skin more sensitive.
j. Do not blowout blocked nozzles with mouth - use a grass stem or other
suitable implement.
k. Do not smoke or chew tobacco when spraying.
l. Make sure harvest interval (interval between last spray and when crop can
be harvested) on label is adhered to. Wait at least 24 hours before entering
sprayed crops or allowing animals in, and longer if product label says so.
m. Plan application so you do not make up more spray liquid than needed.
4. After Spray Application
a. Do not dump left-over spray and washing water in ponds and streams or on
b. roadside. Dispose off in hole in ground away from crops and people.
c. Clean spray equipment at the end of the job. Do not wash out sprayer in
stream. Use a bucket to collect water from the stream and clean bucket, self
and wash equipment in this. Pour washing water in ground and bury.Wash
contaminated skin and clothing after handling and spraying pesticides
d. and especially before eating, drinking or smoking.
e. If you feel ill (sick, dizzy, headache, diarrhoea, skin irritation, stomach pains
etc.) visit a doctor immediately taking pesticide label with you.

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PEST AND DISEASE


POTATO PESTS
CUTWORM (Agrotis segetum)

It is widely distributed throughout Malakand Division.


Symptoms
The cutworms, as the name indicates, cut off the tender shoots of young plants.
Because of this habit they spoil more plants than they actually consume. Mostly
feeding is done on the root neck or lower part of the stem.
Life Cycle
In the Malakand Division the moths appear in spring. The eggs are laid in the
soil. The larvae hatch from the eggs after a few days. During day time they are
hiding in the soil from 5,8 cm below ground level. At night they come out of the
soil and feed on the plants. They cut off tender young plants. Sometimes young
larvae are also found feeding during day time. The full grown larvae measure
about 5 cm. When the larvae are disturbed they roll in . a characteristic manner.
The full-grown larvae pupate in the soil in earthen cocoons. They have a number
of overlapping generations and do a lot of damage to the potatoes and other
crops.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. BioloQical
A number of natural enemies including Apanteles ruficrus, Macrocentrus co/laris,
Campoletis chlorideae, Campoletis sp., Ctenichneumon panzeri, Microplitis
sp.;Turanogonia smirnovi, Periscepsia carbonaria, Linnaemya comta and
Trichogramma chilonis have been recorded in Pakistan. Some of these can be
used for their biological control after survey has been carried out to determine
which natural enemies are already present in Malakand Division.
2. Cultural
Infestation can be reduced by carrying out earthing operations during and after
sowing because eggs and larvae are in the soil.
3. Chemical
The pesticides for use against the cutworm are listed in Table 1. At the first sign
of damage either apply granules (Basudin or Birlane) to the soil and irrigate, or
apply a high volume spray of one of the other insecticides listed in Table 1 to the
plants in the late evening or at night to catch the cutworm larvae when they are
out of the soil feeding on plants.
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IPDM in Vegetable Crops


Bran bait can also be used. The bait consists of 10 kg of bran, 100-200 grams
of one of the pesticides listed
in Table 1, 8-10 litres of water
and 1/2 kg of molasses may
also be added to prepare a
crumbly mass. The bait should
be applied at the rate of 40 kg
per ha in the evening, because
the larvae mainly feed at night.

Cutworm
(Agrostis segetuum)

Potato plant damaged at base by cutwom

Cutworm Larva

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops


TABLE 1. INSECTICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF CUTWORMS IN
VEGETABLE CROPS

Spray

Granules

Chemica
Active
l product ingredient

Insecticide
group

Min.
interval
between
last spary
and
harvest

Other pests
controlled

Notes

Basudin

diazinon

organophosph 14 days
ate

Root files
maggots
wireworms

Moderately
hazardous

Birtane

chiorfenvin
phos

organophosph 21 days
ate

Root flies,
rootworm

Highly
hazardous

Danital

fenprophat
hrin

pyrethroid

caterpillar

Dipterex

trichlorfan

organophosph 2 days
ate/organochl
orine

Flies
caterpillars

Moderately
hazardous

organophosph 21 days
ate

caterpillars

Highly
hazardous

chiorphyrifo organophosph 21 days


s
ate

caterpillars

Highly
hazardous

caterpillars

Extremely
hazarduous

Hostratiri trazophos
on
Lorsgan

Phosdrin mevinphos

7 days

organophosph 3 days
ate

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops

Potato Late Blight


(Phytophthora infestans)

Underside of leaf showing blight fungus


sporulating

Late blight lesion on leaf

Late Blight infection of Potato - tuber shownig red/brown rot

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops

POTATO DISEASE
POTATO - LATE BLIGHT
Potato late blight is caused by the fungus Phytophthora infestans is a serious
disease of potatoes in Swat. Early attack can reduce yields considerably, while
late attack can result in tuber blight and rotting of potatoes in store.
Symptoms
All parts of the plant are affected except the roots. The disease usually starts on
the leaves as dark brown spots especially at the tip or leaf margin. These spots
have brown dead centres with a pale green margin where the fungus is active.
Under warm moist condition spots can become extensive in 5-7 days, and the
underside of the pale green margin bears a white bloom of fungus spores. Dark
brown lesions also occur on the stems. Tubers become affected by spores being
washed down into the soil by rain. Affected tubers have a firm reddish brown
granular rot beneath a discoloured shin. In store, such tubers are quickly
colonised by secondary organisms causing a soft wet rot.
Life Cycle
The fungus usually overwinters as mycelium in affected tubers. These can be
seed tubers or tubers left in the ground from the previous crop or rotting tubers
left on rubbish tips near the field. Some of these tubers produce affected plants
often with stem lesions, and these act as the initial focus of infection to start the
disease in the new crop. Spread is favoured by warm moist weather. Dry
weather can check disease spread, but often the disease will continue to spread
in any weather in crops what have developed a leaf canopy because of the moist
conditions under the leaves
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Resistance
Potato varieties resistant to blight are not available. Most local varieties are very
susceptible and require control measures where blight is prevalent.
2. Cultural
This depends on eliminating likely sources of infection such as rotting tubers at
the beginning of the season. Also proper earthing up of plants to produce good
ridges will give good soil cover and rain shedding thereby minimising tuber
infection. Removing the foliage prior to harvesting potatoes will also help prevent
infection of exposed tubers by blighted foliage. Planting crops earlier to avoid
potato blight damage is also possible and has been investigated in Kalan
(Pakistan-Swiss Potato Development Project).
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IPDM in Vegetable Crops


3. Fungicides
Where potato blight is known to occur regular fungicide sprays are essential to
prevent serious losses. The fungicides available for blight control are listed in
Table 2. These are mainly protectant in action and work best if applied before
the disease appears.
RECOMMENDATION
i

Do not plant blighted seed potatoes.

Do not dump rotten potatoes near cropping field or if this is unavoidable


destroy all foliage on the dump to prevent infection developing.

Earth up plants well to reduce chances of tuber infection.

In areas such as Kalan in Northern Swat where blight is known to be a


problem apply a routine spray starting just as the potato foliage begins
to meet across the rows (usually end of July in Kalan). Thereafter, weekly
sprays may be required until harvest if the weather is favourable (warm
and moist). Earlier sprays may be needed in seasons when the disease
appears early in the crop. In areas where late blight is less serious apply
the first spray as the first signs of blight are noted in the crop.

Do not harvest potatoes for storage in the presence of blight infected


foliage. Harvest the potatoes at least 2 weeks after the foliage has died.
In this way the blight spores present in the soil will become inevitable and
chances of tuber infection minimised.

If tubers are blight infected, do not store. Use them quickly. Blighted
tubers will rot quickly if stored.

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops


TABLE 2. FUNGICIDES FOR CONTROL OF POTATO LATE BLIGHT

Chemical
Product

Active ingredient

Harvest
interval

Notes

Antracol

Propinzeb

7 days

Brestan

Fertin acetate

7 days

A highly hazardous product


requiring special protective
clothing. See fungicide lable
for instruction. Can be
phytotoxic, especially in hot
weather. Use only if late blight
established in crop. Do not use
on tomatoes

Cobox/Cupr
avit

copper
oxychloride

0 days

Can be phytotoic in hot


weather

Daconil

Chiorothaionil

0 days

Dkithane MS

Mancozeb

7 days

Liormanzeb

manzeb+zineb

7 days

Perenox

cuprous oxide

0 days

Ployramcombi

Metrim

7 days

Tri-Miltox

copper compound
+mancozeb

7 days

Page 11

Can be phytotoic in hot


weather

Can be phytotoic in hot


weather

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


Potato Early Blight (Alternaria Solani)

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POTATO - EARLY BLIGHT
This disease caused by the fungus Alternaria solani is present to varying degrees
in most potato crops in the Malakand Division, and occasionally causes serious
losses reducing tuber size and yield.
Symptoms
Alternaria can attack leaves and tubers. On leaves discrete target spots are
formed on the leaves, often around the margins. These increase in size and can
ultimately result in curling and drying of the whole leaf. Potato tubers may also
be rotted.
Life Cycle and Spread
The disease overwinters on infected weed hosts, infected seed potatoes and
diseased crop debris where the fungus can survive for a least a year. Spread is
by wind or splash dispersed conidia. Early Blight is favoured by high
temperatures but moisture is essential for sporulation. Mycelium and spores (
conidia) are highly resistant to drought and high temperatures and can therefore
survive in the absence of favourable conditions for some time.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Resistance
Potato varieties grown vary in their susceptibility to the disease, but none are
completely resistant.
2. Cultural
Avoid planting seed tubers from diseased crops. Post harvest, remove and burn
all diseased crop debris. Removal of solanaceous weeds such as Dhatura
(Datura alba) and Solanum nigrum which might also be hosts for the disease
may also be useful.
3. Fungicides
In areas where early blight is known to be a problem, application of fungicides
will be essential. Fungicides which will control potato late blight will also control
early blight and these are given in Table 2. Sprays should be applied as soon
as the disease is first seen. Three applications at 5 day intervals have given
effective control.

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops


RECOMMENDATION
i

If possible avoid growing successive potato crops on the same land.

Avoid planting seed tubers from crops badly infected with early blight.
These are likely to be diseased.

Remove any solanaceous weeds from the crop.

In areas where the disease is known to cause problems, apply a spray of


one of the fungicides in Table 2 (page 11) as soon as the disease is first
seen and twice more at 5 day intervals.

After harvest, ensure all crop debris is removed and burned.

In many areas in the Malakand Division Alternaria Solani was present in


the crop but not causing serious damage. Here fungicide control may be
unnecessary, cultural methods being sufficient to keep the disease in
check.

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops


POTATO - BLACK SCURF AND STEM CANKER

Stem Canker lesion on young potato plant

Potato tubers with black scurf on surface

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops

POTATO - BLACK SCURF AND STEM CANKER


This disease caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani is common on potato
crops in Swat, particularly Kalan. It attacks the underground parts of the plant
causing stem canker on the stem and black scurf on the tubers. Stolons and
roots are also attacked and plant vigour is reduced.
Symptoms
Stem canker on emerging tuber shoots causes irregular spreading lesions with
a chestnut-brown edge. When the main shoot is killed, successive side shoots
may also be attacked, leading to delay or failure to emerge. On emerged stems,
canker lesion interfere with water uptake causing affected plants to exhibit leaf
rolling resembling some virus symptoms. The sporing phase of the fungus often
appears as a superficial white web on the stem just above soil level. On tubers
small black resting bodies of the fungus are found - these are black scurf.
Black scurf does not cause tuber rot.
Life Cycle
The stem canker pathogen comes from the soil or from the black scurf on the
seed tuber. Infection is often worse in dry soils.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Resistance
No resistant varieties are available
2. Cultural
Any condition that delays sprout emergence makes stem canker more serious.
Crop rotation is not likely to be particularly helpful in reducing stem canker since
the fungus has a wide host range and survives in the absence of potatoes.
3. Fungicides
It may be possible to apply pre-planting treatments to seed tubers using Tecto
(Thiabendazole) (harvest interval 21 days), where black scurf is serious on the
tubers.

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops


RECOMMENDATIONS
i

Avoid using seed tubers heavily infected with black scurf for planting.

Ensure seed potatoes are planted in good conditions to prevent any delay
in sprout emergence which can make stem canker more serious.

Where planting tubers heavily infected with black scurf is unavoidable


then a pre-planting treatment with Tecto (Hiabendazole) may give some
control of the problem.

Weak plants in crop affected by Cyst Nematode

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops

POTATO - CYST NEMATODE


Potato Cyst Nematode (Globodera rostochienses) is particularly serious in Swat
in the potato growing areas around Kalan. Large yield losses can result from
attack, making potato growing non viable in worst affected areas, as the cysts of
the nematode can remain a source of infection for 10 years or more. Tomato
and aubergine and some Solanaceous weeds are also attacked.
Symptoms
Attacks by Potato Cyst Nematode (PCN) result in patches of poor growth in the
crop. Plants in the poor area may have very few roots, or poor top growth or
may have a proliferation of root growth is PCN attack is moderate and the plant
tries to compensate for the initial root damage. Cysts may become visible on the
roots from mid-summer onwards.
Life Cycle and Spread
Cysts occurring in the soil are the swollen remains of female nematodes
containing many nematode eggs. Chemical substances from potato roots
stimulate egg hatch in Spring and the young nematodes then invade and feed
on young potato roots causing damage. Female nematodes swell and become
spherical as they feed, eventually erupting through the root surface, but
remaining attached. They are fertilised by male nematodes. The new
generation of bead-like cysts can then be seen on potato roots in mid-summer.
As the cysts mature they become dark red/brown and eventually fall off the roots
or are shaken off the roots during potato harvesting.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Resistance
Resistant varieties of potato are available. The roots of resistant varieties may
be invaded but the nematodes will be prevented from reaching maturity. An
example of a resistant variety is Cardinal. Desiree and Ultimus are susceptible.
2. Cultural
These include crop rotation. Close rotation of potato on infested soils results in
a rapid build up of PCN populations. In the absence of potatoes, some cysts will
hatch and die each year. To prevent nematode levels from increasing, a rotation
of one potato crop in at least 7 years is recommended. To be sure that PCN
numbers decline when potato crops are not grown, all seed potatoes should also
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IPDM in Vegetable Crops


be removed.
3. Chemicals
Several chemical soil treatments are available for control of PCN eg. aldicarb
(Temik) however these tend to be very toxic to humans, and are unsuitable for
use except by trained persons.
RECOMMENDATIONS
i

Crop rotation offers the best solution. Where possible, potatoes should
not be grown on infested land for as long as is possible and alternative
non-solanaceous vegetable crops such as turnips, peas etc. or maize
grown. During the non-potato crops, ensure all weed potatoes and
solanaceous weeds are also controlled.

If long rotation between potato crops is not possible use a resistant


variety such as Cardinal.

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops


Tomato Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans)

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops

TOMATO LATE BLIGHT


The late blight fungus Phytophthora infestans can also attack tomatoes causing
serious losses under favourable conditions.
Symptoms
Leaves, stems and fruits are attacked. Large, light to dark brown spots appear
on the leaves usually with a paler margin. These rapidly increase in size until the
whole of the leaflet and eventually all the leaf is affected. Under warm moist
conditions the underside of the spots particularly around the margin, become
covered in white fungal spores. Stems show dark streaks and green fruits exhibit
hard brown spreading patches. Fruit fails to ripen and eventually becomes
brown and shrivelled.
Life Cycle and Spread
The disease is favoured by high humidity and temperatures of 15-20c. Nearby
potato crops with blight are the most important source of P. infestans.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Resistance
No information is available on varieties resistant to tomato late blight.
2. Cultural
Avoid planting tomato crops adjacent to potato crops where possible.
3. Fungicides
The fungicides in Table 5 for control of potato late blight will also control tomato
late blight, except Brestan (fentin acetate) which is probably too phytotoxic to use
on tomatoes.
RECOMMENDATIONS
i

In potato growing areas where blight is prevalent, avoid growing tomato


crops adjacent to potato crops.

Apply one of the fungicides in Table 2 except Brestan (fentin acetate),


at first signs of the disease and continue at 7 - 14 day intervals until no
further leaf spots appear.

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IPDM in Vegetable Crops

EARLY BLIGHT
This disease caused by the fungus Alternaria solani can also attack tomato as
well as potato. The disease was common in all tomato crops in the Malakand
Division, but is only serious occasionally.
Symptoms
Alternaria can attack seedlings, mature plants, flowers and fruits. Young
seedlings develop dark areas on the stem at soil level which eventually girdle the
plant and kill it. On mature plants lesions occur on both leaves and stems. On
leaves, small circular or angular target spots develop which may coalesce killing
the leaf which falls or wilts. Stem lesions are elongated and may girdle the stem.
They often develop in petiole or shoot axils. The fungus cannot invade
undamaged fruit, but frequently produces dark brown sunken lesions around the
calyx scar and may then rot the fruit.
Life Cycle and Spread
As in potatoes the disease overwinters on infected weed hosts and diseased
crop debris where the fungus can survive for at least a year. In tomato the
disease is also seed-borne. All these inoculum sources introduce the disease
into the new crop. Spread is by wind or splash dispersed conidia (spores). The
disease is favoured by high temperatures but moisture is essential for
sporulation. Mycelium and conidia are highly resistant to drought and high
temperatures and can therefore survive for sometime in dry conditions until more
favourable weather develops.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Resistance
No information is available on susceptibility of tomato varieties to early blight, but
low levels of the disease were present in most crops, although in no crop was the
disease causing serious damage.
2. Cultural
Cultural control methods include using disease free seed, clearing up crop debris
post harvest, crop rotation and controlling solanaceous weeds which might
harbour the disease.

Page 22

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


3.. Fungicides
Fungicides for the control of late blight of potatoes will also control tomato early
blight except for Brestan (Fentin acetate) which is probably too phytotoxic to use
on tomato. These are given in Table 2.
RECOMMENDATIONS
i

Avoid growing successive tomato crops on the same land. Allow at least
a one year break.

Use disease free seed.

Remove any solanaceous weeds from the crop.

In areas where the disease is known to be serious apply a spray of one


of the fungicides in Table 2 (Page 11) except Brestan, at the first signs of
the diesease with further sprays at short intervals if necessary.

After harvest remove all crop debris and burn.

In many areas in the Malakand Division, Alternaria solani although


present in the crop was not causing serious damage. In these situations
attention to hygiene and crop rotation may be sufficient and fungicide
control unnecessary.

Page 23

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


Tomato Early Blight (Alternaria Solani)

Early blight leaf spotting

Page 24

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


Tomato Leaf Spot (Septoria lycopersici)

Spotting on Leaves

Page 25

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

LEAF SPOT
This disease caused by the fungus Septoria lycopersici occurs at low levels in
crops in Dir and Swat. Potato and aubergine and solonaceous weeds such as
Dhatura (Datura alba) and Solarum nigrum are also attacked. Under favourable
conditions losses of tomatoes can be serious.
Symptoms
Spots develop on leaves and stems at any stage of host development. Older
leaves usually show symptoms first. These are small depressed water soaked
spots, initially pale brown, but becoming grey with a dark margin. A few black
pin-head sized fruiting bodies (pycnidia) may develop on these spots. Badly
infected leaves fall prematurely and may expose ripening fruits to sunscald.
Spots are also found on the stem, but rarely affect the fruit.
Life Cycle and Spread
The disease may be seed-borne, but this is not certain. Survival between crops
is mainly on infected soil-borne debris and weeds. The disease is spread mainly
by rain splash and wind blown water with some localised spread on insects and
pickers hands. High humidity for at least 48 hours and temperatures of 20-26c
favour the fungus.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Resistance
No information is available on susceptibility of tomato varieties grown.
2. Cultural
Crop rotation, destruction of crop debris post harvest and removal of weed hosts
will all reduce overwintering inoculum and help control the disease.
3. Fungicides
Apart from Brestan (Fentin acetate) which is probably too phytotoxic for
tomatoes, spraying the tomato crop with any of the fungicides in Table 2 for
control of potato blight will give control for Septoria leaf spot.

Page 26

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


RECOMMENDATIONS
i

Avoid growing successive crops of tomato on the same field.

After harvest ensure all crop debris is collected and burned.

Control all solanaceous weeds which might harbour the disease.

In most crops, cultural control methods may be adequate to prevent the


disease building up, however where the disease is known to cause
damage apply a spray of one of the fungicides (except Brestan (fentin
acetate)) given in Table 2 for control of potato blight. Under humid warm
conditions several sprays at 5-7 day intervals may be necessary.

Page 27

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


ROOT KNOT NEMATODE (Meloidogyne spp.)

Root Knot Nematode on tomato root

Root Knot Nematode on Tomato Roots)

Page 28

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

ROOT KNOT NEMATODE


Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) are a major problem to tomato crops in
the warmer parts of the Malakand Division especially Malakand District itself.
Cucumber and many other vegetables and weeds are also attacked. Yield
losses can be 50% or greater.
Symptoms
The disease is very distinctive because of the galls produced on roots. Foliage
symptoms consist chiefly of pale leaves, weak development, stunting, wilting in
hot dry weather and sometimes death. Large and small roots contain swellings
which vary from round galls to elongated spindles. Foliage symptoms occur in
patches in the field as the nematodes are not evenly distributed in the field.
Life Cycle and Spread
Female root knot nematodes are glistening white pear shaped bodies and occur
inside galled roots. One female may lay from 300 - 1000 or more eggs, which
adhere to her body in a gelatinous mass. Male nematodes may be present but
these are functionless and play no part in the life cycle. On hatching, some of
the tiny larvae make their way deeper into the plant tissue, others come out into
the surrounding soil. These larvae can live in dry soil for several weeks and in
moist soils for several months. Thus they can survive for some time until
conditions are suitable for them to start new infestations on successive crops.
About a month after entering the roots or underground parts of stems of a host
plant, the nematode becomes mature and a new generation begins.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Resistance
Varieties of tomato resistant to root knot nematode are available in other
countries and may be suitable for use under local conditions.
2. Cultural
Several cultural means are available for control and these may be the safest and
most economic method of dealing with the problem. These include crop rotation.
A break of at least 1 year is recommended between planting tomatoes and other
susceptible crops (e.g. solanaceous, cucurbitaceous and most other vegetables).
Certain crops reduce root knot nematode damage and these should be planted
in the break year. These include certain cereals eg. maize, cruciferous crops
(cabbage, cauliflower), water melon, onion, groundnut and some other local
Page 29

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


crops. These are suggestions based on information from other countries and
further research is needed locally before firm recommendations can be made.
Certain plants eg. Tagetes are known to have nematicidal properties and it may
be possible to intercrop these with tomatoes to reduce nematode populations.
After harvest, tomato plants in infested soils should be uprooted immediately
after final harvest to expose root as drying will kill nematodes still left in the roots.
Cultivating or turning the soil in a fallow period will also help kill some
nematodes.
Flooding land will also kill nematodes.
Soil amendments applied such as sugarcane bagasse may be used to reduce
nematode populations, but more research is needed to assess their
effectiveness.
3. Chemicals
Nematicides are available for control of root knot nematode but in general these
are too expensive, too dangerous and difficult to apply to be of use practically for
the small farmer.
RECOMMENDATIONS
i

Do not plant successive crops of tomatoes and other solanaceous crops


cucurbits and vegetables in the same land. Have at least a 1 year break
and plant other crops such as maize, cabbage, onions etc.

Use varieties of tomato resistant to root knot nematode if these are


available and suitable for local conditions.

After final harvest, uproot tomato plants immediately to expose roots to


drying which will kill nematodes remaining in roots.

Before planting next crop, turn soil and leave to dry. This will also help kill
some nematodes.

Page 30

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


Onion Thrips (Thrips tabaci)

Infested Onion leaf showing


silvering and thrip larvae

Onion distorted growing point dur to


thrip infestation

Page 31

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

ONION PESTS
Onion Thrips (Thrips tabaci)
Thrips tabaci is widely distributed in the Malakand Division and was recorded as
a serious pest at most of the localities.
Symptoms
The infested leaves have metallic silvery appearance because of feeding of the
thrips. The thrips can be hardly seen with the naked eye. However, these can
be easily detected with a magnifying lens.
Biology
Thrips lay their eggs on the leaves. The larvae feed on the epidermis causing
damage to the plant. The adults and larvae suck epidermal cells. Air enters into
the empty sucked cells of the leaves, giving them the characteristic appearance.
There may be two to three generations a year.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Biological Control
No work has been done on biological control of thrips in Pakistan. Therefore, the
reliance will have to be made on pesticides.
2. Chemical Control
The insecticides that can be used against thrips have been listed in Table 3.
Apply a spray of one of these insecticides as soon as thrip damage is noted in
the crop. Further sprays may be required depending on conditions.

Page 32

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


TABLE 3. INSECTICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF THRIPS ON VEG
CROPS

Chemical
product

Active
ingredient

Insecticide
Group

Min.
interval
between
last spray
& harvest

Other Pests
Controlled

Notes

Anthio

Formathion Organophosphat
e

7 days

Aphids

Basudin
Diazinon

Diazinon

Organophosphat
e

14 days

Root Flies,
cutworm,
wireworm

Moderately
hazardous

GusathionM

Azinophos- Organophosphat
methyl
e

21 days

Leaf miner
caterpillars

Extremely
hazardous

Malathion

Malathion

3 days

Aphids

Slightly
hazardous

Metasystox- oxydemoto Organophosphat


R
n-methyl
e

21 days

Aphids, Suckers Highly


hoppers
hazardous

Nogos

Dichiorvos

3 days

flies

Highly
hazardous

Novothion

fenitronthio Organophosphat
n
e

14 days

aphids,
caterpillars

Moderately
hazardous

Pay-off

flucythrinat
e

3 days

aphids,
caterpillars
beetles

Perfekthion

dimethcate Organophosphat
e

7 days

aphids, suckers

Moderately
hazardous

Sevin

carbaryl

7 days

caterpillars,
beetles

Slightly
hazardous

Sumithion

tenitronthio Organophosphat
n
e

14 days

aphids,
caterpillars

Moderately
hazardous

Organophosphat
e

Organophosphat
e

pyrethroid

cerbamate

Page 33

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


Onion Down Mildew (Peronospora destuctor)

Downy mildew infection on onion leaves

Page 34

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

ONION DISEASES
DOWNY MILDEW
This disease is caused by the fungus Peronospora destructor and can be a
serious disease on onions particularly in the Swat valley. The disease is most
damaging during rainy seasons, but can be equally bad under drier conditions
in the more humid river valleys.
Symptoms
Affected plants develop pale oval areas on the leaves and die from the leaf tip
backwards. Under damp or humid conditions, grey, later brownish-purple spores
develop on the affected areas. Secondary black moulds (often Stemphylium)
develop on the dying leaves. All parts of the plant can be attacked including the
flower in seed crops and the bulb, which after storage becomes soft and
shrivelled.
Life Cycle and Spread
Production of spores is favoured by moist conditions and temperatures of 11-13c
and these soon spread to neighbouring plants. Optimum conditions for infection
are a temperature of 25c and relative humidity of 90-100%. Under such
favourable conditions the fungus soon spreads to other plants and foliage is
quickly killed. The downy mildew fungus may progress from the leaf bases into
the bulb and be carried over to the next season. Subsequent onion crops can
also be infected by resting spores ( oospores) which can survive for long periods
(4-5 years) in the soil.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Resistant Varieties
There is little information available on susceptibility of the onion varieties grown.
2. Cultural
Don't grow onion on poorly drained soil and cultivate soil well and keep weeds
under control to avoid a damp stagnant atmosphere around the plants which will
encourage downy mildew. For this reason it is better to grow onions in an
exposed site rather than a sheltered site.
Avoid sites where the disease is known to have occurred and ensure crop debris
from diseased crops is collected up and burnt and not ploughed back into the
Page 35

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


ground because of the risk from resting spores in the debris. Badly affected
plants should be removed and burnt.
3. Fungicides
In areas where the disease is known to occur, or where the disease is present
in the area on other onion crops apply regular sprays of one of the fungicides in
Table 4, or apply sprays as soon as the disease is first seen.
TABLE 4. FUNGICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF DOWNY MILDEW
CHEMICAL
PRODUCT

ACTIVE
INGREDIENT

Antrocol

Propineb

Copper Oxychloride

Dithane M-45
Liro manzeb

Mancozeb
Manzeb + Zinc

7
7

Perenox

Cuprous oxide

Polyram combi

Metiram

Tri-Miltox

Copper complex +
mancozeb

Cobox
Cupravit

)
)

HARVEST
INTERVAL

NOTES

RECOMMENDATIONS
i

Choose a site which is well-drained and open to avoid the build up of


humidity, and one which has not grown onions recently.

Maintain good weed control to prevent humid conditions.

Remove badly affected plants and burn.

Where the area has a history of downy mildew (e.g. the Swat Valley) or
the weather is favourable, apply regular sprays of one of the fungicides
in Table 4 at 10-14 day intervals. Otherwise apply one of the
recommended fungicides at the first signs of the disease.

At the end of the season remove all affected debris and burn to reduce
overwintering inoculum.

Page 36

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


Onion Purple Blotch (Alternaria Porri)

Purple blotch lesion on onion leaf

Purple blotch lesion on flowering stalk


of onion

Page 37

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

PURPLE BLOTCH
This disease caused by the fungus Alternaria porri is widespread on onions
wherever they are grown in the Malakand Division. The disease can be serious
particularly on onions grown for seed, where a severe attack can result in as
much as 50% loss in the crop.
Symptoms
Leaves, stems and bulbs can be attacked. On leaves and stems white elliptical
lesions appear which later develop a purple centre and bear black spores. The
lesions enlarge and eventually girdle the leaves or seed stem. Under favourable
conditions, affected leaves and stems fall over within 3-4 weeks of infection. The
lesion can be overrun with black sooty moulds such as Sterphyllium. Affected
bulbs initially showing a semi-watery rot at the neck which develops into a yellow
or wine-red coloured rot.
Life Cycle
The fungus survives between crops in plant debris. Under warm moist conditions
spores are produced which spread and infect the new crop. The fungus is seed
borne, but the importance of this in relation to spread is not known.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Resistance
There is no information available on resistant varieties.
2. Cultural
Using seed from disease-free crops, cleaning up crop debris after harvest and
not planting successive onion crops on the same field will all help to reduce the
disease in the new crop.
3. Fungicides
In areas favourable for purple blotch and especially in onion kept for seed,
fungicide sprays may be necessary. Fungicides for control of purple blotch are
given in Table 5.

Page 38

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


TABLE 5. FUNGICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF ONION PURPLE
BLOTCH
CHEMICAL
PRODUCT

ACTIVE
INGREDIENT

HARVEST
INTERVAL

Antracol

Propineb

7 days )

Dithane M-45

Mancozeb

7 days )

Liromanzeb

Manzeb +zineb

7 days )

Polyram-Combi

Metiram

7 days )

NOTES

These fungicides
will also control
onion downy mildew

RECOMMENDATIONS
i

After harvest rake up all onion crop debris and burn.

If possible use a new field for the next onion crop that has not grown
onions recently.

Avoid using onion seed from crops badly infected with purple blotch.

In areas where the disease has been a problem, apply a spray of one of
the fungicides in Table 5 (page 30) at the first signs of the disease. 2-4
sprays may be necessary at 10 day intervals where the disease is serious
and especially in onion crops left for seed.

Page 39

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


Cucurbit Powdery Mildew

Cucurbit powdery Mildew affected leaves

Page 40

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

CUCURBITS DISEASES
POWDERY MILDEW
Two fungi Erysiphe cichoracearum and Sphaerotheca fuliginea may be
responsible for cucurbit powdery mildew in Malakand Division. Which fungal
species is the most important is not known. Powdery mildew is common on
cucurbits late in the season wherever they are grown. The disease mainly
causes a reduction in quality but also reduces yield in some situations.
Symptoms
Both fungi cause typical powdery mildew disease with white powdery cover on
all aerial parts of the plant, including both leaf surfaces. Severely affected leaves
become brown and shrivel and fall prematurely. Fruits can become malformed
and sunburnt due to lack of foliage cover. When leaves are heavily infected,
fruits may ripen prematurely and lack flavour.
Life Cycle and Spread
The lifecycle of both fungi is similar but according to the environmental conditions
one or other species will become dominant. Initial field infections are usually
caused by conidia or possibly ascospores released from cleistothecia ( fruiting
bodies) present on overwintering crop debris. E. cichoracearum is favoured by
dry atmospheric and soil conditions, moderate temperatures (20-25c), reduced
light intensity, fertile soil and succulent plant growth. Germination of spores
occurs at temperatures of 15-30c with an optimum at 25c, in the absence of free
water. Thus E. cichoracearum is important under dry conditions. S. fuliginea
requires a temperature of 20-30c with an optimum at 22c, and 100% relative
humidity for germination of spores during infection and sporulation. S. fuliginea
is important under humid conditions.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Resistance
No information is available on susceptibility of varieties of cucurbits to powdery
mildew in the Malakand Division.
2. Cultural
The fungus can overwinter on infected leaves on fruiting bodies ( cleistothecia),
destruction of crop debris is therefore important.

Page 41

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


3. Fungicides
Cucurbit powdery mildew can be easily controlled by fungicides, provided
attention is given to correct dose, timing and good spray cover. Fungicides for
control are listed in Table 6.
TABLE 6. FUNGICIDES FOR CONTROL OF POWDERY MILDEW ON
CUCURBITS

CHEMICAL
PRODUCT

ACTIVE
INGREDIENT

HARVEST
INTERVAL

Afugen

Pyrazophos

14 days

Benlate*

Benomyl

0 days

Bayleton

Eriadimefon

14 days

Derosal*

Carbendazim

Morestan

Quinomethionate

14 days

Nimrod*

Bupirimate

2 days

Saprol

Eriforine

14 days

Topson-M*

Thiopharat methyl 0 days

NOTES

0 days

Can be phytotoxic to
young growth

NOTE;
Do not use more than two applications per season of these products as the fungi may
develop resistance to these products.

RECOMMENDATIONS
i
i

Post harvest remove all diseased crop debris and burn.


In the growing crop, apply a spray of one of the fungicides in Table 6 at
the first sign of powdery mildew, ensuring good cover is obtained.
Continue sprays at 7-10 day intervals depending on weather conditions
and crop growth. Use 2 or 3 different fungicides in the programme to
avoid the development of fungicide resistance.

Page 42

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

BRASSICA PESTS
CABBAGE WHITE BUTTERFLY (Pieris brassicae)
This species is widely distributed in the Malakand Division feeding on cabbage,
cauliflower and other cruciferous crops.
Symptoms
Leaves of cabbage and cauliflower are eaten by yellowish larvae heavily marked
with black or yellow lines and sparsely covered with hair. Under severe attack
the plant may be completely destroyed and a foul smell is produced because of
accumulation of excreta.
Life Cycle and Spread
The butterfly is fairly large, yellowish white in colour with a pair of black dots on
the wings. The eggs are yellowish, bullet shaped, sculptured and of fairly large
size. They are laid in batches of 20 to 100 eggs on the underside of leaves. The
eggs hatch in about a fortnight. The young larvae feed together but later on they
disperse all over the plant. When they are full grown, they mostly leave the host
plant and wander a long distance. The pupae are green in colour with black
markings and are found on walls, fences, trees or similar objects.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Biological Control
A large number of egg, larval and pupal parasitoids have been recorded in the
foothills and other areas in Pakistan. The important ones are Apanteles
glomeratus, Diadegma pierisae, Pteromalus puparum, Compsilura concinnata.
Some of these, if not found in the Malakand Division, can be redistributed from
other areas. Augmentative releases of P. puparum were found to reduce the
pest population considerably.
2. Mechanical Control
In early stages, conspicuous larvae feed together in large groups. They can be
easily picked up and destroyed.
3. Chemical Control
The pesticides that can be used against cabbage butterfly are listed in Table 7.
Apply a spray of one of these insecticides as soon as damage and caterpillars
are first seen in the crop.
Page 43

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


TABLE 7. INSECTICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF CATERPILLARS IN
VEGETABLE CROPS

Chemical
product

Active
ingredient

Insecticide
Group

Min.
interval
between
last spray
& harvest

Other Pests
Controlled

Notes

Ambush

Permethrin

pyrethroid

0 days

Aphids,
suckers

Arrivo
Cymbush
Cyperkill

Cypermthrin

pyrethroid

0 days

aphids, suckers Moderately


hazardous

Decis

Deltametrhin

pyrethroid

0 days

aphids, suckers Moderately


hazardous

Dipterex

trichlorfan

Organophosphat
e/organochlorine

2 days

Flies

Gusathion M

azinphosmethyl

Organophosphat
e

21 days

Thrips and Leaf Extremely


miners
hazardous

Lorsbon

chllorpyrifos

Organophosphat
e

21 days

Aphids cutwom Highly


hazardous

Payoff

fucythrinate

pyrethroid

3 days

aphids, beetles Moderately


hazardous

Permasect

permethrin

pyrethroid

0 days

aphids, suckers Moderately


hazardous

Phosdrin

mevinphos

Organophosphat
e

3 days

aphids,
hoppers

Ripcord

Cypermethrin pyrethroid

0 days

aphids, suckers Extremely


hazardous

Sevin

carbaryl

carbamate

7 days

beetles

Slightly
hazardous

sumicidin

fenvale
caterpillars
rate

pyrethroid

0 days

aphids

Moderately
hazardous

Page 44

Moderately
hazardous

Moderately
hazardous

Moderately
hazardous

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


Cabbage White Butterfly (Pieris brassicae)

Cabbage white butterfly eggs on leaf

White butterfly larvae

Cabbage white butterfly adult

Page 45

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


Small Cabbage White Butterfly (Artogeia rapae)
This species was recorded feeding on leaves of cauliflower, cabbage and seems
to be widely distributed in the Swat area.
Symptoms
The damage is less evident than caused by the larvae of the large cabbage white
butterfly. Very little injury is done to the outer leaves from the feeding of the
young larvae but later on these move to the centre of the plant where they feed
on the young leaves and foul them with excreta.
Life Cycle and Spread
The butterfly lays eggs singly on the underside of the leaf. The larvae are
velvety green in appearance with a narrow yellow line down the back. The
fullgrown larvae measure about 25mm. They pupate on the plant. It may have
two to three generations in a year.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Biological Control
A number of natural enemies including Apanteles glomeratus, Diadegma
pierisae, Compsilura concinnata, Brachymeria spp. and Pteromalus puparum,
have been recorded in Pakistan from the foothills and the plains. Some of these,
if not found in the Malakand Division, can be introduced from foothills or from
Muree hills.
2. Chemical Control
The same pesticides which have been recommended for large cabbage white
butterfly can be used against this species also (Table 7). Apply a spray of one
of these pesticides as soon as damage or caterpillars are noted in the crop.

Page 46

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

APHIDS ON VEGETABLES
(Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Hipaphis erysimi)
Macrosiphum euphorbiae was recorded on potatoes and hipaphis erysimi on
cauliflower. These aphids were widespread in the Malakand Division but at most
of the places their incidence was low.
Symptoms
The leaves particularly young became curled. Aphids secrete a sticky substance
known as honeydew on which a fungus develops. This makes the leaves black
or sooty.
Life Cycle and Spread
The aphids multiply very rapidly mostly by asexual reproduction. The lifecycle
is completed in three to four weeks at different altitudes. There are a number of
generations during spring, summer and autumn. The plants are damaged by
sucking the sap.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Biological Control
Practices can be developed to encourage the natural enemies after intensive
studies on biology and ecology of the pests and their natural enemies because
a number of coccinellid, syrphid and chamaemyiid predators and hymenoplerous
parasitoid have been recorded from these. Some of these that are absent in
Malakand Division can be introduced from elsewhere.
2. Chemical Control
The pesticides that can be used for controlling these aphids have been listed in
Table 8. Examine crops regularly during the growing season and treat with one
of these insecticides when aphids are found. Pirimor is specific to aphids and will
not harm natural enemies.

Page 47

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

SPOTTED JASSID
(Amrasca biguttula)
This is widely distributed in the Malakand Division. It is a polyphagous species.
Its attack was very serious on all sorts of vegetables at most of the places.
Symptoms
Because of feeding nymphs and adults on the plant sap, leaves first become
yellow or pale, then red with their edges turning upwards and finally drop off.
Life Cycle and Spread
Eggs are laid in the tissues of midribs, veins and leaf stalks. A female may lay
more than 50 eggs. The adults and nymphs suck the plant juices and drain the
plant sap. It completes generation in about a month. It has a number of
generations in a year.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Biological Control
Detailed studies on its biology, ecology and natural enemies are required before
biological control can be attempted.
2. Resistance
Cultivars having resistance to jassid should be encouraged.
3. Chemical Control
The pesticides that can be used against jassid are listed in Table 8. On young
vegetables pesticides with longer persistence and on mature vegetables with
short residual effect should be used. A spray should be applied as soon as
damage or the pest is first noted in the crop.

Page 48

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


Table 8. INSECTICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF APHIDS AND OTHER
SUCKING INSECTS IN VEGETABLE CROPS

Chemical
product

Active
ingredient

Insecticide
Group

Min.
interval
between
last spray
& harvest

Other Pests
Controlled

Notes

Ambush

Permethrin

pyrethroid

0 days

Caterpillar,
suckers

Moderately
hazardous

Arrivo
Cymbush
Cyperkill

Cypermthrin

pyrethroid

0 days

caterpillars,
suckers

Moderately
hazardous

Lorsbon

chllorpyrifos

Organophosphat
e

21 days

caterpillars

Highly
hazardous

Metasystox- Oxydermeto
R
n-methyle

Organophosphat
e

21 days

sucker, Hooper Highly


and thrips
hazardous

Payoff

fucythrinate

pyrethroid

3 days

caterpillars,
beetles

Moderately
hazardous

Perfekthion

dimethoate

Organophosphat
e

7 days

Thrips &
Suckers

Moderately
hazardous

Phosdrin

mevinphos

Organophosphat
e

3 days

caterpillars,
hoppers

Extremely
hazardous

Pirimor

Pirimicarb

Cerbarnate

3 days

Ripcord

Cypermethrin pyrethroid

0 days

broad
spectrum,

Moderately
hazardous

Sumicidin

fenvale
caterpillars
rate

0 days

caterpillars,
hoppers

Moderately
hazardous

pyrethroid

Page 49

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


Cabbage Dark Leaf Spot (Alternaria Brasicae)

Page 50

IPDM in Vegetable Crops

BRASSICA DISEASE
DARK LEAF SPOT
This disease is caused by the fungus Alternaria brassicae. All vegetable
brassicas are susceptible. The disease is usually present in most brassica crops
at a low level, but occasionally under the right conditions plants may be heavily
damaged particularly in dense and closely planted crops.
Symptoms
On mature plants all above ground parts are attacked including leaves, stems
and cauliflower curds. On leaves, small dark brown spots occur with a chlorotic
halo, older spots are circular and zonate. Leaf infection does not normally affect
plant productivity. On cauliflower curds, spots grow rapidly to produce a brown
rot.
Life Cycle and Spread
Alternaria brassicae is seed borne and can survive in seed for many years in cool
dry conditions. Infected seed and infected crop debris from previous crops
introduce the disease into the new crop. Once established in the crop, spread
is by airborne spores which are produced abundantly in wet weather and are
spread locally by rain splash and over considerable distances by wind. Warm
wet conditions favour the disease.
The disease will reduce yields of seed crops, but on vegetable brassicas the
disease mainly reduces quality, although badly affected seed may germinate
poorly.
CONTROL MEASURES
1. Resistance
Most vegetable brassicas grown in Malakand are susceptible.
2. Cultural
Use of clean seed, combined with destruction of crop debris after harvest will
reduce the chances of introducing the disease into the new crop. Also the
fungus can be killed in the seed by soaking the seed in hot water at 45c for 10
minutes.
3. Fungicides
Spraying with one of the fungicides in Table 9 is effective in checking the disease
Page 51

IPDM in Vegetable Crops


in the crop, but the economics of spraying need to be considered.
TABLE 9. FUNGICIDES FOR CONTROL OF ALTERNARIA IN BRASSICA
CROPS
CHEMICAL
PRODUCT

ACTIVE
INGREDIENT

HARVEST
INTERVAL

Antracol

Propineb

7 days

Daconil

Chlorothaloril

3 days

Dithane M-45

Mancozeb

7 days

Liromanzeb

Manzeb + zineb

7 days

Polyram combi

Metiram

7 days

Tri-Miltox

Copper +
mancozeb

7 days

NOTES

RECOMMENDATIONS
i

Use disease free seed if possible

After harvest rake up all crop debris and burn

Where the disease has been severe in previous seasons, apply one of the
fungicides in Table 9 at the first sign of disease. However, in most
seasons it is doubtful whether spraying is worthwhile or economic except
perhaps in crops grown for seed.

Page 52