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History

1952 1st generation NC,


NC The first NCcontrolled machine for metal processing (relays and
electronic tubes)

1960 2nd generation NC, relays and


electronic tubes was replaced with tranistors

1965 3rd generation, integrated circuits


4th
t generation
ge e at o NC
CC
CNC
C (co
(computerized
pute ed
numerical Control

CNC Machines examples


CNCMachines
Machine tools forcutting (lathe,milling
machine,machiningg centre))
CMM Coordinate Measuring Machine
Sheet
Sh
metalprocessing
l
i machines
hi
(
(pressbrake,
b k
punch press,laser/waterjet cutting machine)
RP(rapidprototyping)andrapid
manufacturing machine

Basic Component
P t Program
Part
P

Step by step commands


that direct the actions of
the processing equipment

Machine Control
Unit

Processing
equipment
Microcomp ter and
Microcomputer
related control hardware
that stores the program of
instructions and executes
it by converting each
command into
mechanical actions of the
processing equipment

Configurations examples (1)

CNC Machines examples


CNCMachines
Machine tools forcutting (lathe,milling
machine,machiningg centre))
CMM Coordinate Measuring Machine
Sheet
Sh
metalprocessing
l
i machines
hi
(
(pressbrake,
b k
punch press,laser/waterjet cutting machine)
RP(rapidprototyping)andrapid
manufacturing machine

Terminology
3axis
3 i
Movement along 3axes isCNCcontrolled (also called
2D
2Dmachining)
hi i )

4axis 6axis
3axes+1to3rotation(s)

7axis
Combines milling andturninginone machine

Active tools
Motordriventools inamachine thatnormally does
nothave this

Configurations examples (2)

Machine vice(skruvstd)
vice (skruvstd)
Easytooperate
Does not position component very accurately
Doesnotpositioncomponent
Deformationcan beaproblem

Positioning andfixturing
and fixturing
321Method

Secondary supports
Forflexible(thin walled)components

Actuators - Motors 2(2)


Electric motors (Most Common)
DC Motors
AC Motors
Step Motors
Linear Motors

Hydraulic motors (Not commonly used)

Linear Drives
To transfer the rotational movement to a
linear movement Ball screw

Ball screw : http://www.ostergrens.se

B ll screw: http://www.eie.se
Ball
htt //
i

Ball screw 2(2)


Why Ball-screw?
Ball screw?
High efficiency (>90%)
Low heat generation
No backlash
Hg precision
High resistance to wear

Cutting Tools

Inserts - Carbide

Summary of cutting technology:


Workpiece material, parameters, tool
geometry infuence:
x which shapes can be machined
o or which tool needs to be used
x cutting forces
o required power
o deflections
x costs (cutting time vs tool wear)
x chip control
x surface roughness
x vibrations
This means that the CNC programmer
must be a skilled machinist also .. two
completely different skills!

Feedrate
Spindle speed
Tool number
Help function
sub-program
Program end
Sub-program end
Program end
Spindle rotation clockwise
Spindle rotation counter clockwise
Spindle stop

Example: Some NC program keys SINUMERIK


805
G00
Traversing
G01
Linear interpolation
G02
Circular interpolation clockwise
G03
Circular interpolation counter clockwise
G10
Polar coordinates, Traversing
G11
Polar coordinates, Linear interpolation
G12
Polar coordinates, Circular interpolation
clockwise
G13
Polar coordinates, Circular interpolation
counter clockwise
G17
Programming in X-Y plane
G40
End of radius compensation
G41
Radius compensation left (tool stays left
of programmed contour)
G42
Radius compensation right (tool stays
right of programmed contour)
User defined origin
Absolute programming
Incremental programming
G54
G90
G91

F
S
T
H
L
M02
M17
M30
M03
M04
M05

Specific for Cortini: Tool change has format:


Tx L6
Dy
where: "x" is the tool slot position of the new tool
and "y" is the register for tool size compensation
belonging to that tool (L6 is a sub-program for tool
changes)
Some lathes swap G02 and G03

X
Y
Z
A
U
I
J
K
D1-99
D0

X-coordinate
Y-coordinate
Z-coordinate
Angle
Radius
Interpolation origin X-coordinate
Interpolation origin Y-coordinate
Interpolation origin Z-coordinate
Tool compensation
End of tool compensation

Vertical lathe
Requires lessfloor space
Upsidedown mounting possible
Easier chipremoval
p

Examples ofprobes
of probes

CMM Coordinate Measuringg


Machine
Forinstance,forinspection

Air bending setup

Laser probes
Laserprobes
Higher density (more points)
forreverse
reverse engineering
engineering
Suitable for

CNC Press brake (usually hydraulic)


CNCPressbrake
CNCcontrol ofpunch (ordie),fingerstops,
g)
crowningg device ((bombering)

Sheet metalprocessing
metal processing machines
Examples:
CNC press brake
CNCpressbrake
Punch press
Lasercutting machine
Laser press
Laserpress
Waterjet cutting machine
Laserwelding machine

Detailed view (1)

Robot assisted punch press


Robotassisted

Detailed view (2)

Laser cutting
Lasercutting
Withorwithout gas(inert/reactive)
Related:welding,hardening,engraving,

Beam guided bymirrors


by mirrors orfiber
or fiber
Nd:YAG,Excimer laserbeams can beguided
g anoptical
p
fiber but lesspowerful
p
through
than CO2

LASER(LightAmplificationby
StimulatedEmissionofRadiation)

Most used:CO,Nd:YAG,Excimer
used: CO Nd:YAG Excimer

Construction principles
Constructionprinciples

Laser cutting machine (example)


Lasercutting

Considerations/problems

6 axis Laser (3D)


6axisLaser(3D)

Riskforovershoot when moving highmass


g p
and/orathighspeed
Speedreduction (corneranticipation).Hasprocess
limitations (power density)
limitations(powerdensity)
Smartpath planning

How toavoid
d tangling
l ofcomponents?
f
?
Drop down table
Leaving smallbridgesuntil last

Example oflayered
of layered manufacturing

Waterjet cutting
Similar,but 3axisand2axismore common

RP (rapid prototyping)
RP(rapidprototyping)
Materialremoval(desktopmachining)
i l
l (d k
hi i )
Layered
y
manufacturingg
Adding material
Transforming material(solidification)
material (solidification)

Some processsogood thatone talksabout


rapidmanufacturing
manufacturing
rapid
Often,one ofakindproducts

Based onCADdrawing orscanned surface


data

Computer Aided Manufacturing

Complex Parts How to program?

CAM Computer Aided


M
Manufacturing
f
i
External CAD system
y
Integrated CAD/CAM system
CAD

CAM

Product design

Geometry Definition

Product Design

Neutral format

Define Operation

e.g. Step, iges

Select Tools
Define ToolPaths
Simulate Toolpath
Postprocess
Simulate Machine
Download

CNC

CNC

CNC

Machine

Machine

Machine