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Saveetha Engineering College

Saveetha Nagar, Thandalam, Chennai 602105

Reg .No :

ICIA OCT / NOV - 2013

Sub. Code / Name
Date / Session

: Industrial Instrumentation II
: 25.7.14/AN
: 2 Hrs

Sem / Year:VI/III
Degree / Branch :BE/EIE
Total Marks: 75
10X01 = 10 mark

Answer all the Questions.

10X02 = 20 marks

1. What are the difference between Orifice plate and ventuitube?

Orifice plate
1. Low cost
1. High cost

Venturi Tube
2. Widely used between 3.175
and 1828.8 mm of pipes
2. Generally not useful below
76.2mm pipe size

2. What are all the sections of orifice meter?

1.vent hole 2. orifice plate 3. drain hole

3. What are the applications of flow nozzle?
It is used to measure the flow of liquids which have wide range
of beta ratios of 0.2 to 0.8 2. We can use nozzle with more
viscous fluids.
4. What are the applications of dall tube?

1. can be used as volumetric detector. 2. can be used as flow rate

5. Write any two factors governing the installation of head flow

a. Type of fluid used b. Pressure loss thro season c. Range
6. What are the disadvantages of dall tube?

1. pr. difference is sensitive to up stream disturbances. 2. more

straight pipe required in the approach pipe length. 3. not
considered for measuring flow of hot feed water.
7. What are all the sections of venturi tube?

1. High pressure tap 2. Inlet cone 3.Throat 4.Out let cone 5. Low
pressure tap

8. What are the difference between dall tube and pitot tube?

Dall tube
1. Low head loss
2. Not considered for
measuring flow of hot feed

Pitot tube
1. No process loss
2. It can be used to measure
hot feed water flow also.

9. What are the advantage of orifice plate?

1. Low cost 2. can be used in wide range of pipe sizes (3.175 to

1828.8mm) 3. Can be used with different pressure devices. 4.
Available in many materials
10. What are the disadvantages of orifice plate?

1. causes relatively high permanent pressure loss. 2. have a

square root charach. 3. accuracy dependent on care during
Answer ANY THREE Questions (Out of four).

03X15 = 45 marks

1. Explain the installation procedure for D/P type flow meters

The head flow meter consists of a primary element such as

an orifice, venturi, or pitot tube used with a differential
pressure meter to measure the differential head caused by
the flowing fluid at the primary element. The differential
pressure meter may be any of the various meters such as
the enlarged leg-mercury manometer, the bell gauge, the
hollow gauge, the diaphragm gauge, the tilting U-type
gauge or electronic differential pressure flow transmitters.
The differential-pressure meter and the primary element
require careful connection and installation. It must be

remembered that the meter is used for the purpose of

measuring differential pressure. Any extraneous or false
head introduced by the connecting piping causes a serious
Meter below the pipe: If the meter or the differential
transducer is to be located below the level of the main or
pipe line in which the orifices is installed, the pressure pipe
should be laid as follows.
Liquids and Steam
Pressure pipes should fall continuously from orifice to
meter at a slope of not less than1/10 as shown in Fig1.8. 1If
the horizontal distance is too high to allow this slope by
direct connection between the orifice and the meter, then
pressure pipes may be first taken below the meter and then
risen to the meter.
Meter above the pipe

Liquids and Steam: It may be noted that the special

requirement for steam metering is the necessity of
interposing cooling chambers for the purpose of condensing
the steam and providing an adequate volume of water for
supplying the meter is placement for all variations of load.
With cooling chambers, the piping remains full of water and
the steam does not act on the meter. In this case, the pipe is
first laid vertically downwards to a distance of about 0.5 m

in order to minimize the possibility of entrance of air or gas

from the main, and the pipe is raised continuously at a slope
of not less than 1 : 10 to the meter.
2. Explain the principle of operation of venturi tube?

Principle:-It is based on the Bernoullis Theorem.

Total head at inlet = Total head at outlet

but in the presence of friction Inlet head= Outlet head + Head


Hence, Total head = Pressure head + Elevation head + Velocity


V2 = M(2g / w) (P1-P2)
Q = Cd M A (2g / w )(P1-P2)
where Cd=CcCv
3. Explain the principle of the pitot tube?

pitot is a device used for measuring the velocity of flow at any

point in a pipe or a channel.

Principle: If the velocity at any point decreases, the pressure at

that point
increases due to the conservation of the kinetic energy into
pressure energy.
In simplest form, the pitot tube consists of a glass tube, bent at
right angles.

Let p 1 = pressure at section 1

p2 = pressure at section 2
v1 = velocity at section 1

H = depth of tube in the liquid

h = rise of liquid in the tube
above the free surface
v2 = velocity at section 2

Actual velocity
2 gh

Cv= coefficient of pitot-tube
4. Explain the dall tube principle?

The Dall tube is a shortened version of a Venturi meter. In

both flow meters the flow rate is determined by measuring
the pressure drop caused by restriction in the conduit. The
pressure differential is measured using diaphragm pressure
transducers with digital read out. These meters have
significantly lower permanent pressure losses that orifice
meters and are widely used for very large flow rates where
even a small decrease in loss is economically significant.

With respect to headloss, while the overall energy loss of

the Dall tube appears to be about half that of a venturi
meter with the same beta ratio, it only appears so when the
energy loss is expressed in terms of percentage of
differential pressure produced. The reason for this is that
the high pressure tap is located right before the sharp
convergence angle and the low pressure tap is located
immediately after the convergence. These tap locations
sense not only the local "static" pressure, but also a portion

of the flowing fluid's momentum. The fluid momentum

effectively increases the high pressure reading and
decreases the low pressure reading. The differential is
essentially "magnified" (by a factor of almost two), hence
the permanent pressure loss, when expressed in terms of
percentage of differential pressure produced, appears to be
half that of a classical venturi tube. The actual energy
consumption, however, is about the same (for meters with
the same beta ratio).
It is to be noted that overall energy loss in terms of
percentage of the Dall meter is about half that for a Venturi
meter for a similar differential pressure loss. The reason
for this is that the high pressure tap is located right before
the sharp angle creating a momentum effect. This
magnifies the high pressure reading. Conversely, the low
pressure tap is located in the middle of the throat where the
pressure is sucked down creating a lower pressure
reading. The differential is seen as greater in terms of