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CHEMICAL PROCESS

PRINCIPLES

LECTURE- 03

SYSTEM OF UNITS

TYPES OF MEASUREMENTS

ESTIMATION

Estimation is using your knowledge of something

similar in size or amount to determine the size of the

new object.

o Helps to make a rough

measurement of an

object.

o Usefully when you are in a

hurry and exact numbers

are not required.

Precision is a

description of how close

measurements are to

each other.

Accuracy is

comparing your

measurement to the

actual or accepted

value.

10/22/2013

All

unit

measured, or calculated by multiplying or

dividing other dimensions.

Measurable

dimensions that have been defined by

convention, custom, or law.

or subtracted only if the units are the same

may always be combined by multiplication or

division

engineering works

temperature and time

they are

derived from the basic dimensions

energy,

concentration, etc

10/22/2013

DERIVED DIMENSIONS

Density

Volume

Flow Rate

Volume

Time

Area

Mass

Flow

Rate

Mass

Velocity

Length

Force

Acceleration

DIMENSIONS

Dimension

Symbol

Length

[L]

Mass

[M]

time

[T]

force

[F]

electric current

[A]

absolute temperature

[q]

luminous intensity

[/]

UNITS

Units are the means of expressing the dimensions

such as metre(m) for length, kilogram(kg) for mass, degree

Celcius(C) for temperature and second(s) for time.

Derived units are those that can be developed in

terms of fundamental units such as Newton(N) for

force, Pascal(Pa) for pressure, Joules(J) for energy and

Molar(M) for concentration.

10/22/2013

SYSTEMS OF UNITS

SI system

AES (American Engineering System)

Le Systeme International dUnites, French for the

International System of Units

Improvements in the definitions of the base units

continue to be made by the General Conference of

Weights and Measures as science dictates

Modernized Unit system adopted by the General

Conference, a multi-national organization which

includes the United States

Built on a foundation of seven base units, plus

two supplementary ones

All other SI units are derived from these nine

units

10/22/2013

Multiples and sub-multiples are expressed using

a decimal system

Generally, the first letter of a symbol is

capitalized if the name of the symbol is derived

from a persons name, otherwise it is lowercase

Dimensions

Length

Mass

Time

Temperature

Force

Molar amount

Units

metre

kilogram

second

Kelvin

Newton

mole

m

kg

s

K

N

mol

J

W

Kg/m3

Velocity

Acceleration

Joule

Watt

kilogram per cubic

metre

metre per second

metre per second squared

Pressure

Heat Capacity

Pascal

Joule per kilogram Kelvin

Pa

J/kg K

Energy

Power

Density

m/s

m/s2

Dimensions

Length

Units

foot

ft

Mass

pound mass

lbm

Time

Temperature

Fharenheit

R or F

Force

Molar amount

Energy

Power

Density

Velocity

Acceleration

Pressure

Heat Capacity

pound force

lbf

pound mole

lb mol

Btu

horsepower

hp

lbm/ft3

ft/s

ft/s2

psi

degree F

Btu/lbm F

10/22/2013

PREFIXES

Defined for the SI system

Used instead of writing extremely large or very

small numbers

All items in a given context should use the same

prefix, for example in a table

Notation in powers of 10 is often used in place of

a prefix

PREFIXES

Prefix Symbol

Numerical Multiplier

Exponential

Multiplier

yotta

1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

1024

zetta

1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

1021

exa

1,000,000,000,000,000,000

1018

peta

1,000,000,000,000,000

1015

tera

1,000,000,000,000

1012

giga

1,000,000,000

109

mega

1,000,000

106

kilo

1,000

103

hecto

100

102

deca

da

10

101

100

no prefix means:

PREFIXES

Prefix Symbol

Numerical Multiplier

Exponential

Multiplier

100

0.1

101

centi

0.01

102

milli

0.001

103

micro

0.000001

106

nano

0.000000001

109

pico

0.000000000001

1012

femto

0.000000000000001

1015

atto

0.000000000000000001

1018

zepto

0.000000000000000000001

1021

yocto

0.000000000000000000000001

1024

no prefix means:

deci

10/22/2013

Length: measures distance between objects

Volume:

Mass:

something takes up

measures the amount of matter

in an object

time

temperature

density

PH

EXAMPLE- 1

convert

To get to the meter (basic unit) step, we

need to move three steps to the right.

Move the decimal in 6.5 three steps to

the right

Answer: 6500 m

10/22/2013

EXAMPLE-2

Convert

114.55 cm to km

To get to the kilo step, move five steps to the

left

Move the decimal in 114.55 five steps the left

Answer: 0.0011455 km

Length: measures distance between objects

something takes up

Mass: measures the amount of matter

in an object

In SI the basic units are:

Mass is the gram

Volume is the liter (liquid)

Temperature is Celsius

Length is the distance between two points.

Does not matter if it is width, height, depth, etc.

The basic unit of length in the SI System is the

meter.

The meter is about the length of the English yard

(3 feet).

Area is a variation of a length measurement.

10/22/2013

Mass is a measurement of the amount of matter in

an object.

Basic unit of mass is the gram. There are

Weight and mass are related, but NOT the

same.

gravity.

Volume is a measurement of the amount of space

something takes up.

The basic unit used for volume is the liter. This

Volumes of solids are figured using this formula:

cm x cm x cm = cm 3

Objects without a definite length, width or

displacement to determine volume.

NOTE: 1 ml = 1 cm3

Temperature is a measure of the kinetic

energy of the atoms in an object.

Temperature is measured with a thermometer

Celsius ranges from 0 (freezing) to 100 (boiling).

The Kelvin scale begins at absolute zero, or 0 K.

an object.

To convert to Kelvin you add 273 degrees to

Freezing in Kelvin is 273 K, boiling is 373 K.

10/22/2013

COMMON

CONVERSION FACTORS

1 gallon = 4 quarts

1 mile = 5280 feet

1 ton

= 2000 pounds

1 liter

= 1.057 quarts

1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds

1 meter

= 1.094 yards

1 inch

= 2.54 cm

10

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