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ChemistryProjectonOpticalFiberandits
Applications
OpticalFiberandits
Applications
Name:A.GaneshKumar
School:JindalVidyaMandir
RollNo.:17
Index
1. Certificate
2. Acknowledgements
3. Aim
4. ImportantTerms
5. OpticalFibers
6. Applications
7. PrincipleOfOperation
8. MechanismofAttenuation
9. Manufacturing
10.PracticalIssue
11.ElectronicallyBasedProject
12.Bibliography
Acknowledgements

IwouldliketoexpressmysinceregratitudetomyphysicsmentorMrBrahmacharya,forhisvital
support,guidanceandencouragementwithoutwhichthisprojectwouldnothavecomeforth.I
wouldalsoliketoexpressmygratitudetotheotherstaffsoftheDepartmentofPhysicsfortheir
supportduringthemakingofthisproject.
Aim
ToStudytheOpticalFibreCablePrincipleanditsApplications.
ImportantTerms
vOpticalFiber:Anopticalfiber(orfibre)isaglassorplasticfiberthatcarrieslightalongitslength.
Fiberopticsistheoverlapofappliedscienceandengineeringconcernedwiththedesignand
applicationofopticalfibers.Opticalfibersarewidelyusedinfiberopticcommunications,which
permitstransmissionoverlongerdistancesandathigherbandwidths(datarates)thanotherformsof
communications.
vRefraction:Refractionisthechangeindirectionofawaveduetoachangeinitsspeed.Thisis
mostcommonlyobservedwhenawavepassesfromonemediumtoanother.Refractionoflightisthe
mostcommonlyobservedphenomenon,butanytypeofwavecanrefractwhenitinteractswitha
medium,forexamplewhensoundwavespassfromonemediumintoanotherorwhenwaterwaves
moveintowaterofadifferentdepth
vReflection:Reflectionisthechangeindirectionofawavefrontataninterfacebetweentwo
differentmediasothatthewavefrontreturnsintothemediumfromwhichitoriginated.Common
examplesincludethereflectionoflight,soundandwaterwaves.
InternalReflection
vScattering:Scatteringisageneralphysicalprocesswheresomeformsofradiation,suchaslight,
sound,ormovingparticles,areforcedtodeviatefromastraighttrajectorybyoneormorelocalized
nonuniformitiesinthemediumthroughwhichtheypass.Inconventionaluse,thisalsoincludes
deviationofreflectedradiationfromtheanglepredictedbythelawofreflection.
vAttenuation:isthegraduallossinintensityofanykindoffluxthroughamedium.Forinstance,
sunlightisattenuatedbydarkglasses,andXraysareattenuatedbylead.
OpticalFiberCable(OFC)
Anopticalfiber(orfibre)isaglassorplasticfiberthatcarrieslightalongitslength.Fiberopticsisthe
overlapofappliedscienceandengineeringconcernedwiththedesignandapplicationofoptical
fibers.Opticalfibersarewidelyusedinfiberopticcommunications,whichpermitstransmissionover
longerdistancesandathigherbandwidths(datarates)thanotherformsofcommunications.Fibersare
usedinsteadofmetalwiresbecausesignalstravelalongthemwithlessloss,andtheyarealsoimmune
toelectromagneticinterference.Fibersarealsousedforillumination,andarewrappedinbundlesso
theycanbeusedtocarryimages,thusallowingviewingintightspaces.Speciallydesignedfibersare
usedforavarietyofotherapplications,includingsensorsandfiberlasers.
Lightiskeptinthecoreoftheopticalfiberbytotalinternalreflection.Thiscausesthefibertoactasa
waveguide.Fiberswhichsupportmanypropagationpathsortransversemodesarecalledmultimode
fibers(MMF),whilethosewhichcanonlysupportasinglemodearecalledsinglemodefibers(SMF).
Multimodefibersgenerallyhavealargercorediameter,andareusedforshortdistance
communicationlinksandforapplicationswherehighpowermustbetransmitted.Singlemodefibers
areusedformostcommunicationlinkslongerthan550meters(1,800ft).

Joininglengthsofopticalfiberismorecomplexthanjoiningelectricalwireorcable.Theendsofthe
fibersmustbecarefullycleaved,andthensplicedtogethereithermechanicallyorbyfusingthem
togetherwithanelectricarc.Specialconnectorsareusedtomakeremovableconnections.
Abundleofopticalfibers
ATOSLINKfiberopticaudiocablebeingilluminatedatoneend
Applications
Opticalfibercommunication
Opticalfibercanbeusedasamediumfortelecommunicationandnetworkingbecauseitisflexible
andcanbebundledascables.Itisespeciallyadvantageousforlongdistancecommunications,
becauselightpropagatesthroughthefiberwithlittleattenuationcomparedtoelectricalcables.This
allowslongdistancestobespannedwithfewrepeaters.Additionally,theperchannellightsignals
propagatinginthefibercanbemodulatedatratesashighas111gigabitspersecond,although10or
40Gb/sistypicalindeployedsystems.Eachfibercancarrymanyindependentchannels,eachusinga
differentwavelengthoflight(wavelengthdivisionmultiplexing(WDM)).Thenetdatarate(datarate
withoutoverheadbytes)perfiberistheperchanneldataratereducedbytheFECoverhead,
multipliedbythenumberofchannels(usuallyuptoeightyincommercialdenseWDMsystemsasof
2008).Thecurrentlaboratoryfiberopticdataraterecord,heldbyBellLabsinVillarceaux,France,is
multiplexing155channels,eachcarrying100Gbpsovera7000kmfiber.
Forshortdistanceapplications,suchascreatinganetworkwithinanofficebuilding,fiberoptic
cablingcanbeusedtosavespaceincableducts.Thisisbecauseasinglefibercanoftencarrymuch
moredatathanmanyelectricalcables,suchasCat5Ethernetcabling.Fiberisalsoimmuneto
electricalinterferencethereisnocrosstalkbetweensignalsindifferentcablesandnopickupof
environmentalnoise.Nonarmoredfibercablesdonotconductelectricity,whichmakesfiberagood
solutionforprotectingcommunicationsequipmentlocatedinhighvoltageenvironmentssuchas
powergenerationfacilities,ormetalcommunicationstructurespronetolightningstrikes.Theycan
alsobeusedinenvironmentswhereexplosivefumesarepresent,withoutdangerofignition.
Wiretappingismoredifficultcomparedtoelectricalconnections,andthereareconcentricdualcore
fibersthataresaidtobetapproof.
Althoughfiberscanbemadeoutoftransparentplastic,glass,oracombinationofthetwo,thefibers
usedinlongdistancetelecommunicationsapplicationsarealwaysglass,becauseoftheloweroptical
attenuation.Bothmultimodeandsinglemodefibersareusedincommunications,withmultimode
fiberusedmostlyforshortdistances,upto550m(600yards),andsinglemodefiberusedforlonger
distancelinks.Becauseofthetightertolerancesrequiredtocouplelightintoandbetweensinglemode
fibers(corediameterabout10micrometers),singlemodetransmitters,receivers,amplifiersandother
componentsaregenerallymoreexpensivethanmultimodecomponents.
Fiberopticsensors
Fibershavemanyusesinremotesensing.Insomeapplications,thesensorisitselfanopticalfiber.In
othercases,fiberisusedtoconnectanonfiberopticsensortoameasurementsystem.Dependingon
theapplication,fibermaybeusedbecauseofitssmallsize,orthefactthatnoelectricalpoweris
neededattheremotelocation,orbecausemanysensorscanbemultiplexedalongthelengthofafiber
byusingdifferentwavelengthsoflightforeachsensor,orbysensingthetimedelayaslightpasses
alongthefiberthrougheachsensor.Timedelaycanbedeterminedusingadevicesuchasanoptical
timedomainreflectometer.
Opticalfiberscanbeusedassensorstomeasurestrain,temperature,pressureandotherquantitiesby
modifyingafibersothatthequantitytobemeasuredmodulatestheintensity,phase,polarization,

wavelengthortransittimeoflightinthefiber.Sensorsthatvarytheintensityoflightarethesimplest,
sinceonlyasimplesourceanddetectorarerequired.Aparticularlyusefulfeatureofsuchfiberoptic
sensorsisthattheycan,ifrequired,providedistributedsensingoverdistancesofuptoonemeter.
Extrinsicfiberopticsensorsuseanopticalfibercable,normallyamultimodeone,totransmit
modulatedlightfromeitheranonfiberopticalsensor,oranelectronicsensorconnectedtoanoptical
transmitter.Amajorbenefitofextrinsicsensorsistheirabilitytoreachplaceswhichareotherwise
inaccessible.Anexampleisthemeasurementoftemperatureinsideaircraftjetenginesbyusinga
fibertotransmitradiationintoaradiationpyrometerlocatedoutsidetheengine.Extrinsicsensorscan
alsobeusedinthesamewaytomeasuretheinternaltemperatureofelectricaltransformers,wherethe
extremeelectromagneticfieldspresentmakeothermeasurementtechniquesimpossible.Extrinsic
sensorsareusedtomeasurevibration,rotation,displacement,velocity,acceleration,torque,and
twisting.
Otherusesofopticalfibers
Fibersarewidelyusedinilluminationapplications.Theyareusedaslightguidesinmedicalandother
applicationswherebrightlightneedstobeshoneonatargetwithoutaclearlineofsightpath.In
somebuildings,opticalfibersareusedtoroutesunlightfromtherooftootherpartsofthebuilding
(seenonimagingoptics).Opticalfiberilluminationisalsousedfordecorativeapplications,including
signs,art,andartificialChristmastrees.Swarovskiboutiquesuseopticalfiberstoilluminatetheir
crystalshowcasesfrommanydifferentangleswhileonlyemployingonelightsource.Opticalfiberis
anintrinsicpartofthelighttransmittingconcretebuildingproduct,LiTraCon.
Opticalfiberisalsousedinimagingoptics.Acoherentbundleoffibersisused,sometimesalongwith
lenses,foralong,thinimagingdevicecalledanendoscope,whichisusedtoviewobjectsthrougha
smallhole.Medicalendoscopesareusedforminimallyinvasiveexploratoryorsurgicalprocedures
(endoscopy).Industrialendoscopes(seefiberscopeorborescope)areusedforinspectinganything
hardtoreach,suchasjetengineinteriors.
Inspectroscopy,opticalfiberbundlesareusedtotransmitlightfromaspectrometertoasubstance
whichcannotbeplacedinsidethespectrometeritself,inordertoanalyzeitscomposition.A
spectrometeranalyzessubstancesbybouncinglightoffofandthroughthem.Byusingfibers,a
spectrometercanbeusedtostudyobjectsthataretoolargetofitinside,orgasses,orreactionswhich
occurinpressurevessels.
Anopticalfiberdopedwithcertainrareearthelementssuchaserbiumcanbeusedasthegain
mediumofalaseroropticalamplifier.Rareearthdopedopticalfiberscanbeusedtoprovidesignal
amplificationbysplicingashortsectionofdopedfiberintoaregular(undoped)opticalfiberline.The
dopedfiberisopticallypumpedwithasecondlaserwavelengththatiscoupledintothelinein
additiontothesignalwave.Bothwavelengthsoflightaretransmittedthroughthedopedfiber,which
transfersenergyfromthesecondpumpwavelengthtothesignalwave.Theprocessthatcausesthe
amplificationisstimulatedemission.
Afrisbeeilluminatedbyfiberoptics
Lightreflectedfromopticalfiberilluminatesexhibitedmodel
Opticalfibersdopedwithawavelengthshifterareusedtocollectscintillationlightinphysics
experiments.
Opticalfibercanbeusedtosupplyalowlevelofpower(aroundonewatt)toelectronicssituatedina
difficultelectricalenvironment.Examplesofthisareelectronicsinhighpoweredantennaelements
andmeasurementdevicesusedinhighvoltagetransmissionequipment.

PrincipleofOperation
Anopticalfiberisacylindricaldielectricwaveguide(nonconductingwaveguide)thattransmitslight
alongitsaxis,bytheprocessoftotalinternalreflection.Thefibercoreissurroundedbyacladding
layer
IndexofRefraction
Theindexofrefractionisawayofmeasuringthespeedoflightinamaterial.Lighttravelsfastestina
vacuum,suchasouterspace.Theactualspeedoflightinavacuumisabout300millionmeters(186
thousandmiles)persecond.Indexofrefractioniscalculatedbydividingthespeedoflightina
vacuumbythespeedoflightinsomeothermedium.Theindexofrefractionofavacuumistherefore
1,bydefinition.Thetypicalvalueforthecladdingofanopticalfiberis1.46.Thecorevalueis
typically1.48.Thelargertheindexofrefraction,theslowerlighttravelsinthatmedium.Fromthis
information,agoodruleofthumbisthatsignalusingopticalfiberforcommunicationwilltravelat
around200millionmeterspersecond.Ortoputitanotherway,totravel1000kilometresinfiber,the
signalwilltake5millisecondstopropagate.ThusaphonecallcarriedbyfiberbetweenSydneyand
NewYork,a12000kilometredistance,meansthatthereisanabsoluteminimumdelayof60
milliseconds(oraround1/16thofasecond)betweenwhenonecallerspeakstowhentheotherhears.
(Ofcoursethefiberinthiscasewillprobablytravelalongerroute,andtherewillbeadditionaldelays
duetocommunicationequipmentswitchingandtheprocessofencodinganddecodingthevoiceonto
thefiber).
TotalInternalReflection
Whenlighttravellinginadensemediumhitsaboundaryatasteepangle(largerthanthecritical
anglefortheboundary),thelightwillbecompletelyreflected.Thiseffectisusedinopticalfibersto
confinelightinthecore.Lighttravelsalongthefiberbouncingbackandforthoffoftheboundary.
Becausethelightmuststriketheboundarywithananglegreaterthanthecriticalangle,onlylightthat
entersthefiberwithinacertainrangeofanglescantraveldownthefiberwithoutleakingout.This
rangeofanglesiscalledtheacceptanceconeofthefiber.Thesizeofthisacceptanceconeisa
functionoftherefractiveindexdifferencebetweenthefiberscoreandcladding.
Insimplerterms,thereisamaximumanglefromthefiberaxisatwhichlightmayenterthefiberso
thatitwillpropagate,ortravel,inthecoreofthefiber.Thesineofthismaximumangleisthe
numericalaperture(NA)ofthefiber.FiberwithalargerNArequireslessprecisiontospliceandwork
withthanfiberwithasmallerNA.SinglemodefiberhasasmallNA.
Alaserbouncingdownanacrylicrod,illustratingthetotalinternalreflectionoflightinamultimode
opticalfiber.
SingleModeFiber
Fiberwithacorediameterlessthanabouttentimesthewavelengthofthepropagatinglightcannotbe
modeledusinggeometricoptics.Instead,itmustbeanalyzedasanelectromagneticstructure,by
solutionofMaxwellsequationsasreducedtotheelectromagneticwaveequation.The
electromagneticanalysismayalsoberequiredtounderstandbehaviourssuchasspecklethatoccur
whencoherentlightpropagatesinmultimodefiber.Asanopticalwaveguide,thefibersupportsone
ormoreconfinedtransversemodesbywhichlightcanpropagatealongthefiber.Fibersupporting
onlyonemodeiscalledsinglemodeormonomodefiber.Thebehaviouroflargercoremultimode
fibercanalsobemodeledusingthewaveequation,whichshowsthatsuchfibersupportsmorethan
onemodeofpropagation(hencethename).Theresultsofsuchmodelingofmultimodefiber
approximatelyagreewiththepredictionsofgeometricoptics,ifthefibercoreislargeenoughto
supportmorethanafewmodes.

Thestructureofatypicalsinglemodefiber.
1.Core:8mdiameter
2.Cladding:125mdia.
3.Buffer:250mdia.
4.Jacket:400mdia.
MultiModeFiber
Thepropagationoflightthroughamultimodeopticalfiber.
Alaserbouncingdownanacrylicrod,illustratingthetotalinternalreflectionoflightinamultimode
opticalfiber.
Fiberwithlargecorediameter(greaterthan10micrometers)maybeanalyzedbygeometricaloptics.
Suchfiberiscalledmultimodefiber,fromtheelectromagneticanalysis(seebelow).Inastepindex
multimodefiber,raysoflightareguidedalongthefibercorebytotalinternalreflection.Raysthat
meetthecorecladdingboundaryatahighangle(measuredrelativetoalinenormaltotheboundary),
greaterthanthecriticalangleforthisboundary,arecompletelyreflected.Thecriticalangle(minimum
anglefortotalinternalreflection)isdeterminedbythedifferenceinindexofrefractionbetweenthe
coreandcladdingmaterials.Raysthatmeettheboundaryatalowanglearerefractedfromthecore
intothecladding,anddonotconveylightandhenceinformationalongthefiber.Thecriticalangle
determinestheacceptanceangleofthefiber,oftenreportedasanumericalaperture.Ahighnumerical
apertureallowslighttopropagatedownthefiberinraysbothclosetotheaxisandatvariousangles,
allowingefficientcouplingoflightintothefiber.However,thishighnumericalapertureincreasesthe
amountofdispersionasraysatdifferentangleshavedifferentpathlengthsandthereforetakedifferent
timestotraversethefiber.
Thepropagationoflightthroughamultimodeopticalfiber.
SingleModeOpticalFiberCable
MultiModeOpticalfibercables
(MultipleFiberChannel)
MechanismsofAttenuation
Attenuationinfiberoptics,alsoknownastransmissionloss,isthereductioninintensityofthelight
beam(orsignal)withrespecttodistancetravelledthroughatransmissionmedium.Attenuation
coefficientsinfiberopticsusuallyuseunitsofdB/kmthroughthemediumduetotherelativelyhigh
qualityoftransparencyofmodernopticaltransmissionmedia.Themediumistypicallyusuallyafiber
ofsilicaglassthatconfinestheincidentlightbeamtotheinside.Attenuationisanimportantfactor
limitingthetransmissionofadigitalsignalacrosslargedistances.Thus,muchresearchhasgoneinto
bothlimitingtheattenuationandmaximizingtheamplificationoftheopticalsignal.Empirical
researchhasshownthatattenuationinopticalfiberiscausedprimarilybybothscatteringand
absorption.
Lightscattering
Thepropagationoflightthroughthecoreofanopticalfiberisbasedontotalinternalreflectionofthe
lightwave.Roughandirregularsurfaces,evenatthemolecularlevel,cancauselightraystobe
reflectedinrandomdirections.Thisiscalleddiffusereflectionorscattering,anditistypically

characterizedbywidevarietyofreflectionangles.
Lightscatteringdependsonthewavelengthofthelightbeingscattered.Thus,limitstospatialscales
ofvisibilityarise,dependingonthefrequencyoftheincidentlightwaveandthephysicaldimension
(orspatialscale)ofthescatteringcenter,whichistypicallyintheformofsomespecificmicro
structuralfeature.
Specularreflection
Diffusereflection
Thus,attenuationresultsfromtheincoherentscatteringoflightatinternalsurfacesandinterfaces.In
(poly)crystallinematerialssuchasmetalsandceramics,inadditiontopores,mostoftheinternal
surfacesorinterfacesareintheformofgrainboundariesthatseparatetinyregionsofcrystalline
order.Ithasrecentlybeenshownthatwhenthesizeofthescatteringcentre(orgrainboundary)is
reducedbelowthesizeofthewavelengthofthelightbeingscattered,thescatteringnolongeroccurs
toanysignificantextent.Thisphenomenonhasgivenrisetotheproductionoftransparentceramic
materials.
Similarly,thescatteringoflightinopticalqualityglassfiberiscausedbymolecularlevel
irregularities(compositionalfluctuations)intheglassstructure.Indeed,oneemergingschoolof
thoughtisthataglassissimplythelimitingcaseofapolycrystallinesolid.Withinthisframework,
domainsexhibitingvariousdegreesofshortrangeorderbecomethebuildingblocksofbothmetals
andalloys,aswellasglassesandceramics.Distributedbothbetweenandwithinthesedomainsare
microstructuraldefectswhichwillprovidethemostideallocationsfortheoccurrenceoflight
scattering.ThissamephenomenonisseenasoneofthelimitingfactorsinthetransparencyofIR
missiledomes.
Manufacturing
Materials
Glassopticalfibersarealmostalwaysmadefromsilica,butsomeothermaterials,suchas
fluorozirconate,fluoroaluminate,andchalcogenideglasses,areusedforlongerwavelengthinfrared
applications.Likeotherglasses,theseglasseshavearefractiveindexofabout1.5.Typicallythe
differencebetweencoreandcladdingislessthanonepercent.
Plasticopticalfibers(POF)arecommonlystepindexmultimodefiberswithacorediameterof0.5
millimetersorlarger.POFtypicallyhavehigherattenuationcoefficientsthanglassfibers,1dB/mor
higher,andthishighattenuationlimitstherangeofPOFbasedsystems.
Silica
Silicaexhibitsfairlygoodopticaltransmissionoverawiderangeofwavelengths.Inthenearinfrared
(nearIR)portionofthespectrum,particularlyaround1.5m,silicacanhaveextremelylow
absorptionandscatteringlossesoftheorderof0.2dB/km.Ahightransparencyinthe1.4mregion
isachievedbymaintainingalowconcentrationofhydroxylgroups(OH).Alternatively,ahighOH
concentrationisbetterfortransmissionintheultraviolet(UV)region.
Silicacanbedrawnintofibersatreasonablyhightemperatures,andhasafairlybroadglass
transformationrange.Oneotheradvantageisthatfusionsplicingandcleavingofsilicafibersis
relativelyeffective.Silicafiberalsohashighmechanicalstrengthagainstbothpullingandeven
bending,providedthatthefiberisnottoothickandthatthesurfaceshavebeenwellpreparedduring
processing.Evensimplecleaving(breaking)oftheendsofthefibercanprovidenicelyflatsurfaces
withacceptableopticalquality.Silicaisalsorelativelychemicallyinert.Inparticular,itisnot

hygroscopic(doesnotabsorbwater).
Silicaglasscanbedopedwithvariousmaterials.Onepurposeofdopingistoraisetherefractiveindex
(e.g.withGermaniumdioxide(GeO2)orAluminiumoxide(Al2O3))ortolowerit(e.g.withfluorine
orBorontrioxide(B2O3)).Dopingisalsopossiblewithlaseractiveions(forexample,rareearth
dopedfibers)inordertoobtainactivefiberstobeused,forexample,infiberamplifiersorlaser
applications.Boththefibercoreandcladdingaretypicallydoped,sothattheentireassembly(core
andcladding)iseffectivelythesamecompound(e.g.analuminosilicate,germanosilicate,
phosphosilicateorborosilicateglass).
Particularlyforactivefibers,puresilicaisusuallynotaverysuitablehostglass,becauseitexhibitsa
lowsolubilityforrareearthions.Thiscanleadtoquenchingeffectsduetoclusteringofdopantions.
Aluminosilicatesaremuchmoreeffectiveinthisrespect.
Silicafiberalsoexhibitsahighthresholdforopticaldamage.Thispropertyensuresalowtendencyfor
laserinducedbreakdown.Thisisimportantforfiberamplifierswhenutilizedfortheamplificationof
shortpulses.
Becauseofthesepropertiessilicafibersarethematerialofchoiceinmanyopticalapplications,such
ascommunications(exceptforveryshortdistanceswithplasticopticalfiber),fiberlasers,fiber
amplifiers,andfiberopticsensors.Thelargeeffortswhichhavebeenputforthinthedevelopmentof
varioustypesofsilicafibershavefurtherincreasedtheperformanceofsuchfibersoverother
materials.
Tetrahedralstructuralunitofsilica(SiO2).
Theamorphousstructureofglassysilica(SiO2).
Process
Standardopticalfibersaremadebyfirstconstructingalargediameterpreform,withacarefully
controlledrefractiveindexprofile,andthenpullingthepreformtoformthelong,thinopticalfiber.
Thepreformiscommonlymadebythreechemicalvapordepositionmethods:insidevapordeposition,
outsidevapordeposition,andvaporaxialdeposition.
Withinsidevapordeposition,thepreformstartsasahollowglasstubeapproximately40centimeters
(16in)long,whichisplacedhorizontallyandrotatedslowlyonalathe.Gasessuchassilicon
tetrachloride(SiCl4)orgermaniumtetrachloride(GeCl4)areinjectedwithoxygenintheendofthe
tube.Thegasesarethenheatedbymeansofanexternalhydrogenburner,bringingthetemperatureof
thegasupto1900K(1600C,3000F),wherethetetrachloridesreactwithoxygentoproducesilica
orgermania(germaniumdioxide)particles.Whenthereactionconditionsarechosentoallowthis
reactiontooccurinthegasphasethroughoutthetubevolume,incontrasttoearliertechniqueswhere
thereactionoccurredonlyontheglasssurface,thistechniqueiscalledmodifiedchemicalvapor
deposition.
Coatings
FiberopticcoatingsareUVcuredurethaneacrylatecompositematerialsappliedtotheoutsideofthe
fiberduringthedrawingprocess.Thecoatingsprotecttheverydelicatestrandsofglassfiberabout
thesizeofahumanhairandallowittosurvivetherigorsofmanufacturing,prooftesting,cabling
andinstallation.
Todaysglassopticalfiberdrawprocessesemployaduallayercoatingapproach.Aninnerprimary
coatingisdesignedtoactasashockabsorbertominimizeattenuationcausedbymicrobending.An
outersecondarycoatingprotectstheprimarycoatingagainstmechanicaldamageandactsasabarrier

tolateralforces.
Thesefiberopticcoatinglayersareappliedduringthefiberdraw,atspeedsapproaching100
kilometersperhour(60mph).Fiberopticcoatingsareappliedusingoneoftwomethods:wetondry,
inwhichthefiberpassesthroughaprimarycoatingapplication,whichisthenUVcured,thenthrough
thesecondarycoatingapplicationwhichissubsequentlycuredandwetonwet,inwhichthefiber
passesthroughboththeprimaryandsecondarycoatingapplicationsandthengoestoUVcuring.
Fiberopticcoatingsareappliedinconcentriclayerstopreventdamagetothefiberduringthedrawing
applicationandtomaximizefiberstrengthandmicrobendresistance.Unevenlycoatedfiberwill
experiencenonuniformforceswhenthecoatingexpandsorcontracts,andissusceptibletogreater
signalattenuation.Underproperdrawingandcoatingprocesses,thecoatingsareconcentricaround
thefiber,continuousoverthelengthoftheapplicationandhaveconstantthickness.
Fiberopticcoatingsprotecttheglassfibersfromscratchesthatcouldleadtostrengthdegradation.The
combinationofmoistureandscratchesacceleratestheaginganddeteriorationoffiberstrength.When
fiberissubjectedtolowstressesoveralongperiod,fiberfatiguecanoccur.Overtimeorinextreme
conditions,thesefactorscombinetocausemicroscopicflawsintheglassfibertopropagate,which
canultimatelyresultinfiberfailure.
Illustrationofthemodifiedchemicalvapourdeposition(inside)process
Practicalissues
Opticalfibercables
Inpracticalfibers,thecladdingisusuallycoatedwithatoughresinbufferlayer,whichmaybefurther
surroundedbyajacketlayer,usuallyplastic.Theselayersaddstrengthtothefiberbutdonot
contributetoitsopticalwaveguideproperties.Rigidfiberassembliessometimesputlightabsorbing
(dark)glassbetweenthefibers,topreventlightthatleaksoutofonefiberfromenteringanother.
Thisreducescrosstalkbetweenthefibers,orreducesflareinfiberbundleimagingapplications.
Moderncablescomeinawidevarietyofsheathingsandarmor,designedforapplicationssuchas
directburialintrenches,highvoltageisolation,dualuseaspowerlines,[40][notincitationgiven]
installationinconduit,lashingtoaerialtelephonepoles,submarineinstallation,andinsertioninpaved
streets.Thecostofsmallfibercountpolemountedcableshasgreatlydecreasedduetothehigh
JapaneseandSouthKoreandemandforfibertothehome(FTTH)installations.
Fibercablecanbeveryflexible,buttraditionalfiberslossincreasesgreatlyifthefiberisbentwitha
radiussmallerthanaround30mm.Thiscreatesaproblemwhenthecableisbentaroundcornersor
woundaroundaspool,makingFTTXinstallationsmorecomplicated.Bendablefibers,targeted
towardseasierinstallationinhomeenvironments,havebeenstandardizedasITUTG.657.Thistype
offibercanbebentwitharadiusaslowas7.5mmwithoutadverseimpact.Evenmorebendable
fibershavebeendeveloped.Bendablefibermayalsoberesistanttofiberhacking,inwhichthesignal
inafiberissurreptitiouslymonitoredbybendingthefiberanddetectingtheleakage.
Anotherimportantfeatureofcableiscablewithstandingagainstthehorizontallyappliedforce.Itis
technicallycalledmaxtensilestrengthdefininghowmuchforcecanappliedtothecableduringthe
installationofaperiod.
TelecomAnatoliafiberopticcableversionsarereinforcedwitharamidyarnsorglassyarnsas
intermediarystrengthmember.Incommercialterms,usagesoftheglassyarnsaremorecosteffective
whilenolossinmechanicaldurabilityofthecable.Glassyarnsarealsoprotectthecablecoreagainst
rodentsandtermites.

Terminationandsplicing
Opticalfibersareconnectedtoterminalequipmentbyopticalfiberconnectors.Theseconnectorsare
usuallyofastandardtypesuchasFC,SC,ST,LC,orMTRJ.
Opticalfibersmaybeconnectedtoeachotherbyconnectorsorbysplicing,thatis,joiningtwofibers
togethertoformacontinuousopticalwaveguide.Thegenerallyacceptedsplicingmethodisarcfusion
splicing,whichmeltsthefiberendstogetherwithanelectricarc.Forquickerfasteningjobs,a
mechanicalspliceisused.
Fusionsplicingisdonewithaspecializedinstrumentthattypicallyoperatesasfollows:Thetwocable
endsarefastenedinsideaspliceenclosurethatwillprotectthesplices,andthefiberendsarestripped
oftheirprotectivepolymercoating(aswellasthemoresturdyouterjacket,ifpresent).Theendsare
cleaved(cut)withaprecisioncleavertomakethemperpendicular,andareplacedintospecialholders
inthesplicer.Thespliceisusuallyinspectedviaamagnifiedviewingscreentocheckthecleaves
beforeandafterthesplice.Thesplicerusessmallmotorstoaligntheendfacestogether,andemitsa
smallsparkbetweenelectrodesatthegaptoburnoffdustandmoisture.Thenthesplicergeneratesa
largersparkthatraisesthetemperatureabovethemeltingpointoftheglass,fusingtheendstogether
permanently.Thelocationandenergyofthesparkiscarefullycontrolledsothatthemoltencoreand
claddingdontmix,andthisminimizesopticalloss.Asplicelossestimateismeasuredbythesplicer,
bydirectinglightthroughthecladdingononesideandmeasuringthelightleakingfromthecladding
ontheotherside.Asplicelossunder0.1dBistypical.Thecomplexityofthisprocessmakesfiber
splicingmuchmoredifficultthansplicingcopperwire.
Mechanicalfibersplicesaredesignedtobequickerandeasiertoinstall,butthereisstilltheneedfor
stripping,carefulcleaningandprecisioncleaving.Thefiberendsarealignedandheldtogetherbya
precisionmadesleeve,oftenusingaclearindexmatchinggelthatenhancesthetransmissionoflight
acrossthejoint.Suchjointstypicallyhavehigheropticallossandarelessrobustthanfusionsplices,
especiallyifthegelisused.Allsplicingtechniquesinvolvetheuseofanenclosureintowhichthe
spliceisplacedforprotectionafterward.
OpticalFibersplicing
Fiberfuse
Athighopticalintensities,above2megawattspersquarecentimetre,whenafiberissubjectedtoa
shockorisotherwisesuddenlydamaged,afiberfusecanoccur.Thereflectionfromthedamage
vaporizesthefiberimmediatelybeforethebreak,andthisnewdefectremainsreflectivesothatthe
damagepropagatesbacktowardthetransmitterat13meterspersecond(411km/h,28mph).The
openfibercontrolsystem,whichensureslasereyesafetyintheeventofabrokenfiber,canalso
effectivelyhaltpropagationofthefiberfuse.Insituations,suchasunderseacables,wherehighpower
levelsmightbeusedwithouttheneedforopenfibercontrol,afiberfuseprotectiondeviceatthe
transmittercanbreakthecircuittopreventanydamage.
ElectronicallyBasedProject
ToTestPassageofLightthroughCommercial/Industrial
OpticalFiberCable(OFC)
DevicesUsed:
1. IndustrialOpticalFiberCable(MultiMode)
2. LED(3V)
3. PCBCircuitBoard

4. 3VDCRectifier.
Bibliography
Books:
Physics(Part1&2)TextbookforClassXIINational
CouncilofEducationalResearchandTraining
Encyclopaedias
Websites:
ImageCourtesy:
www.google.com/images
www.wikipedia.org
SourceandotherInformation:
www.google.com
www.wikipedia.org
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