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IGCSE MATHS VECTORS

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CHAPTER ONE

1. Vectors. Examples and Uses.

direction. We say its size (or magnitude) is 10 m.p.h. and its direction is north. Other

examples of vectors are a force, tension in a string, velocity of a car, current in a river,

acceleration, momentum and impulse.

It is understood in vector study that the magnitude and direction of a vector will

completely determine the vector. For example the location, temperature etc. of a wind

will have no relevance with regard to its being considered as a vector.

Many other objects can be thought of as vectors with a little imagination e.g.

i) 3 has magnitude 3, direction to the left. ii) an ordered pair (a,b), its magnitude is

said to be how far from the origin it is,

(a,b)

a 2 + b2

i.e.

b

. This means for example, that (3,4)

a

a 2 + b 2 and direction Arctan

b

(angles being measured as usual counterclockwise

a

Not all objects are vectors. Age has no notion of direction for example (except

maybe up!) and is consequently not a vector. Kinetic energy, work quantity of heat are

other examples which are not vectors.

1.1 Notation

!

A vector will be written a

!

Its magnitude will be written a . Note that this looks like absolute value. In fact

for real numbers it is. 3 has magnitude 3 (its distance from the origin) because ! 3 = 3.

Saying (3,4) has magnitude 5 is written | (3,4) | = 5 . The arrow over the (3,4) tells us we

are thinking of it as a vector.

!

Note that a is a positive real number and must be distinguished from the vector

!

! !

a itself. It makes little sense to talk about a + a . After all, what does | (3,4) | +5 mean? It

does make sense to talk of 3 + |-3| of course, but this is the exceptional circumstance.

their magnitudes and directions are equal separately.

This means, for example that a northerly wind is never equal to an easterly wind,

regardless of their magnitudes.

The length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the vector and

the direction of the arrow is the direction of the vector.

N

A

45

E

It is easy to confuse the notation with that of early geometry class. There, OA =

! !

usually means the length of the line segment OA and since the distance from O to A is

the same distance from A to O, then OA = AO. In our vector notation this is the

! !

Position of a Vector is irrelevant.

concept and cannot be overemphasised.

Exercise 1.1

!

1. Find i) | AC |

!

ii) | CA |

! !

! !

ii) Does | DE | = | DF | ?

2. i) Does DE = DF ?

4. Find all pairs of equal vectors represented in the diagram. ABCD is a parallelogram.

A

! !

e.g. DE = EB

! !

Find x so that i) (x,4) = (3,4)

D

5.

! !

! !

vectors. What is the angle between AB and AC ?

!!!

1. i) 5 ii) 5

2. i) No

ii) Yes

3. Yes No

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

4. AE = EC , DE = EB , AD = BC , AB = DC

5. i) x = 3

ii) x = 4 or 4

To add vectors it is clear that we dont simply add directions and magnitudes

separately. For example, an aeroplane capable of 150 m.p.h. in still air, flying north in an

easterly wind of 50 m.p.h. is certainly not travelling at 200 m.p.h. (or 100 m.p.h. for that

matter) relative to the ground. Addition is best represented diagrammatically.

150 m.p.h.

50 m.p.h.

Wind

Plane

Draw a diagram so that the plane vector and the wind vector are joined together, as

follows:

Plane 150

50

Wind

The dotted vector represents the addition of the wind

and aeroplane vectors. In fact the plane is flying at

158.1 m.p.h. (Pythagoras) in a direction 18.43 west of

150

50

Example

To find the addition of the two vectors in the diagram it is best to redraw the diagram as

10

6

Note that the flow of the arrows is continuous.

The addition of these two vectors produces a vector (called a resultant) whose magnitude

is 10 (Pythagoras). The direction of the resultant depends upon the directions of the

original vectors.

Example

To add

redraw as

a

a +b +c

Note that it is important that arrows of a , b and c on the diagram be continuous, i.e. if a

person were to walk from the beginning of a to the end of c he would not be stabbed

i.e.

b

Is not a representation of a + b + c

because the person would be

stabbed at the first corner.

Example

An object is being pulled by 3 forces as in the diagram.

10

45

20

25

20

45

10

25

The dotted line represents the addition of the three vectors. It has magnitude 8.02 lbs in

fact.

Example

B

A

positions of O,A,B. An important way of

O

thinking of this is AB = OB ! OA

This is an important idea and will be used often, later on, where O is considered as the

origin.

Exercise 1.2

1.

ii) Does AB + BC + CD always equal to AD ?

iii) Does AB + BC always equal AC ?

2.

3.

4.

enough that a and b be parallel?

5.

In parallelogram ABCD

B

E

D

Represent each of the following as a single vector.

i) AB + BE

ii) AE + EC

iii) BE + EC

iv) EC + CD + DA

v) BC + EA

vi) AB + AD

vii) DE + BA + EA

viii) AE + DE + BC

6.

True or False?

i) a + b ! a

ii) AB = DC means ABCD is a parallelogram

iii) a + b = a + c means b = c

iv) a + b > a + b

v) . (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)

10

7.

E

OAGCFEDB is a cube.

G

A

O

i) OA + AG + GC

ii) OB + DE

iii) OC + AD

iv) EA + GF

v) GA + GF + EG

Exercise 1.2 Answers

1.

i) Yes

ii) Yes

iii) No

4.

5.

i) AE

ii) AC

vii) CA

viii) AC

6.

i) False

7.

i) OC

iii) BC

iv) EA

v) BE vi) AC

ii) True

iii) True

iv) True

v) True

ii) OF

iii) OF

iv) EB

v) EB

11

Example

Parallelogram ABCD

Here

A

E

AB = !CD

1

DE = DB

2

1

AE = AC

2

1

EC = ! CA

2

Example

Here

1

1

AB = ! BA

2

2

1

MN = BC

2

AM =

When subtracting vectors it is best to think of adding (-1) times the vector, e.g.

AB ! CB means AB + (!1)CB which is AB + BC i.e. AC .

Example

A

AB ! CB = AB + BC = AC

C

B

12

Example

A

ABCD is a parallelogram.

1

i) AB ! DB = AB ! EB = AB + BE = AE.

2

ii)

D

BC ! DC + ED = BC + CD + ED

1

3

= BD + ED = BD + BD = BD

2

2

Exercise 1.3

A

1.

Express MN in terms of scalar multiples of

N

AB and AC only.

2.

E

OAGCFEDB is a cube.

i) Express GO in terms of OA, OB, OC

ii) Express CD in terms of OA, OB, OC

G

A

O

13

3.

M is the mid-point of AE

q

i) Express BM in terms of p, q, r, s

p

E

M

4.

A

Let OA = a , let OB = b . C,D are mid-points

of AB, OC respectively.

a

C

i) Express AB in terms of a and b

ii)

14

5.

O

R bisects PQ. PS =

1

PQ

3

Let OP = p , OQ = q

ii) Express OS in terms of p and q

6.

B

A

C

ABCD is a parallelogram

Let AD = p , DC = q

F is the mid-point of BC

Express the following in terms of p and q

A

D

7.

i) AC

ii) BD

iii) DB

vi) ED

v) FD

vi) FE

2( a + b ) = 2a + 2b

8.

True or False?

i) 2a = 2 a

ii) ! 3a = 3 a

iii) a + b " a ! b

iv) a + b = a ! b implies b is the zero vector

15

v) ma = n b implies a =

n

b (assume m 0)

m

vi) ma + n b = pc implies a +

n

p

b = c (assume m 0)

m

m

vii) a + b = a + c implies b = c

viii) r a + s a = (r + s) a for any scalars r and s

9.

1

a

a?

10.

1

a

a+

a+

1

b

1

b

b =2

b = 2

3-dimensional brick. Find the magnitude of their resultant.

11.

D,E,F are the mid-points of the sides BC, AC and AB respectively in triangle

ABC. Show that AF + BD + EA equals the zero vector, i.e. has magnitude

zero.

12.

13.

you say about the figure ABCD? What happens if s = 1?

14.

!

a

cos ! .

!

b

cos ! .

16

1.

1

1

AC ! AB

2

2

2.

! OA ! OC, OA + OB + OC

3.

i)

4.

i)

b!a

ii)

1

1

a+ b

4

4

5.

i)

1

1

p+ q

2

2

ii)

2

1

p+ q

3

3

6.

i)

p+q

ii)

p!q

iv)

1

1

p! q

2

2

v)

1

1

1

1

p+ q + r + s

2

2

2

2

ii)

1

1

1

1

p+ q + r ! s

2

2

2

2

iii)

iii)

1

p!q

2

q!p

1

vi) ! q

2

7.

!

2b

!

b

!

a

!

a

8.

i)T

ii) T

9.

i) 1

ii) 0 iii) 90

10.

15

13.

Trapezoid, parallelogram

!2 !2

a + b = a + b + 2a b cos!

14.

a !b =

iii)F

iv) F

!2 !2

a + b ! 2a b cos"

v) T

vi) T

vii)T viii)T

1

1

p! q

6

6

17

guarantees that AB is both parallel and equal to DC in length. (see P. 2)

Note that it also guarantees the coplanarity of A, B, C, D.

Example

To prove that if diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other then the quadrilateral is a

parallelogram.

Proof

A

B

E

Hence: AE = EC and EB = DE

! AE + EB = EC + DE

! AB = DE + EC = DC

! ABCD is a parallelogram.

Example

To prove that the line segment joining the mid-points of two sides of a triangle is

parallel to the third side and equal in length to one half of it.

18

A

Given !ABC with D,E mid-points of

AB and AC respectively.

E

D

DE = DA + AE

1

1

= BA + AC

2

2

1

= (BA + AC)

2

1

= BC

2

Exercise 1.4

1. ABCD is a quadrilateral in which AC = BD. M, N, O, P are mid-points of AB,

BC, CD, DA respectively. Show that MNOP is a rhombus.

2. In triangle ABC, D, E, F are mid-points of AB, BC, AC respectively. Medians

AE, BF, CD are concurrent at point O.

Prove OD + OE + OF = OA + OB + OC

3. ABCD is a parallelogram. E, F lie on diagonal BD so that BF = ED. Show, using

vectors, that AFCE is a parallelogram.

4. Let A, B, C, D be four non-coplanar points. Let M, N, O, P be mid-points of AB,

BC, CD, DA respectively. Show MNOP is a parallelogram.

5. ABCD is a quadrilateral. M, N are mid-points of diagonals BD and AC

respectively.

Show AB + AD + CB + CD = 4 NM

(Hint: - express NM in four different ways and add)

19

Example

Let P, Q, R be three collinear points and O be any point not on the line.

Let Q divide PR in the ratio ! :1- !

P

i.e.

PQ

= ! . This means that PQ = !PR

PR

Note : OQ = OP+ PQ

= OP+ !PR

= OP+ !(OR " OP)

= !OR + (1" !) OP

3

3 2

3

: then PQ = PR (i.e. ! = ) and hence

5

5 5

5

3

2

OQ = OR + OP.

5

5

3

multiplies OR (not OP as one might at first think) i.e. there

5

is a cross-over effect of the scalars. A good way to think of this is to imagine ! as being

nearly equal to 1

e.g. let ! =

7

. Q is then close to R.

8

1

Q 8 R

7

8

1

7

OQ = OP + OR

8

8

20

1

1

OP + OR

2

2

Note that the converse is also true; namely that if OQ = mOP + n OR where m + n = 1

then P, Q, R are collinear. Furthermore if m or n is negative the converse statement is still

true. For example, if OQ = 3OP ! 2OR then this can be easily rearranged to

1

2

OP = OQ + OR . It is best to do this because this rearrangement avoids all difficulties

3

3

related to external division and immediately tells you that P is the point which is between

the other two.

Exercise 1.5

1. If AC +

2

3

DA = AB find out which three points are collinear and which point is

5

5

2.

X

4

7

3

7

Z

Write OY in terms of OX and OZ

!!!"

!!!"

!!!"

3. 3OP = mOR ! 2OQ. Find m, a scalar, so that P, Q, R are collinear. Determine

which point is between the other two.

21

4.

A

F,D are mid-points of AB, CF

respectively. CE: EB =

F

1 3

: .

4 4

Let AC = a and AB = b

D

B

C

i) BD

ii) DE

1

5. OP = 2OA + OR and OA = mOQ + n OR

2

6. If OP = !5OQ + 6OR explain why P, Q, R are collinear and find the ratio into

which R divides PQ.

7. Show that if G is the centroid of triangle ABC and O is any point that

1

1

1

OG = OA + OB + OC

3

3

3

2 1

: )

3 3

8. Convince yourself that if O,P,Q, R are four points such that P, Q, R are collinear,

then mOP + n OQ + pOR = O where m + n + p = 0.

22

9.

D

C

is G. If O is any point show that

OG =

1

1

1

1

OA + OB + OC + OD

4

4

4

4

faces but it turns out to be better to use the fact that G is also the intersection of the three

line segments joining mid-points of opposite edges.

You might like to show the truth of the hint using vector methods.

10. Let ABCD be a square whose centroid is G. Let O be any external point. Show

!!!" 1 !!!" !!!" !!!" !!!"

that OG = (OA + OB + OC + OD)

4

11. i) Show that in any triangle ABC

GA + GB + GC = O where G is the centroid.

GA + GB + GC + GD = O where G is the centroid.

1

(OA 1 + OA 2 + ....OA n ) where A1, A2, A3 An is a

n

regular n-gon whose centroid is G and where O is any point. Does it make any

difference if the n-gon is not regular?

23

1. B C D

2. OY =

3

4

OX + OZ

7

7

3. m = 5. P R Q

4. i)

1

3

a! b

2

4

ii)

1

a . DE is parallel to AC.

4

1

4

5. m + n =

6. Because OR =

1

5

OP + OQ.

6

6

5 1

:

6 6

12. i) True

ii) Yes, conjecture is now false. (You might like to think about the

1.6 More Geometric Applications with Vectors

Example

In the diagram below BD and CE are drawn so that

A

CD : DA =

3

5

5

6

2

5

and

BE: EA =

D

F

1 5

:

6 6

1

6

2 3

:

5 5

24

Method

Let BF: FD = m:1 m and CF: FE = n: 1 n

Since B F D are collinear and using A as an external point

5

AF = m( b) + (1 ! m)a

6

3

AF = (1 - n)b + n ( a )

5

In equations and we equate the scalars of a and b separately then we would have a

solution for m and n. Later on we shall see that this is the only solution.

i.e.

5

m = 1 n (equating scalars of b in and )

6

and 1 m =

3

n (equating scalars of a in and )

5

i.e. F divides BD into ratio

4 1

:

5 5

1 2

:

3 3

1

4

and m = .

3

5

25

Exercise 1.6

1.

A

and AB respectively so that AD: DC =

3

5

4

7

3 2

4 3

:

and AE:EB = :

5 5

7 7

3

7

2

5

Find i) BF:FD

ii) CF: FE

2.

A

In triangle ABC, D and E are on AC

and AB respectively so that D is the

mid-point of AC and BE:EA =

E

1 2

:

3 3

D

F

C

Find

i) BF:FD

and

ii) CF:FE

Find m. Which point is between the other two and into what ratio does it divide

the line segment?

26

vectors.

5.

A

In triangle ABC, BD and CE are

medians intersecting at F.

D

F

B

i) Prove that CF: FE =

C

2 1

2 1

: and BF: FD = :

3 3

3 3

ii) Join AF and extend to point G on BC. Show that AG is a median and hence

deduce medians of a triangle are concurrent.

6. True or False? ( means implies)

i) a = b a = b

ii) a + b = b + a

iii) a = b a = b

iv) a ! b = b ! a

v) a + b = a ! b

vi) a = m b a and b are parallel

vii) ( AB = BC and AD = BC) ABCD is a rhombus

viii) m( a ! b ) = ma ! m b

ix) a ! (b ! c) = (a ! b) + c

27

xi) If a = 3 and b = 4 then a + b < 7

xii) a > 0 for all a

xiii) m b = m b for all scalars m.

xiv) AB = CD AC = BD

7.

A

B

ABCD is a square. E, F are mid-points

of AB and AD respectively.

Find DP: PE.

F

P

8. Three forces act on a body so that it is in equilibrium (i.e. resultant is zero vector).

The magnitude of the forces are 7, 3, and 8 units. Find the angle between lines of

directions of the smallest and largest force.

9.

A

In the diagram, F is the mid-point of

2

3

EC and BE: EA =

1

2

D

F

1

3

1

2

1 2

:

3 3

28

10.

A

B

ABCDEF is a regular hexagon.

CD = x and DE = y

x

E

1. i)

15 8

:

23 23

ii)

14 9

:

23 23

2. i)

1 1

:

2 2

ii)

3 1

:

4 4

3. m = 3, P R Q.

6. i)F

ii) T

iii) T iv) T

7.

2 3

:

5 5

8. 120

9.

2 1

3 1

: and :

3 3

4 4

10. 2 x ! 2 y

v) F

vi) T

1 2

:

3 3

x) T

xi) T

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