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Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, vol.

XLVII 2013
 
   
  , . XLVII , 2013
Proceedings of the 13th International Congress, Chania, Sept.
   13     ,  , . 2013
2013

ROCK MASS BLASTABILITY


DEPENDENCE ON ROCK MASS QUALITY
M. CHATZIANGELOU1 & B. CHRISTARAS2
1

Department of Civil Infrastructure Engineering, School of Technological Applications of


Thessaloniki, Greece, mcha@geo.auth.gr

Department of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, christar@geo.auth.gr,


tel./fax. +3023198506, mobile: +306944332554

Abstract
The present paper tries to investigate the influence of rock mass quality
characteristics on blasting results. In order to come to some conclusions,
blastability and quality of rock mass were put together using the already known
classification systems. Taking into account the quantity of blastability index (BI) for
every possible structural appearance of the poor rock mass, the relation of
discontinuities characteristics and blastability index are investigated. The
estimations of the above trial gave arise on a new classification system being called
Blastability Quality System (BQS), which can be an easily and wide use tool as it
is a quickly calculator for blastability index (BI) and rock mass quality.
Key words: Tunnelling, excavation, explosion, methodology.


  
           
      
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1. Introduction
Many rock mass quality classification systems RQD (Deere, 1989), Q (Barton et al, 1980), RMR
(Bieniawski, 1989), GSI - have been developed for drilling and excavation ability estimation, but
not for blasting calculations (Jimeno et al, 1995). The several rock types of rock mass, which are
affected by numerous stages of disintegration in varying stress conditions, may be explored in a
different manner under specified blast design, explosive characteristics and specified legislative
constraints depending on the site specifics.

The present paper investigates the influence of rock mass quality characteristics on blasting
results. Rock blastability (Kaushik & Phalguni, 2003, Murthy et al, 2003) is quantified using
blastability index, which is calculated by geotechnical characteristics. Rock mass quality is also
estimating using the already known classification systems. The relation between discontinuities
characteristics and blastability index for every possible structural appearance of the poor rock mass
is estimating. The above estimations gave arise on a new classification system being called
Blastability Quality System (BQS).
The rock mass in study is poor and friable, shared with lack of blockiness due to close
spacing of weak schistosity or sheer planes and disintegrated with poorly interlocked, heavily
broken rock mass with mixture of angular and rounded rock pieces (Hoek et al, 1998). Although
the quality is very poor, a light blast may be needed as the small rock pieces strengthen tight.

2. Connecting blast ability and quality ability.


The laminated and sheared rock mass, with lack of blockiness due to close spacing of week
schistosity or sheer planes and disintegrated rock mass, with poorly interlocked, heavily broken
rock with mixture of angular and rounded rock pieces, which are described by the lower part of
GSI diagram (Hoek, 1983, Hoek & Brown, 1997, Marinos and Hoek, 2000) , has been divided into
eight parts (Fig.1); A - GSI about 0-12, B GSI about 12-23, C GSI about 22-23, D GSI 717, E GSI about 18-28, F GSI about 16-36, G GSI 35-43, H - GSI 42-50.
Taking into account the parameters of
Blastability Index (Scott, 1996) (BI = 0.5 x
(RMD+JPS+JPO+SGI+H) (Lilly, 1986),
the Blastability Index (BI) was calculated
for every possible combination of the above
parameters, which refers to powdery/friable
rock mass. That means RMD (rock mass
description) was standard equal to 10
(powdery / friable rock mass). JPS (joint
plan spacing) used equal to 10 for closely
spacing, 20 for intermediate spacing and 50
for widely spacing. JPO (joint plane
orientation) used equal to 10 for horizontal
discontinuities,
20
for
declined
discontinuities where the excavation drives
against dip direction, 30 for declined
discontinuities with strike parallel to face,
40 for declined discontinuities where the
excavation drives with dip direction. SGI
(specific gravity influence) was calculated
using specific gravity of rocks (t/m3) from
1-3 (table 1). 2400 different rock mass
combinations were estimated (tables 2,3,4).
Blastability index was calculated for rock
mass with closely spacing discontinuities
on table 2. On table 3, blastability index
was calculated for rock mass with
intermediate spacing discontinuities. On
table 4, blastability index was calculated for
rock
mass
with
widely
spacing
discontinuities. The parameters of BI

Table 1 Specific gravity influence (SGI)


SGI
25*specific gravity of
rock (t/m3)-50
-22,5
-20
-17,5
-15
-12,5
-10
-7,5
-5
-2,5
0
2,5
5
7,5
10
12,5
15
17,5
20
22,5
25

specific gravity of
rock (t/m3)

1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
1,6
1,7
1,8
1,9
2
2,1
2,2
2,3
2,4
2,5
2,6
2,7
2,8
2,9
3

calculation are also presented on the above tables, numbering the rock mass types from 1 to 2400.

Figure 1 Eight part division of GSI diagram

At next stage, the above rock structures were grouped according to RMR range and GSI parts,
taking into account rock mass hardness, discontinuities spacing and orientation, also calculating
the range of BI (tables 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). GSI range was calculated for every rock mass type
with a specific RMR on tables 5,6,7,8. The different types of rock mass are also numbered from 1
to 2400 and they banded together according to RMR range. On the same tables GSI parts are
equivalent to RMR range. Actually, 90000 rock mass types were investigated. On the tables 9, 10,
11, 12 blastability index is appeared for the above grouped rock masses in addition to GSI parts.
On the same tables RMR range is equivalent to GSI parts.
Table 2 BI calculations for closely spacing discontinuities

RMD

JPS

JPO

SGI

BI

RMD

JPS

JPO

SGI

BI

001-20

10

10

10

fro m -22,5 to 25

4,25-28

401-420

10

10

30

from -22,5 to 25

14,25-38

21-40

10

10

10

fro m -22,5 to 25

4,75-28,5

421-440

10

10

30

from -22,5 to 25

14,75-38,5

41-60

10

10

10

fro m -22,5 to 25

5,25-29

441-460

10

10

30

from -22,5 to 25

15,25-39

61-80

10

10

10

fro m -22,5 to 25

5,75-29,5

461-480

10

10

30

from -22,5 to 25

15,75-39,5

81-100

10

10

10

fro m -22,5 to 25

6,25-30

481-500

10

10

30

from -22,5 to 25

16,25-40

101-120

10

10

10

fro m -22,5 to 25

6,75-30,5

501-520

10

10

30

from -22,5 to 25

16,75-40,5

121-140

10

10

10

fro m -22,5 to 25

7,25-31

521-540

10

10

30

from -22,5 to 25

17,25-41

141-160

10

10

10

fro m -22,5 to 25

7,75-31,5

541-560

10

10

30

from -22,5 to 25

17,75-41,5

161-180

10

10

10

fro m -22,5 to 25

8,25-32

561-580

10

10

30

from -22,5 to 25

18,25-42

181-200

10

10

10

fro m -22,5 to 25

10

8,75-32,5

581-600

10

10

30

from -22,5 to 25

10

18,75-42,5

201-220

10

10

20

fro m -22,5 to 25

9,25-33

601-620

10

10

40

from -22,5 to 25

19,25-43

221-240

10

10

20

fro m -22,5 to 25

9,75-33,5

621-640

10

10

40

from -22,5 to 25

19,75-43,5

241-260

10

10

20

fro m -22,5 to 25

10,25-34

641-660

10

10

40

from -22,5 to 25

20,25-44

261-280

10

10

20

fro m -22,5 to 25

10,75-34 ,5

661-680

10

10

40

from -22,5 to 25

20,75-44,5

281-300

10

10

20

fro m -22,5 to 25

11,25-35

681-700

10

10

40

from -22,5 to 25

21,25-45

301-320

10

10

20

fro m -22,5 to 25

11,75-35 ,5

701-720

10

10

40

from -22,5 to 25

21,75-45,5

321-340

10

10

20

fro m -22,5 to 25

12,25-36

721-740

10

10

40

from -22,5 to 25

22,25-46

341-360

10

10

20

fro m -22,5 to 25

12,75-36 ,5

741-760

10

10

40

from -22,5 to 25

22,75-46,5

361-380

10

10

20

fro m -22,5 to 25

13,25-37

761-780

10

10

40

from -22,5 to 25

23,25-47

381-400

10

10

20

fro m -22,5 to 25

10

13,75-37 ,5

781-800

10

10

40

from -22,5 to 25

10

23,75-47,5

Finally, three useful diagrams of composite rock mass quality and range of Blastability Index
(BI) aroused from the above estimations (Fig. 2-4). Figure 2 refers to rock mass with closing
spacing discontinuities. The above rock planes may strike parallel or perpendicular to tunnel axis.
The rock foundations, which strike parallel to tunnel axis, may be extremely soft of medium hard
or hard and very hard. The blastability index was calculated between 14 and 41 for the first case
and between 17 and 42 for the second case. Taking into account the surface conditions and the
structure of the rock mass, we can estimate GSI and RMR range. Furthermore, the rock
foundations, which strike perpendicular to tunnel axis, may consist only of gradient
discontinuities, when the tunnel drives with dip direction, or consist of gradient and perpendicular
discontinuities, when the tunnel drives against dip direction. The blastability index was calculated
between 19 and 47 for the first case and between 4 and 37 for the second case. Taking into
account the surface conditions and the structure of the rock mass, we can estimate GSI (Hoek, E.,
1994) and RMR range.
Figure 3 refers to rock mass with intermediating spacing discontinuities (Deere, D.U. and
Deere, D.W. 1988). The rock mass may consist of horizontal or gradient discontinuities. In case
there are only horizontal discontinuities, rock mass may be extremely soft to soft or medium hard
to very hard. The blastability index was calculated between 9 and 34 for the first case and between
11 and 37 for the second case. In case of gradient discontinuities, rock mass may strike
perpendicular to tunnel axis when excavation drives against dip direction, rock mass may strike
perpendicular to tunnel axis when excavation drives with dip direction, and rock mass may strike
parallel to tunnel axis. Where rock mass strikes perpendicular to tunnel axis, when excavation
drives against dip direction, rock mass may be extremely soft to medium hard or hard and very
hard. The blastability index was calculated between 14 and 46 for the first case and between 17

and 47 for the second case. Where rock mass strikes perpendicular to tunnel axis, and excavation
drives with dip direction, the blastability index was calculated between 24 and 52. Where rock
foundation strikes parallel to tunnel axis, the rock mass may be medium hard, or extremely soft to
soft. The blastability index was calculated between 14 and 46 for the first case and between 19 and
44 for the second case. Taking into account the surface conditions and the structure of the rock
mass, we can estimate GSI and RMR range.
Table 3 BI calculations for intermediating spacing discontinuities
/
801-820
821-839
841-860
861-880
881-900
901-920
921-940
941-960
961-980
981-1000
1001-1020
1021-1039
1041-1060
1061-1080
1081-1100
1101-1120
1121-1140
1141-1160
1161-1180
1181-1200

RMD
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

JPS
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20

JPO
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20

SGI
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25

H
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

BI
9,25-33
9,75-33,5
10,25-34
10,75-34,5
11,25-35
11,75-35,5
12,25-36
12,75-36,5
13,25-37
13,75-37,5
14,25-38
14,75-38,5
15,25-39
15,75-39,5
16,25-40
16,75-40,5
17,25-41
17,75-41,5
18,25-42
18,75-42,5

/
1201-1220
1221-1239
1241-1260
1261-1280
1281-1300
1301-1320
1321-1340
1341-1360
1361-1380
1381-1400
1401-1420
1421-1439
1441-1460
1461-1480
1481-1500
1501-1520
1521-1540
1541-1560
1561-1580
1581-1600

RMD
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

JPS
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20

JPO
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

SGI
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25
from -22,5 to 25

H
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

BI
19,25-43
19,75-43,5
20,25-44
20,75-44,5
21,25-45
21,75-45,5
22,25-46
22,75-46,5
23,25-47
23,75-47,5
24,25-48
24,75-48,5
25,25-49
25,75-49,5
26,25-50
26,75-50,5
27,25-51
27,75-51,5
28,25-52
28,75-52,5

Figure 4 refers to rock mass with widely spacing discontinuities. The rock mass may be
extremely soft to soft, medium hard to hard, or hard and very hard. In case the rock mass is
extremely soft to soft the discontinuities may be horizontal or gradient with strike perpendicular to
tunnel axis, when excavation drives against dip direction, gradient discontinuities with strike
perpendicular to tunnel axis, when excavation drives with dip direction, or strike parallel to tunnel
axis. The blastability index was calculated between 24 and 54 when the discontinuities are
horizontal or gradient with strike perpendicular to tunnel axis, when excavation drives against dip
direction. The blastability index was calculated between 39 and 64 when strike is perpendicular to
tunnel axis, when excavation drives with dip direction. The blastability index was calculated
between 34 and 59 when strike is parallel to tunnel axis. Concerning medium hard to hard rock
mass, the blastability index was calculated between 26 and 51 where the discontinuities are
horizontal. The blastability index was calculated between 31 and 61 where strike is perpendicular
to tunnel axis, when excavation drives against dip direction. The blastability index was calculated
between 41 and 66 where strike is perpendicular to tunnel axis, when excavation drives with dip
direction. Concerning hard and very hard rock mass, the blastability index was calculated between
27 and 52 where the discontinuities are horizontal. The blastability index was calculated between
32 and 57 where strike is perpendicular to tunnel axis, when excavation drives against dip
direction. The blastability index was calculated between 42 and 67 where strike is perpendicular to
tunnel axis, when excavation drives with dip direction. The blastability index was calculated
between 32 and 62 where strike is parallel to tunnel axis. Taking into account the surface
conditions and the structure of the rock mass, we can estimate GSI and RMR range.

Table 4 BI calculations for widely spacing discontinuities

/
1601-1620
1621-1640
1641-1660
1661-1680
1681-1700
1701-1720
1721-1740
1741-1760
1761-1780
1781-1800
1801-1820
1821-1840
1841-1860
1861-1880
1881-1900
1901-1920
1921-1940
1941-1960
1961-1980
1981-2000

RMD
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

JPS
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

JPO
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20

SGI
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO
F RO M -22,5 TO

25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25

H
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

BI
24,25-48
24,75-48,5
25,25-49
25,75-49,5
26,25-50
26,75-50,5
27,25-51
27,75-51,5
28,25-52
28,75-52,5
29,25-53
29,75-53,5
30,25-54
30,75-54,5
31,25-55
31,75-55,5
32,25-56
32,75-56,5
33,25-57
33,75-57,5

/
2001-202 0
2021-204 0
2041-206 0
2061-208 0
2081-210 0
2101-212 0
2121-214 0
2141-216 0
2161-218 0
2181-220 0
2201-222 0
2221-224 0
2241-226 0
2261-228 0
2281-230 0
2301-232 0
2321-234 0
2341-236 0
2361-238 0
2381-240 0

RMD
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

JPS
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

JPO
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M
FRO M

SGI
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25
-22,5 TO 25

H
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

BI
34,25-58
34,75-58,5
35,25-59
35,75-59,5
36,25-60
36,75-60,5
37,25-61
37,75-61,5
38,25-62
38,75-62,5
39,25-63
39,75-63,5
40,25-64
40,75-64,5
41,25-65
41,75-65,5
42,25-66
42,75-66,5
43,25-67
43,75-67,5

3. Blastability Index (BI) related to structural geology


Taking into account the calculations of BI for every possible quality of the rock mass, a diagram
which connects the structural description, the hardness of rock mass and BI (Fig.5) can be easily
resulted, where; rock mass quality 1 refers to closely spacing discontinuities (Priest &Hudson,
1976), horizontal formations, and gradient formations where the excavation drives against dip
direction. Rock mass quality 2 refers to intermediate spacing discontinuities and horizontal
formations. Rock mass quality 3 refers to closely spacing discontinuities and gradient formations,
where excavation drives with dip direction. Rock mass quality 4 refers to intermediate spacing
discontinuities and gradient formations. Rock mass quality 5 refers to widely spacing
discontinuities, horizontal formations, and soft gradient rock mass, where excavation drives
against dip direction. Rock mass quality 6 refers to widely spacing discontinuities and gradient
formations (except soft gradient rock mass where excavation drives against dip direction).
Table 5 RMR estimations for different types of rock mass with specific GSI range

A/A:
001-80
RMR
008-28
012-32
21-40
14-33
18-37
27-45
26-44
29-47

GSI (part)
0-12 (A)
012-23 (B)
22-32 ( C )
007-17 (D)
01 8-28 (E)
16-36 (F)
35-43 (G)
42-50 (H)

A/A:
81-140
RMR
009-29
13-33
22-41
15-34
19-38
28-46
27-45
30-48

A/A:
141-200
RMR
0 10-30
14 -34
23 -42
16 -35
20 -39
29 -47
28 -46
31 -39

A/A:
201-280
RMR
003-28
007-32
16-40
009-33
13-37
22-45
21-44
24-47

A/A:
281-340
RMR
004-29
008-33
17-41
010-34
14-38
23-46
22-45
25-48

A/A:
341-400
RMR
005-30
009-34
18-42
011-35
15-39
24-47
23-46
26-49

A/A:
401-480
RMR
001-28
005-32
14-40
007-33
011-37
20-45
19-44
22-47

A/A:
481-540
RMR
002-29
006-33
15-41
008-34
012-38
21-46
20-45
23-48

A/A:
541-600
RMR
003-30
007-34
16-42
009-35
13-39
22-47
21-46
24-49

A/A:
601-680
RMR
011-33
15-37
24-45
17-38
21-42
30-50
29-49
32-52

A/A:
6 81-740
RMR
0 012-34
16-38
25-46
18-39
22-43
31-51
30-50
33-53

A/A:
741-800
RMR
13-35
17-39
26-47
19-40
23-44
32-52
31-51
34-54

Table 6 RMR estimations for different types of rock mass with specific GSI range
G SI (part)
0-12 (A)
012-23 (B)
22-32 ( C )
007-17 (D)
018-28 (E)
16-36 (F)
35-43 (G)
42-50 (H)

A/A: 801880
RMR
011-36
015-39
22-47
012-41
16-44
23-52
29-56
34-58

A/A: 881940
RMR
012-38
16-41
23-48
13-42
17-45
24-53
30-57
32-59

A/A: 9411000
RMR
013-37
17-42
24-49
14-43
18-46
25-54
31-58
33-60

A/A:
1001-1080
RMR
006-36
010-40
17-4 7
007-40
011-44
18-5 2
24-5 6
26-5 8

A/A:
10 81-1140
RMR
00 7-38
01 1-40
18-48
00 8-41
01 2-45
01 9-53
25-57
26-59

A/A: 11411200
RMR
008-39
012-41
019-49
009-43
13-46
20-54
26-58
28-60

A/A:
1201-1280
RMR
004-36
008-39
015-60
006-36
010-40
16-48
22-52
24-54

A/A:
1281-1340
RMR
005-38
009-40
16-48
006-41
010-45
017-53
23-57
24-59

A/A:
1341-1400
RMR
006-39
010-41
17-49
007-42
011-46
018-54
24-58
25-60

A/A:
1401-1480
RMR
14-41
18-44
25-52
15-45
19-49
26-57
32-61
34-63

Table 7 RMR estimations for different types of rock mass with specific GSI range

GSI (part)
0-12 (A)
012-23 (B)

A/A:
1481-1540
RMR
15-42
17-45

A/A:
1541-1600
RMR
16-43
20-46

26-53
16-46
20-50

27-54
18-47
21-51

A/A:
1601-1680
RMR
13-43
15-45
29-30,
33-42,
44-45,49-50
13-45
16-60

27-58
33-62

28-59
34-63

29-57,
59-62,64-65
33-71

35-64

36-65

37-65,
67-70,72-73

22-32 ( C )
007-17 (D)
018-28 (E)
16-36 (F)
35-43 (G)
42-50 (H)

A/A:
1681-1740
RMR
20-58
22-60
36-37,
40-57,
59-6 2,6 4-65
20-58
23-60
36-37,
40-57,
59-6 2,6 4-65
40-71
44-45,
48-65,
67-7 0,7 2-73

A/A:
1741-1800
RMR
28-58
30-60
42-43,
46-55,
57-58,62-63
28-58
31-60
44-45,
48-57,
59-60,64-65
48-66,68-71
52-53,
56-65,
67-68,72-73

A/A:
1801-1880
RMR
008-43
011-45
24-25,
28-42,44-45
008-45
011-60
30-69,
65-68,70-71
28-71
32-45,
67-70,72-73

A/A:
1881-1940
RMR
15-58
17-60
31-32,
35-57,
59-62,64-65
15-58
18-60
31-32,
35-57,
59-62,64-65
35-57
39-40,
43-65,
67-70,72-73

A/A:
1941-2000
RMR
23-5 8
25-6 0
39-40 ,
43-57 ,
59-60,64-65
23-5 8
26-6 0
34-40 ,
43-57 ,
59-60,64-65
43-66,68-71
47-48 ,
51-65 ,
67-68,72-73

A/A:
2001-2080
RMR
006-43
008-45
22-23,
26-45,49-50
006-45
009-60

22-62,64-65
26-71

30-70,72-73

Table 8 RMR estimations for different types of rock mass with specific GSI range

GSI (part)
0-12 (A)
012-23 (B)
22-32 ( C )
007-17 (D)
018-28 (E)
16-36 (F)
35-43 (G)
42-50 (H)

A/A: 2081-2140
RMR
13-58
15-60
29-30,33-62,64-65
13-58
16-60
29-33,34-62,64-65
33-71
37-38,41-70,72-73

A/A: 2141-2200
RMR
45-46,49-68,72-73
23-60
37-38,41-60,64-65
21-58
24-60
37-38,41-60,64-65
41-66,68-71
42-46,49-68,72-73

A/A: 2201-2280
RMR
16-33
20-50
32-50,52-55
16-50
19-65
32-70
36-76
40-78

A/A: 2281-2340
RMR
23-61
25-65
39-70
23-63
26-65
39-70
43-76
47-78

A/A: 2341-2400
RMR
31-63
33-65
47-65,67-70
31-63
34-65
47-65,67-70
51-76
55,-73,75-78

Looking at the above diagram, we can easily conclude that


x The wider the space of discontinuities is, the bigger the BI is.
x The BI is lower to horizontal formations than to gradient formations.
x The BI is higher where the excavation drives with dip direction than where it drives
against dip direction.

Table 9 GSI estimations for different types of rock mass with specific RMR range

RMR

0-20
21-40
41-60
61-80
81-100

A/A:
001-80

A/A:
81-140

A/A:
141-200

A/ A:
201-280

GSI
(part)

A/A:
281 -340
BI:
11 -36
GSI
(part)

A/A:
341-400
BI:
12-37
GSI
(part)

BI: 4 -29

BI: 6-31

BI: 7-32

BI : 9-34

GSI
(part)

G SI
(part)

G SI
(part)

ABDE

ABDE

ABDE

ABCDE

ABCDE

ABCDE

ABCDEF
GH
FGH

ABCDEF
GH
CFGH

ABCDEF
GH
CFGH

ABCDEF
GH
FGH

ABCDE
FGH
FGH

ABCDE
FGH
CFGH

A/A:
401-480
BI:
14-39
GSI
(part)
ABCDE
FG
ABCDE
FGH
FGH

A/A:
481-540
BI:
16-4 1
G SI
(part)
ABCDE
FG
ABCDE
FGH
FGH

A/A:
541-600
BI :
17-42
GSI
(part)

A/A:
601-680
BI:
19-44
GSI
(part)

A/ A:
681-740
BI:
2 1-46
GSI
(part)

A/A:
741-800
BI :
22-47
GSI
(part)

ABCDE

ABD

ABD

ABD

ABCDE
FGH
CFGH

ABCDE
FGH
CEFGH

ABCDE
FGH
CEFGH

ABCDE
FGH
CEFGH

Table 10 GSI estimations for different types of rock mass with specific RMR range
RMR
0-20
21-40
41-60
61-80
81-100

A/A: 801-880
BI:9-34
GSI (part)
ABCDE
ABCDEFGH
C(D)EFGH

A/A: 881-940
BI:11-36
GSI (part)
ABDE
ABCDEFGH
(B)CDEFGH

A/A:
941 -1000
BI:12-37
GSI (part)
ABDE
ABCDEFGH
BCDEFGH

A/ A:
10 01 -1080
BI:14-39
GSI (part)
ABCDEF
ABCDEFGH
CEFGH

A/A:
1081-1140
BI :16-41
GSI (part)
ABCDEF
ABCDEFGH
C(D)EFGH

A/A:
1141-12 00
BI:17-42
GSI (part)
ABCDE(F)
ABCDEFGH
(B)CDEFGH

A/A:
1201-128 0
BI:19-44
GSI (part)
ABCDEF
ABCDEFGH
CGH

A/A:
1281-1340
BI:21-46
G SI (part)
ABCDEF
ABCDEFGH
C(D)EFGH

Figure 2 BQS for closing spacing discontinuities

Figure 3 BQS for intermediate spacing discontinuities

Figure 4 BQS for widely spacing discontinuities

Table 11 GSI estimations for different types of rock mass with specific RMR range


RMR
0-20
21-40
41-60
61-80
81-100

A/A:
1341-1400
BI:22-47
GSI (part)
ABCDEF
ABCDEFGH
CDEFGH

A/A:
1401 -1480
BI:24-49
GSI (part)
ABDE
ABCDEFGH
(A)BCDEFGH
(G)H

A/A:
1 481 -1540
BI:26-51
GSI (part)
ABD(E)
ABCDEFGH
ABCDEFGH
GH

A/ A:
15 41 -1600
BI:27-52
GSI (part)
A(B)D
ABCDEFGH
ABCDEFGH
GH

A/A:
1601-1680
BI :24-49
GSI (part)
ABDE
ABCDEFGH
BCDEFGH
FGH

A/A:
1681-17 40
BI:26-51
GSI (part)

A/A:
1741-1800
BI:27-52
GSI (part)

ABCDEF
ABCDEFGH
CFGH

ABDE
ABCDEFGH
CFGH

A/A:
1801-1880
BI:29-54
G SI (part)
ABDE
ABCDEFGH
ABCDEFGH
FGH

Table 12 GSI estimations for different types of rock mass with specific RMR range


RMR
0-20
21-40
41-60
61-80
81-100

A/A:
1881-1940
BI:31-56
GSI (part)
ABDE
ABCDEFGH
ABCDEFGH
CFGH

A/ A:
1941 -2000
BI:32-57
GSI (part)
AB(C)DEF
ABCDEFG
(CF)GH

A/ A:
2001 -2080
BI:34-59
GSI (part)
ABDE
ABCDEFG
ABCDEFGH
FGH

A/A:
20 81 -2140
BI:36-61
GSI (part)
ABDE
ABCDEFGH
ABCDEFGH
CFGH

A/A:
2141-2200
BI :37-62
GSI (part)
BCDEF
ABCDEFGH
ACFGH

A/A:
2201-2280
BI:39-64
GSI (part)
A(B)DE
ABCDEFG
BCDEFGH
EFGH

A/A:
2281-234 0
BI:41-66
GSI (part)

A/A:
2341-2400
BI:42-67
G SI (part)

ABCDEF
ABCDEFGH
BCDEFGH

ABD
ABCDEFGH
ABCDEFGH

4. Blastability Quality System (BQS)


Blastability Quality System (BQS) is a very useful approach as it includes the most useful
characteristics of rock mass, which are easily estimated and used in situ. In addition to its easily
and wide use, it is a quickly calculator for BI and rock mass quality, which make our choice of
excavation, blast (Hino, 1959) and support measures quicker.
The BQ system (Fig. 2-4) connects rock mass classification systems RMR and GSI,
structural data, hardness of rock mass, and BI.
At the first stage, the discontinuities spacing is distinguished. At second stage, the
orientation of discontinuities in addition to hardness of rock mass is described. Having completed
the above classification, the BI range can easily be determined. Looking a rock mass picture, we
can easily distinguish discontinuities spacing and orientation. Also, we can estimate rock mass
hardness using a Schmidt Hammer.
At the final stage we can combine structure and surface conditions in order to estimate
Geological Strength Index (GSI) (Hoek & Brown, 1980) and Rock Mass Rating (RMR).

Figure 5 Rock mass quality versus to BI

5. Conclusions
Taking into account the calculations of BI for every possible poor rock mass quality, the wider the
space of discontinuities is, the bigger the BI is. Also, the BI is lower to horizontal formations than
to gradient formations. Finally, the BI is higher where the excavation drives with dip direction than
where it drives against it.
Taking into account rock mass quality estimating by RMR and GSI classification systems and the
calculated blastability index, a useful system has been created called Blastability Quality System
(BQS). This can be a useful tool for in situ estimations, which (at the present) can be used for poor
and friable rock mass, shared with lack of blockiness due to close spacing of weak schistosity or
sheer planes and disintegrated with poorly interlocked, heavily broken with mixture of angular and
rounded rock pieces. It connects rock mass quality, discontinuities orientation, rock mass hardness
and BI. It can be easily applied during the excavations, in order to estimate rock mass quality and
the range of BI very quickly. This is a good help for quantity of explosions and support measures
to be decided using the already known methodology.

6. References
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