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B GIO DC V O TO

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TRNG I HC VINH

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DNG L HNG

NGHIN CU PHNG PHP DY HC HA HC

BNG TING ANH TRNG TRUNG HC PH THNG

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(p dng chng trnh ha hc 10)

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LUN VN THC S KHOA HC GIO DC

VINH - 2014

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B GIO DC V O TO

TRNG I HC VINH

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DNG L HNG

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NGHIN CU PHNG PHP DY HC HA HC

BNG TING ANH TRNG TRUNG HC PH THNG

(p dng chng trnh ha hc 10)

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Chuyn ngnh: L lun v Phng php dy hc b mn ha hc

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Ngi hng dn khoa hc:


PGS.TS. CAO C GIC

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LUN VN THC S KHOA HC GIO DC

VINH - 2014

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LI CM N

hon thnh lun vn ny, ti xin by t lng bit n su sc n:

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- Thy gio PGS.TS Cao C Gic Trng B mn L lun v phng php


dy hc ho hc, khoa Ha trng i hc Vinh, giao ti, tn tnh hng dn v
to mi iu kin thun li nht cho ti nghin cu v hon thnh lun vn ny.

- Thy gio PGS.TS Nguyn Hoa Du v TS Nguyn Xun Dng dnh


nhiu thi gian c v vit nhn xt cho lun vn.

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- Phng o to Sau i hc, Ban ch nhim khoa Ho hc cng cc thy gio,


c gio thuc B mn L lun v phng php dy hc ho hc khoa Ho hc trng
H Vinh gip , to mi iu kin thun li nht cho ti hon thnh lun vn ny.

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Ti cng xin cm n tt c nhng ngi thn trong gia nh, Ban gim hiu
Trng THPT V Nguyn Gip, bn b, ng nghip ng vin, gip ti trong
sut qu trnh hc tp v thc hin lun vn ny.

Tp Vinh, thng 10 nm 2014

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MC LC

LI CM N .......................................................................................................................................................... 1

DANH MC CC CH VIT TT....................................................................................................................... 8

MC LC................................................................................................................................................................ 4

M U.................................................................................................................................................................. 9

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1. L do chn ti.............................................................................................................................................. 9

2. Mc ch nghin cu....................................................................................................................................... 9

3. Khch th v i tng nghin cu................................................................................................................. 9

5. Nhim v nghin cu .................................................................................................................................... 10

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6. Phng php nghin cu............................................................................................................................... 10

7. im mi ca ti ...................................................................................................................................... 10

Chng I: C S L LUN V THC TIN ..................................................................................................... 12

1.1. Mc ch v ngha dy hc ha hc ph thng bng ting Anh.............................................................. 12


Rn luyn cc k nng s dng ngn ng ting Anh trong hc tp .............................................. 12

1.1.1

K nng nghe........................................................................................................................... 13

1.1.1.1

Mc ch v ngha ................................................................................................................ 13

b)

Nguyn tc chung cho mt tit dy nghe................................................................................. 13

c)

Rn luyn k nng nghe trong dy hc ha hc....................................................................... 13

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a)

K nng ni ............................................................................................................................. 14

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1.1.1.2

Mc ch v ngha ................................................................................................................ 14

b)

Nguyn tc chung cho mt tit dy ni ................................................................................... 14

c)

Rn luyn k nng ni trong dy hc ha hc.......................................................................... 14


K nng c............................................................................................................................. 15

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a)

Mc ch v ngha ................................................................................................................ 15

b)

Nguyn tc chung cho mt tit dy c................................................................................... 15

1.1.1.4

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1.1.1.3

a)

1.1.2

K nng vit ............................................................................................................................ 16

a)

Mc ch v ngha ................................................................................................................ 16

b)

Nguyn tc chung cho mt tit dy c................................................................................... 17


To s t tin trong giao tip hc thut bng ting Anh ................................................................ 17

1.1.2.1

ngha ca t tin .................................................................................................................... 17

1.1.2.2

T tin trong dy hc ha hc................................................................................................... 18

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Thun li v kh khn khi hi nhp ........................................................................................ 20

1.1.3.3

Hin trng hi nhp quc t v gio dc Vit Nam.............................................................. 21

1.1.3.4

Chin lc hi nhp quc t v gio dc................................................................................. 22

1.1.3.2

t vn ................................................................................................................................ 19

1.1.3.1

Thc trng trin khai n dy hc cc mn khoa hc t nhin bng ting Anh trng ph thng... 23
1.2.1

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1.2

Hi nhp vi gio dc th gii ..................................................................................................... 19

1.1.3

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Gii thiu n Pht trin h thng trng trung hc ph thng chuyn giai on 2010 2020

(S 959/Q-TTg ngy 24/6/2010)............................................................................................................... 23


Mc tiu................................................................................................................................... 23

1.2.1.2

Nhim v v gii php............................................................................................................. 24

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1.2.1.1

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1.2.2
nh gi thc trng trin khai n ca B GD & T v dy hc cc mn khoa hc t nhin
bng ting Anh cc trng THPT ............................................................................................................. 32
Hin trng ting Anh v vic dy hc mn Ha bng ting anh ca hc sinh THPT.............. 32

1.2.2.2

K hoch trin khai dy mn Ha bng ting Anh trong trng THPT.................................. 33

1.2.2.1

1.2.3
Phn tch nhng thun li v kh khn trong vic trin khai dy hc cc mn khoa hc t nhin
bng ting Anh cc trng THPT ............................................................................................................. 36
Nhng thun li trong vic trin khai dy hc cc mn khoa hc t nhin bng ting Anh

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cc trng THPT .................................................................................................................................... 36


Nhng kh khn trong vic trin khai dy hc cc mn khoa hc t nhin bng ting Anh

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cc trng THPT .................................................................................................................................... 36


TIU KT CHNG 1 ......................................................................................................................................... 38

Chng II: NGHIN CU PHNG PHP DY HC HA HC BNG TING ANH TRNG


TRUNG HC PH THNG................................................................................................................................. 40
Phng php dy hc ha hc bng ting Anh.................................................................................. 40

Xy dng h thng t vng, thut ng ha hc bng ting Anh .................................................. 40

2.1.2.

Xy dng h thng mu cu ting Anh s dng trong dy hc ha hc....................................... 42

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2.1.1.

2.1.

Thit k gio n dy hc ha hc bng ting Anh ........................................................................ 48

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2.1.3.

2.1.3.1.

Dy hc l thuyt ................................................................................................................ 49

2.1.3.2.

Dy hc bi tp................................................................................................................... 54

2.1.3.3.

Dy hc thc hnh.............................................................................................................. 58

2.2.

p dng dy hc chng trnh ha hc lp 10.................................................................................. 64

2.2.1.

Atomic structure ........................................................................................................................... 64

A. VOCABULARY................................................................................................................................ 64

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B. SENTENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 64

C. SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 66

2.1.2. The periodic table and the periodic law ............................................................................................. 78

D. EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................................... 75

A. VOCABULARY................................................................................................................................ 78

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B. SENTENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 79

C. SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 80

Chemical Bonding ........................................................................................................................ 88

2.1.3.

D. EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................................... 85

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A. VOCABULARY................................................................................................................................ 88

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B. SENTENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 89

C. SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 90

D. EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................................... 95

2.1.4. Oxidation Reduction Reactions - Redox Reactions ........................................................................... 98

A. VOCABULARY................................................................................................................................ 98

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B. SENTENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 99

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C. SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................................... 100

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D. EXERCISES .................................................................................................................................... 103

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2.2.5. Halogens- The elements in group VIIA ........................................................................................... 106

A. VOCABULARY.............................................................................................................................. 106

B. SENTENCES ................................................................................................................................... 107

C. SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................................... 107

D. EXERCISES .................................................................................................................................... 117

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2.2.6. Oxygen and Sulfur ........................................................................................................................... 118

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A. VOCABULARY.............................................................................................................................. 118
B. SENTENCES ................................................................................................................................... 119
C. SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................................... 120
D. EXERCISES .................................................................................................................................... 124

2.2.7. Rates of reaction and chemical equilibrium ..................................................................................... 126


A. VOCABULARY.............................................................................................................................. 126
B. SENTENCES ................................................................................................................................... 127

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C. SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................................... 127

Mc ch kim tra, nh gi ....................................................................................................... 139

2.3.2.

Ni dung kim tra ....................................................................................................................... 140

2.3.3.

nh gi kt qu ......................................................................................................................... 140

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2.3.1.

Kim tra nh gi kt qu hc tp ha hc bng ting Anh............................................................. 139

2.3.

D. EXERCISES .................................................................................................................................... 134

TIU KT CHNG 2 ....................................................................................................................................... 140

Chng 3: THC NGHIM S PHM ............................................................................................................. 141

3.1 Mc ch ca thc nghim s phm.......................................................................................................... 141

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3.2 Nhim v ca thc nghim s phm ......................................................................................................... 141

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3.3 i tng thc nghip s phm ................................................................................................................ 141

3.4 Ni dung v tin trnh thc nghim s phm ............................................................................................ 141

3.4.1 Ni dung thc nghim s phm ........................................................................................................ 141

3.4.2 Tin trnh thc nghim s phm ....................................................................................................... 142

3.5 Kt qu thc nghim s phm................................................................................................................... 143

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3.6 X l kt qu thc nghim s phm.......................................................................................................... 143

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3.7 Phn tch kt qu thc nghim s phm.................................................................................................... 146

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TIU KT CHNG 3 ....................................................................................................................................... 147

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TI LIU THAM KHO .................................................................................................................................... 150

A. TING VIT ................................................................................................................................................... 150

PH LC 1: MT TIT DY BI CN BNG HA HC ........................................................................... 151

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PH LC 2: BI KIM TRA ............................................................................................................................. 157

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DANH MC CC CH VIT TT
y ban nhn dn

i chng

GD-T

Gio dc o to

TN

Thc nghim

THCS

Trung hc c s

TNSP

Thc nghim s phm

THPT

Trung hc ph thng

GD

Gio dc

i hc

HK

Hc k

GV

Gio vin

SGK

Sch gio khoa

HS

Hc sinh

TNTL

Trc nghim t lun

Pt

Phng trnh

TNKQ

Trc nghim khch quan

PTP

Phng trnh phn ng

i chng

TSH-C

Tuyn sinh i hc cao ng

TN

Thc nghim

Xt

Xc tc

Dd

ktc

iu kin tiu chun

hh

KK

Khng kh

PTN

TP

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T
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UBND

Hn hp
Phng th nghim

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M U

ni chung v ting Anh ni ring l cp thit v n l mt trong nhng cha kha hi


nhp quc t v tip cn vi cc nc pht trin. Trong gio dc v o to, cc hc

1. L do chn ti
Trong xu hng ton cu ha hin nay, vic s dng thnh tho c ngoi ng

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sinh trng THPT thng c c hi rt ln nhn hc bng du hc nc ngoi, hoc


theo hc cc chng trnh o to tin tin, quc t ti cc trng i hc trong nc
(m ting Anh l ngn ng ging dy chnh trong cc chng trnh ny)
V vy, vic nng cao vn ting Anh, c bit ting Anh trong chuyn mn khoa

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hc cho hc sinh ph thng, s gip hc sinh c th nng cao kin thc, tm ti nghin
cu, tn dng tt c hi v c kh nng t duy khoa hc bng ting Anh. Vic lm ny

TP

cn c ngha gip hc sinh c th hc tt trong mi trng hc tp tin tin ng thi


cng l mt yu cu cp thit ca gio dc nc ta hin nay.

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Mt khc, thng qua hot ng ging dy chuyn mn bng ting Anh, kin thc
v nng lc ging dy ca gio vin THPT cng ngy cng c nng cao, tip cn
c vi nhng chun kin thc m cc nc tin tin ang ging dy. Vic cho hc
sinh hc cc mn khoa hc bng ting Anh cng l mt trong nhng vic cn thc hin
ca n pht trin h thng trng THPT chuyn giai on 2010-2020.
Tuy nhin, gio vin dy hc cc mn khoa hc bng ting Anh ni chung v
mn Ha hc ni ring cn gp nhiu kh khn: nh cc vn v nh hng chng
trnh, ti liu dy hc, phng php v hnh thc t chc dy hc... Vi mong mun
gip gio vin c ci nhn tng qut v vic tm kim ti liu, son bi, t chc dy v
hng dn cho hc sinh t nghin cu, nhm a vic ging dy mn Ha trong
chng trnh THPT bng ting Anh mt cch hiu qu ti la chn ti: Nghin

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cu phng php dy hc Ha hc bng ting Anh trng trung hc ph thngp dng chng trnh ha hc 10
2. Mc ch nghin cu
Vic thc hin ti nhm nghin cu phng php tip cn vic dy hc Ha
hc bng ting Anh p dng cho chng trnh ha hc lp 10.
3. Khch th v i tng nghin cu
Khch th nghin cu: Phng php dy hc Ha hc bng ting Anh trng
trung hc ph thng.
i tng nghin cu: Phng php dy hc Ha hc bng ting Anh p dng

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cho chng trnh Ha hc lp 10.

khng ph thuc vo cc yu t sau:


C ngi dy ln ngi hc u thy c vic dy hc bng ting Anh tht s
cn thit, v phi c vn ting Anh nht nh, c bit l ting Anh chuyn ngnh Ha

4. Gi thuyt khoa hc
Vic dy hc Ha hc bng ting Anh c th thc hin v c tnh kh thi hay

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hc.

Gio vin phi c cch thc t chc dy hc ph hp, c bi ging hp l kch

thch tnh sng to, kh nng tm ti ca hc sinh.

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5. Nhim v nghin cu
Nghin cu ni dung chng trnh sch gio khoa ha hc lp 10 THPT v ni
dung yu cu phi t ca cc k thi quc t nh A- Level u vo ca cc trng i
hc Cambridge, Singapor, thi SAT (School Attitude Test- nh gi u vo cc trng
i hc ca M).
Xy dng h thng t vng, cc mu cu theo tng chng theo chng trnh
sgk.
Xy dng mt s bi ging theo tng chng vi cc cp khc nhau:
Loi 1: Dy kin thc bng ting Anh m phn ting Vit hc sinh c hc k
theo hnh thc n tp, tng kt, khi qut ha nhng vn chnh.
Loi 2: Dy cc vn mi hon ton bng ting Anh.
Thc nghim s phm i vi vic dy hc Ha hc bng ting Anh trng
THPT.

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6. Phng php nghin cu


+) Nghin cu l lun:
Nu mc ch, ngha, thc trng vic thc hin ging dy Ha hc bng ting
Anh trng THPT.
Tm hiu, so snh chng trnh sch gio khoa Ha hc ca Vit Nam vi
chng trnh Ha hc ca mt s nc trn th gii, thi Olimpic quc t.
+) c rt mt s kinh nghim ca bn thn trong qu trnh ging dy.
+) Trao i kinh nghim vi gio vin Ha hc cc tnh bn.
+) Xy dng h thng t vng, mu cu, mt s gio n Ha hc bng ting Anh.
+) Thc nghim s phm v x l kt qu.

7. im mi ca ti

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Xy dng c h thng t vng, mu cu theo tng chng ca chng trnh


ha hc lp 10 t gio vin c th d dng hn trong vic tm ti liu v son bi

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Xy dng mt s gio n theo cc loi, ty theo trnh ting Anh ca gio vin
v hc sinh m c cch dy hc hp l.

ging.

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1.1. Mc ch v ngha dy hc ha hc ph thng bng ting Anh


1.1.1 Rn luyn cc k nng s dng ngn ng ting Anh trong hc tp
Vit Nam l mt t nc ang pht trin, hi nhp quc t gip chng ta nng
cao hiu qu gio dc v o to, trao i v p dng c cc cng ngh tin tin th

Chng I: C S L LUN V THC TIN

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gii. p ng c cc nhu cu chng ta cn c nhiu cc nh khoa hc, cc


chuyn gia cng nh hc sinh, sinh vin nhng th h tng lai ca t nc c mt
vn ting Anh phc v cho cng cuc xy dng t nc v bo v t quc. Ting
Anh l mt ngn ng quc t c s dng rng ri, l mt cng c cho chng ta tip

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cn vi cc nn gio dc tin tin v khoa hc cng ngh hin i.


Vic dy hc cho hc sinh THPT mn Ha v cc mn khoa hc bng ting Anh

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l mt hng i ng c tnh chin lc, gip gii quyt nhu cu nhn lc cht lng
cao cho t nc trong nhng nm sp ti. vic thc hin vic dy Ha bng ting

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Anh trong nhng nm sp ti c hiu qu, chng ti xin a ra mt s kinh nghim


sau.
 Bit s dng v khai thc cc ngun ti liu tham kho
Vic dy mn Ha hc bng ting Anh cng nh ting Vit rt cn cc ngun ti
liu khc nhau. Vic s dng cc ngun ti liu gip gio vin hc tp c vn phong
ting Anh s dng trong lnh vc ha hc cng nh cc thut ng chuyn ngnh s
dng trong ha hc.
 Bit mt s qui tc c bn pht m ng cc t vng ting Anh v bit s dng
cc phng tin k thut h tr ging dy
Pht m ting Anh ni chung v cc thut ng ha hc ni ring l rt cn thit.
Vic pht m ng gip ngay chnh chng ta v hc sinh c kh nng nghe tt v hiu
khi nghe cc bi ging m do ngi nc ngoi thc hin.
Trong qu trnh ging dy, khi vn t vng ca gio vin v hc sinh cn hn ch
th vic s dng cc phng tin k thut cng nh mt s dng dy hc l mt cch
hiu qu nng cao cht lng ca bi ging.
 nh gi ng kh nng ting Anh ca hc sinh
Vic nm vng trnh ting Anh ca hc sinh l rt quan trng, gio vin s
chun b ni dung, ch ca bi ging ph hp vi kh nng hc sinh. Hn na vic
nm vng trnh ting Anh ca hc sinh gip ngi gio vin chun b lng thi
gian ph hp cho vic chun b bi ging.

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 Hiu r kh nng ting Anh ca bn thn


Gio vin hiu r nng lc ting Anh ca bn thn, h s lm ch c bi ging

chiu hoc vit ln bng hay ln giy a cho hc sinh...) chun b cu hi v cc cu


tr li cho mnh gip cho vic nh gi phn cu tr li ca hc sinh c tt hn.
1.1.1.1 K nng nghe

ca mnh, bit r cch trnh by tng phn ca bi ging (trnh by bng li, hay trnh

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a) Mc ch v ngha
Mc ch ca vic dy k nng nghe l gip HS hiu c ngi khc ni g v

c th giao tip.

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b) Nguyn tc chung cho mt tit dy nghe


i vi mt tit dy ng php hay t vng, thng thng trong tin trnh ca tit
dy c 3 giai on l: Presentation - Practie - Production. Tin trnh ca mt tit dy
nghe cng phi tri qua 3 giai on: Pre - Listening, While - Listening, v Post Listening. Tin trnh dy hc ny khng nhng gip hc sinh nm hiu bi m cn gip
cc em s dng k nng nghe trong giao tip thc t.
c) Rn luyn k nng nghe trong dy hc ha hc
Nhng nguyn tc, k thut rn luyn k nng nghe trong dy hc ha hc mt
cch hiu qu
 Pre - Listening
Gio vin c th yu cu hc sinh lm vic theo nhm on s b v ni dung sp
nghe thng qua tranh hay tnh hung bi nghe.
Gio vin gip cc em lng trc nhng kh khn c th gp phi v pht m
hay cu trc mi, cc kin thc nn.
Cui cng gio vin ni r cho hc sinh bit cc em s c nghe bao nhiu ln
v hng dn yu cu nhim v khi nghe (chn ng, sai, tr li cu hi,)
 While Listening
y l giai on m hc sinh c c hi luyn tp. giai oan ny gio vin
a ra cc dng bi tp, yu cu hc sinh thc hin.
Gio vin bt bng hay c bi nghe 2 n 3 ln. Ln u gp hc sinh lm quen
vi bi nghe hiu bao qut ni dung bi nghe (pendown). Ln th hai nghe thng tin
chnh xc hon thnh bi tp. Ln th ba nghe v kim tra li bi tp lm. Gio
vin cho hc sinh nghe c bi cc em nm c chung cng nh b cc c bi v
lm bi tp, sau c th cho nghe li tng on nm kt qu hoc nghe li nhng

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ch kh khng nh p n.
 Post - Listening

s bi tp nh: Bo co trc lp hay trong nhm v kt qu bi tp, cc hc sinh khc


nghe cho kin nhn xt hoc cha bi cho bn. Gio vin cn phi kt hp cc k
nng khc pht trin m rng thm bi nghe nh recall, write-it-up, discussion,...

y l giai on luyn tp sau khi nghe. Sau khi nghe hc sinh cn thc hin mt

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1.1.1.2 K nng ni
a) Mc ch v ngha

K nng ni l k nng kh i vi hc sinh v y l k nng giao tip quan

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trng chng ta c th nghe vit ra c nhng khng din t thnh li mt cch tri
chy c.
b) Nguyn tc chung cho mt tit dy ni
Tin trnh ca mt tit dy ni cng phi tri qua 3 giai on: Pre - Speaking,
While - Speaking, v Post - Speaking. Tin trnh dy hc ny khng nhng gip hc
sinh nm hiu bi m cn gip cc em s dng k nng ni trong giao tip thc t.
c) Rn luyn k nng ni trong dy hc ha hc
Nhng nguyn tc, k thut rn luyn k nng ni trong dy hc ha hc mt
cch hiu qu
 Pre Speaking
GV hng dn cc em khai thc bi ni mu Bi ni mu c th l nhng pht
ngn ring l, mt on hi thoi hay mt on li ni ngn.
gii thiu mu cu, cch s dng t trong bi ni GV nn t ra mt s cu
hi gi m cho hc sinh tr li v t cc em t rt ra cch s dng t v cu trc
cu.
Sau khi c bi mu cho hc sinh, yu cu hc sinh c li theo mnh, c to v
c ng thanh, khi cc em c GV sa li pht m v hng dn cc em pht m cho
ng, bn cnh ging, gii thch, t mi c trong bi cho cc em.
 While - Speaking
Trong giai on ny sau khi c hng dn, hc sinh s da vo tnh hung gi
nh tranh v, t ng, cu trc cu cho sn hoc bi hi thoi mu luyn ni theo
yu cu.
Giai on ny GV hng dn hc sinh luyn tp ni theo c nhn, theo cp hoc
nhm tit kim thi gian.

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Sau khi cc em luyn tp theo nhm, cp vi nhau ta cho vi em tiu biu ln


bng trnh by bi ni ca mnh, gio vin nhn xt, sa li.

tng hc sinh v c th a thm yu cu cao hn cho hc sinh kh khi cc em


hon thnh bi ni xong trc cc bn khc. Cc yu cu thm c th l ni xong
vit li tm tt, tm nguyn nhn v thng k s lng, so snh i chiu,

Trong qu trnh luyn ni gio vin cn ch n kh nng ni ca mi i

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 Post - Speaking
Sau khi HS luyn ni di s kim sot ca chng ta, chng ta hng dn cc em

vo phn luyn ni t do, y l giai on cho cc em t do ni sau khi chun b.

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Lc ny chng ta lu ch nn a ra yu cu chung ng hn ch cc em v
tng cng nh ngn ng cc em t do ni, nhm pht huy kh nng sng to ca
cc em v yu cu cc em ni lu lot.
Trong qu trnh cc em luyn tp ni chng ta nn cho im nhm khuyn khch
cc em xung phong ni to cho cc em tm trng thch ni, ch khng phi ang b g
b, p buc.
1.1.1.3 K nng c
a) Mc ch v ngha
Gip HS pht trin k nng c hiu, c kh nng c hiu sch, bo, ti liu bng
ting Anh vi nhng ni dung ph hp vi trnh v la tui ca HS, gip HS c
iu kin thu nhn thng tin, nng cao trnh ting Anh v c hiu bit thm v x
hi.
b) Nguyn tc chung cho mt tit dy c
Tin trnh ca mt tit dy c cng phi tri qua 3 giai on: Pre - Reading,
While - Reading, v Post - Reading.
 Pre Reading
Hot ng c thc hin u tin l gii thiu ch ca bi c.
Sau khi gii thiu ch bi hc, GV hng t ra mt s cu hi gi , dn
nhp vo bi kha hc sinh tho lun theo cp, hoc nhm on cu tr li.
Tip sau l gii thiu t vng, v ng php mi (nu c). GV ch gii thiu cho
hc sinh nhng t mi c bn, cn mt s t khc hc sinh c th on ngha ca t
da vo ng cnh.
 While - Reading
c hiu bi c tr li cc cu hi dn nhp hay kim tra cc phn on

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phn Pre-Reading l rt cn thit bi n gp phn khc su hn nhng g cc em


lm c, ng thi gip cc em nhn bit nhng iu cha hon thnh. Gio vin nn

Hot ng tip theo l yu cu HS c li bi c hiu ni dung k hn, v tr


li cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa.
kim tra mc c hiu c k hn, ngoi nhng bi tp trong sch gio

n nh r thi gian c th cho mi hot ng.

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khoa chng ti chun b sn nh mt s bi tp hc sinh thc hnh thm (ty theo


tng bi c hiu) nh:

- Complete the sentences

TP

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- True / False statement


- Check / Tick the correct answers
- Fill in the chart
- Matching
- Answer the questions on the text
Hc sinh lm vic theo cp, gio vin kim tra kt qu v sau a ra p n
ng.

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 Post - Reading
Cc hot ng sau khi c gip cho gio vin c th kim tra c mc hiu
bi, kh nng vn dng bi vo thc tin cuc sng; cng nh kh nng tng tng
ca hc sinh. V vy, gio vin nn p dng nhiu th thut khc nhau trnh s
trng lp nhm chn. Cc hot ng c thc hin trong bc ny l:
- Summazine the text
- Arrange the events in order
- Give comments, opinions on the characters in the text
- Role- play basing on the text
- Develop another story basing on the text
Tm li: mc ch ca dy c hiu l gip hc sinh nm c nhng thng tin
chnh. V vy cn luyn cho hc sinh c kh nng c mt cch bao qut c cu, thm
ch nhiu cu. Mun dy bi c c hiu qu, ngi gio vin cn vn dng mt cch
sng to linh hot v kho lo cc th thut sao cho ph hp vi ni dung c th ca
tng bi gy hng th cho hc sinh v gip hc sinh hiu bi c tt hn.
1.1.1.4 K nng vit
a) Mc ch v ngha

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Trong chng trnh ph thng hin nay, dy vit ch yu l nhm phi hp vi


cc k nng khc lm phong ph thm cc hnh thc luyn tp trn lp, cng c

trc cht ch ca vn vit v hc cch s dng hot ng vit vo mt s mc ch


giao tip c th.
b) Nguyn tc chung cho mt tit dy c

nhng kin thc hc, ng thi gip hc sinh bc u lm quen vn phong, cu

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Tin trnh ca mt tit dy vit cng phi tri qua 3 giai on: Pre - Writing,
While - Writing, v Post - Writing.

 Pre Writing

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- Xy dng mt khung mu cho bi vit:


- Tm cc .
- Tm cc ng liu: cu trc, t, cm t,... Phn ny yu cu hc sinh pht huy s
ng gp xy dng bi, gio vin hng dn v thng nht chung.
- Sp xp cc ng liu th hin cc ch ca ch im vit theo khung mu xy
dng.
Phn ny yu cu hc sinh vit c nhn hoc theo t, nhm, cp nhm khuyn
khch cc em c kh nng xy dng mt dn bi chi tit phc v cho vic vit bi.
 While - Writing
Da trn dn bi c HS tin hnh vit nhp. Lc ny hc sinh ch ng vit
bng cc ng liu c sn, bng kinh nghim c tch ly, pht trin vn phong
ring ca mnh.
 Post - Writing
Cha bi l bc rt quan trng. bc ny, bi vit ca HS phi c sa sang
khng nhng t c chnh xc v ni dung ngn ng m cn phi t c
mt vn phong trong sng, mch lc v c tnh thuyt phc.
Tm li: Trong qu trnh dy vit ting Anh, GV lun l ngi hng dn, t
chc, nh gi cc hot ng ca HS khi vit. T rn luyn kh nng t lp, t ch
sng to v cc em cng t tin, phn khi hc tp trong phn vit.

1.1.2 To s t tin trong giao tip hc thut bng ting Anh


1.1.2.1 ngha ca t tin
T tin l yu t c ngha nht trong hc ngoi ng. Lng t tin s gip cho
ngi hc c thm ng lc v sc mnh c thi tch cc i vi qu trnh hc
tp ca bn thn. Trung tm ca ton b qu trnh hc l nim tin ca ngi hc vo

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kh nng ca bn thn s hon thnh mc tiu hc tp.


Khi ngi hc hon thnh c cc hot ng theo yu cu ca gio vin th lng

mi trong hc tp.
1.1.2.2 T tin trong dy hc ha hc
Mt trong nhng yu t tc ng n ng lc, thi v tnh cm ca ngi hc

t tin ca h s c cng c, t hc c thm ngh lc theo ui nhng mc tiu

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i vi mn hc l quan h gia ngi dy vi ngi hc v gia ngi hc vi nhau.


Gio vin cn xy dng mi quan h thn thin v tn trng ln nhau vi ngi hc.

c c mi quan h gio vin cn hiu c mc ch hc tp, nhng kh

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khn trong hc tp ca ngi hc, c bit l phi hiu c tnh cch ca ngi hc.
Gio vin phi to ra c mt mi trng hc tp vui v, thoi mi nhng nghim tc
trong lp hc, bit thit k v iu chnh cc hot ng trn lp ph hp vi trnh ,
hng th v s thch ca ngi hc, bit cch h tr ngi hc v ng vin ngi hc
theo ui s say m ca mnh.
Tm li, gio vin cn to dng mt khng kh hc tp thoi mi, nh nhng vi
nhiu hot ng a dng ngi hc no cng c c hi t kt qu. ng thi ngi
dy phi hiu c nguyn vng, s thch cng nh nhng kh khn ca ngi hc v
tm cch gip h khc phc nhng kh khn cng nh gip h tm ra nhng cch
hc ph hp vi s trng, s on ca HS.
c c s t tin trong vic dy v hc ha hc, chng ta nn t chc cu lc
b hc tp cho HS:
 Mc tiu hot ng ca cu lc b
Cu lc b l t chc nhm m rng tm nhn thc, hiu bit v vn ha, khoa
hc k thut, gio dc lng yu lao ng, thc o c, gip pht trin ton din cc
kh nng sng to v cc nng khiu ca con ngi.
T chc cu lc b ha hc l iu kin tt cc c nhn yu thch ha hc c
mi trng pht huy kh nng ca mnh.
 K hoch hot ng ca cu lc b
duy tr v pht huy mt cch hiu qu th cu lc b phi c k hoch hot ng.
- Sinh hot nh k theo cc chuyn
- Ha hc v i sng (Chemistry to life)
- Biu din, th nghim, o thut ha hc (Magic chemistry)
- Lch s v tiu s cc nh ha hc (History and biographies of chemists)

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- Bng tun hon v cc vn lin quan (The periodic table and related issues)
 Gi mt s ni dung trong bui sinh hot

- Kch bng ting Anh c lin quan n kin thc Ha hc.

- Hi hoa dn ch (Picking flower)


- Biu din o thut ha hc (Magic chemistry).
- Phn tho lun v mt ch (Presentation and discussion)

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- Tr chi tp th (c cc nhm tham gia) (Chemistry games played by teams)


 Phn kch ting Anh

Kch c th biu din liveshow hoc cho hc sinh xem di dng video clip

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c din v ghi li.


Trong phn ny c th ch hc sinh xem kch lm quen vi tip nhn thng
tin bng ting Anh hoc sau v kch c th t cu hi tt c cng tho lun.
 Phn hi hoa dn ch
Gio vin chun b sn h thng cu hi lin quan n ch . Trong phn ny c
th yu cu hc sinh xung phong tr li cu hi phi trnh by bng ting Anh hoc
ting Vit ty thuc vo trnh hc sinh v gio vin.
 o thut ha hc
Gio vin c th biu din hoc hc sinh thc hin. phn ny c th a ra cu
hi t trc khi tin hnh lm o thut hoc sau khi hc sinh quan st xong.
 Tho lun v mt ch
Ch c mt hoc mt nhm hc hoc 2,3 nhm c s chun b sn ln
trnh by. Trong ch ny phi a ra mt s cu hi tho lun. Sau khi tho lun
xong, gio vin phi nhn xt phn trnh by ca tng nhm v gii p cc cu hi
a ra.
 Tr chi
y l phn khng nn thiu trong mi bui sinh hot cu lc b. Gio vin c
th tham kho mt s tr chi hoc cho mt nhm hc sinh t chc phn ny.
Sau mi phn tr li, trnh by hay tham gia tr chi, nn c mt phn thng
cho ngi tr li ng hay i thng cuc khuyn khch hc sinh.

1.1.3 Hi nhp vi gio dc th gii


1.1.3.1 t vn
Hp tc quc t v gio dc chuyn sang mt giai on pht trin mi, cao
hn v phc tp hn. l hi nhp quc t v gio dc, mi quc gia cn tm ra cho

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mnh cc chnh sch v chin lc cn thit gio dc i hc thc hin c tt nht


s mnh ca mnh trong vic sn sinh, truyn b v p dng tri thc, p ng nhu cu

iu ny c t ra nc ta trong n i mi gio dc i hc Vit


Nam giai on 2006-2020. n nm 2015, Vit Nam s gia nhp cng ng kinh t
Asean. Khi , ngun nhn lc nc ta c thm c hi lm vic ti cc nc lng

pht trin kinh t x hi ca t nc.

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ging nhng cng i mt vi s cnh tranh t cc nc Asean ngay trn sn nh.


1.1.3.2 Thun li v kh khn khi hi nhp

a) Thun li

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Khng nh hi nhp quc t l mt xu th tt yu ln ca th gii cng ng thi


ch ra con ng pht trin khng th no khc i vi cc nc trong thi i ton cu
ha l tham gia hi nhp quc t. Nhng li ch ch yu ca hi nhp quc t m cc
nc c th tn dng c:
Th nht, qu trnh hi nhp gip m rng th trng, thc y tng trng v
pht trin kinh t, x hi.
Th hai, hi nhp cng to ng lc thc y chuyn dch c cu kinh t, ci
thin mi trng u t kinh doanh, lm tng kh nng thu ht u t vo nn kinh t.
Th ba, hi nhp gip nng cao trnh ca ngun nhn lc v nn khoa hc
cng ngh quc gia.
Th t, hi nhp lm tng c hi cho cc doanh nghip trong nc tip cn th
trng quc t, ngun tn dng v cc i tc quc t.
Th nm, hi nhp to c hi cc c nhn c th hng cc sn phm hng
ha, dch v a dng, c c hi pht trin v tm kim vic lm c trong ln ngoi
nc.
Th su, hi nhp to iu kin cc nh hoch nh chnh sch nm bt tt hn
tnh hnh v xu th pht trin ca th gii.
Th by, hi nhp gip b sung nhng gi tr v tin b ca vn ha, vn minh
ca th gii, lm giu vn ha dn tc v thc y tin b x hi.
Th tm, hi nhp to ng lc v iu kin ci cch ton din hng ti xy
dng mt x hi m, dn ch hn, v mt nh nc php quyn.
Th chn, hi nhp to iu kin mi nc tm cho mnh mt v tr thch hp
trong trt t quc t, gip tng cng uy tn v v th quc t, cng nh kh nng duy
tr an ninh, ha bnh v n nh pht trin.

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Th mi, hi nhp gip duy tr ha bnh v n nh khu vc v quc t.


b) Kh khn

nc trc nhiu bt li v thch thc.


Mt, hi nhp lm gia tng cnh tranh gay gt khin nhiu doanh nghip v
ngnh kinh t gp kh khn.

Tuy nhin, hi nhp khng ch a li nhng li ch, tri li, n cng t cc

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Hai, hi nhp lm tng s ph thuc ca nn kinh t quc gia vo th trng bn


ngoi, khin nn kinh t d b tn thng trc nhng bin ng ca th trng quc

t.

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Ba, hi nhp khng phn phi cng bng li ch v ri ro cho cc nc v cc


nhm khc nhau trong x hi, do vy c nguy c lm tng khong cch giu v ngho.
Bn, trong qu trnh hi nhp, cc nc ang pht trin phi i mt vi nguy c
chuyn dch c cu kinh t t nhin bt li. H d c th tr thnh bi rc thi cng
nghip v cng ngh thp, b cn kit ngun ti nguyn thin nhin v hy hoi mi
trng.
Nm, hi nhp c th to ra mt s thch thc i vi quyn lc Nh nc, phc
tp i vi vic duy tr an ninh v n nh cc nc ang pht trin.
Su, hi nhp c th lm gia tng nguy c bn sc dn tc v vn ha truyn
thng b xi mn trc s xm lng ca vn ha nc ngoi.
By, hi nhp c th t cc nc trc nguy c gia tng ca tnh trng khng b
quc t, bun lu, ti phm xuyn quc gia, dch bnh, nhp c bt hp php,
1.1.3.3 Hin trng hi nhp quc t v gio dc Vit Nam
Trong tin trnh hi nhp GD, nc no ng ngoi s b tt hu v kh c c
may tham gia vo vic hoch nh chnh sch GD quc t cng nh khng kp chun b
cho ngun nhn lc ca mnh cho vic hi nhp kinh t ton cu. Tuy nhin, GD Vit
Nam ang ng trc nguy c b c lp v kh ho nhp c vi cc tro lu GD ln
trn th gii bi mt s nguyn nhn sau:
Mt l, ngn ng: Th ngn ng ging dy chnh l ting Vit. y l ting m
ca ngi Vit chng ta, nhng ng thi cng l ngn ng c tnh cht ring bit
ca ngi Vit, do ngi Vit s dng. Ngn ng ting Vit khng c kh nng hi
nhp.
Hai l, chng trnh v gio trnh ging dy hu ht do gio vin, ging vin
trong nc bin son, cha c tiu chun ho v cng nhn trn trng quc t. Dn

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n vic bng cp t ph thng n i hc cng cha c cng nhn v nh gi cho


chun, ng mc.

nh tiu ch xp loi cc trng, cc ngnh hc nc ngoi da vo hp tc lm


vic vi cc trng trong nc. Dn n hin tng mt s t chc quc t t xp hng
cc trng H Vit Nam mt cch khng khch quan.

Ba l, GD Vit Nam cha c mt b quy tc nh gi cht lng o to, cng

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Bn l, chng ta cha c cc c quan, t chc trung gian lm vic c lp, khch


quan vi cc c quan qun l Nh nc v GD c cc kin phn bin, kp thi

chn chnh cng nh gp cho cc d tho hoc Lut GD.

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Nm l, u vo ca cc trng H s phm cha cao, cha c c nhng u


tin tha ng v chnh sch cho loi trng ny, ch lng bng ca gio vin
khin cho loi hnh s phm cha c sc thu ht nhn ti.
Su l, h thng thi c nh gi thc lc kh nng ca hc sinh cn bt cp, mt
khc li gy tn km tin bc, cng sc v thi gian ca hc sinh, cc ng b b m v
c x hi.
By l, bnh thnh tch ang tr thnh m "bo bnh" kh c c cu cha.
1.1.3.4 Chin lc hi nhp quc t v gio dc
Ngy 4-11-2013, Tng B th Nguyn Ph Trng k ban hnh Ngh quyt Hi
ngh ln th 8, Ban Chp hnh Trung ng kha XI Ngh quyt s 29-NQ/TW) v i
mi cn bn, ton din gio dc v o to, p ng yu cu cng nghip ha, hin i
ha trong iu kin kinh t th trng nh hng x hi ch ngha v hi nhp quc t.
ng v Nh nc xc nh mc tiu ca i mi ln ny l: To chuyn bin cn
bn, mnh m v cht lng, hiu qu gio dc, o to; p ng ngy cng tt hn
cng cuc xy dng, bo v T quc v nhu cu hc tp ca nhn dn. Gio dc con
ngi Vit Nam pht trin ton din v pht huy tt nht tim nng, kh nng sng to
ca mi c nhn; yu gia nh, yu T quc, yu ng bo; sng tt v lm vic hiu
qu.
Trc mt, cc cp y ng, chnh quyn cn tip tc qun trit su sc v thc
hin nghim tc Ngh quyt Trung ng 2 kha VIII, Kt lun Trung ng 6 kha IX
v Thng bo kt lun s 242-TB/TW ngy 15-4-2009 ca B Chnh tr kha X v tip
tc thc hin Ngh quyt Trung ng 2 kha VIII, phng hng pht trin gio dc
v o to n nm 2020. Tp trung thc hin cc nhim v sau:
 Cng c v tng cng cht lng h thng kim nh cht lng GDVN.

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C quan kim nh v nh gi cht lng gio dc phi l 1 t chc c lp nm


ngoi B GD- T, bo m tnh khch quan trong nh gi, xp hng.

Hng nm c s xp loi, v cng khai thng tin trn cc mng truyn thng
ngi dn bit. V cng l cch cc trng c thc trch nhim hn na trong
vic xy dng thng hiu ca mnh.

S tuyn chn, nh gi cn da trn nhiu tiu ch khc nhau.

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 Nng cao trnh ting Anh v mt s ngoi ng khc cho gio vin, ging vin
v hc sinh, sinh vin.

 Nghin cu mt s nc xung quanh nh Nht Bn, Hn Quc... t mnh ng

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ra t chc cc loi hnh kim tra trnh ngoi ng - c bit l ting Anh t ph thng
ln n H v dnh cho ngi i lm.
 Tham gia cc hi tho, din n, trin lm GD quc t: GD Vit Nam phi nm
c cc thng tin mi nht v cc chnh sch GD ca cc nc, cc chng trnh hc
bng, h tr SV quc t ca cc nc trn th gii tui tr Vit Nam tham gia c
m khng b b l.
 Thnh lp Hip hi cc trng H Vit Nam: Hin Vit Nam ang c Hip hi
cc trng H ngoi cng lp, trong khi s lng ln cc trng H c cht lng ti
VN li l cc trng H cng lp. c th c ting ni chung trong cc din n GD
quc t, Vit Nam rt cn mt hip hi chung ca tt c cc trng H, C, c vy
mi lm c nhng vic ln cho ton ngnh GDH.
Nh vy, hi nhp quc t v gio dc lm cho gio dc Vit Nam pht trin
nhanh v s lng, vng chc v cht lng, m bo yu cu pht trin t nc,
phc v mc tiu chnh tr c bn ca ng v nhn dn ta l gi vng ch quyn quc
gia, nh hng x hi ch ngha, dn giu nc mnh, x hi cng bng, dn ch,
vn minh.

B
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1.2 Thc trng trin khai n dy hc cc mn khoa hc t nhin bng ting


Anh trng ph thng
1.2.1 Gii thiu n Pht trin h thng trng trung hc ph thng chuyn giai
on 2010 2020 (S 959/Q-TTg ngy 24/6/2010)
Ph duyt n Pht trin h thng trng trung hc ph thng chuyn giai on
2010 - 2020, vi nhng ni dung chnh nh sau:
1.2.1.1 Mc tiu
a) Mc tiu chung

23

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

Xy dng v pht trin cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn thnh mt h


thng c s gio dc trung hc c cht lng gio dc cao, t chun quc gia, c

hc sinh c t cht thng minh, t kt qu xut sc trong hc tp bi dng thnh


nhng ngi c lng yu t nc, tinh thn t ho, t tn dn tc; c thc t lc; c
nn tng kin thc vng vng; c phng php t hc, t nghin cu v sng to; c

trang thit b dy hc ng b, hin i m bo thc hin nhim v pht hin nhng

T
N

sc khe tt to ngun tip tc o to thnh nhn ti, p ng yu cu pht trin


t nc trong thi k cng nghip ho, hin i ho, hi nhp quc t.

Cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn l hnh mu ca cc trng trung hc ph

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thng v c s vt cht, i ng nh gio v t chc cc hot ng gio dc.


b) Mc tiu c th
Cng c, xy dng v pht trin cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn hin ti
ng thi vi tng dn quy m; bo m mi tnh, thnh ph trc thuc trung ng c
t nht mt trng trung hc ph thng chuyn vi tng s hc sinh chuyn chim
khong 2% s hc sinh trung hc ph thng ca tng tnh, thnh ph.
Tp trung u t nng cp cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn thnh cc
trng t chun quc gia v c cht lng gio dc cao.
Pht trin i ng gio vin, cn b qun l m bo v s lng, hp l v c
cu v t mc cao ca chun ngh nghip.
To chuyn bin c bn v cht lng gio dc trong cc trng trung hc ph
thng chuyn theo hng tip cn vi trnh tin tin ca th gii.
To s lin thng gia vic pht hin, bi dng hc sinh nng khiu trng
trung hc ph thng chuyn vi vic o to i hc.
Tng cng kh nng hp tc gia cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn vi
cc c s gio dc c uy tn nc ngoi nhm trao i kinh nghim v tuyn chn,
bi dng v pht trin nng khiu hc sinh; ng thi thu ht ngun lc vo pht trin
h thng cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn.
1.2.1.2 Nhim v v gii php
a) Xy dng quy hoch, k hoch pht trin v tng cng u t c s vt cht,
thit b dy hc cho cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn
Xy dng quy hoch, k hoch pht trin trng trung hc ph thng chuyn
n nm 2015 v 2020, trong u tin m rng din tch mt bng ti thiu t 15
m2/hc sinh; u t xy dng cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn m bo t

24

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

chun quc gia; cc trng u c phng hc 2 bui/ngy, c hi trng, nh tp


a nng, nh cng v, nh n, k tc x cho hc sinh ni tr, sn vn ng, b bi, h

b ng b v hin i;
Tng cng u t, mua sm cc thit b dy hc ng b v hin i phc v
cho vic bi dng hc sinh nng khiu, i mi phng php dy hc, kim tra nh

thng phng chc nng, phng hc b mn s lng, t tiu chun vi trang thit

T
N

gi ca gio vin v vic hc tp, lm quen nghin cu khoa hc ca hc sinh; nng


cp h tng cng ngh thng tin, truyn thng v internet; xy dng h thng thng tin

in t lin kt gia cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn vi cc trng i hc v

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cc c s gio dc c uy tn nc ngoi;
Pht trin h thng th vin, th vin in t, u t mua sch, ti liu tham
kho, cp nht thng tin v gio dc trong v ngoi nc; xy dng th vin cu hi,
bi tp, kim tra, thi quc gia, quc t;... p ng yu cu tham kho ca gio
vin v hc sinh;
Tp trung u t trng im 15 trng trung hc ph thng chuyn, m bo c
c s vt cht, trang thit b ng b v hin i, c cht lng gio dc ngang tm vi
cc trng trung hc tin tin trong khu vc, quc t;
Tng cng huy ng cc ngun lc t hp tc quc t, thu ht u t nc
ngoi vo gio dc xy dng c s vt cht, tng cng phng tin, trang thit
b dy hc hin i cho cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn.
b) Pht trin i ng gio vin, cn b qun l trong cc trng trung hc ph
thng chuyn
B sung, hon thin cc quy nh v c cu, nh mc gio vin, nhn vin; v
cng tc tuyn dng, lun chuyn gio vin trng trung hc ph thng chuyn; ban
hnh quy nh v tiu chun gio vin, cn b qun l trng trung hc ph thng
chuyn trn c s chun ngh nghip gio vin, chun hiu trng trng trung hc v
cc quy nh khc v gio vin, cn b qun l trng trung hc ph thng;
Tin hnh r sot, nh gi, sp xp li i ng cn b qun l, gio vin v nhn
vin;
Ch trng xy dng i ng gio vin u n v hot ng chuyn mn trong
h thng trng trung hc ph thng chuyn, to iu kin gip h tr thnh nhng
nhn t tch cc, l tm gng trong vic rn luyn o c, t hc, sng to v xy
dng mng li hot ng ca i ng ny trn ton quc;

25

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

Tng cng cng tc bi dng nng cao nng lc chuyn mn, nghip v, tin
hc v ngoi ng cho cn b qun l, gio vin trng trung hc ph thng chuyn.

vi tng giai on. Tng cng vic bi dng cho cn b qun l v kin thc, k
nng qun l; bi dng cho gio vin v i mi phng php dy hc, i mi kim
tra nh gi, nng cao nng lc pht trin chng trnh, ti liu mn chuyn, nng lc

nh hng ni dung bi dng gio vin trung hc ph thng chuyn ph hp

T
N

t chc cc hot ng gio dc;


T chc cc kha bi dng ting Anh, tin hc cho cn b qun l, gio vin; a

i bi dng ting Anh ti nc ngoi cc gio vin ging dy ting Anh trong cc

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trng trung hc ph thng chuyn;


T chc cc kha o to ngn, di hn trong, ngoi nc v ging dy bng
ting Anh cho gio vin dy cc mn ton, vt l, ha hc, sinh hc, tin hc, tng
bc thc hin dy hc cc mn hc ny bng ting Anh trong cc trng trung hc
ph thng chuyn;
Xy dng cc din n trn internet gio vin v hc sinh trao i kinh nghim
ging dy v hc tp; t chc cc hi tho trao i kinh nghim gia cc trng trung
hc ph thng chuyn vi cc c s gio dc trong, ngoi nc c o to, bi dng
hc sinh nng khiu.
c) i mi chng trnh, ti liu dy hc v tuyn sinh, thi hc sinh gii trong
cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn
 i mi chng trnh, ti liu dy hc
Chng trnh gio dc trong trng trung hc ph thng chuyn xy dng theo
hng hin i, tip cn vi trnh tin tin khu vc v th gii; nng cao cht lng
gio dc ton din, ch trng gio dc th cht v bi dng nhn cch ngi hc; to
iu kin hc sinh pht trin ton din, chuyn su mt lnh vc, gii tin hc v
ngoi ng; pht trin nng lc t duy c lp, sng to; k nng thc hnh, tng kh
nng hot ng thc tin;
Bin son khung ti liu chuyn su ging dy cc mn chuyn; ti liu hng
dn pht trin chng trnh cc mn chuyn; ti liu phc v cho vic thc hin ging
dy bng ting Anh cc mn khoa hc; ti liu v t chc cc hot ng gio dc nhm
bi dng nng khiu theo lnh vc chuyn;
La chn gii thiu mt s chng trnh, ti liu dy hc tin tin ca nc ngoi
cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn tham kho, vn dng.

26

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

 i mi phng thc tuyn sinh, thi hc sinh gii


Xy dng cc quy nh v tuyn sinh vo trng trung hc ph thng chuyn

hin nng khiu, xc nh ch s thng minh, ch s sng to trong vic tuyn sinh vo
trung hc ph thng chuyn;
B sung, hon thin quy nh v sng lc hc sinh cc trng trung hc ph

theo hng kt hp gia thi tuyn v xt tuyn. Tng bc p dng phng php pht

trung hc ph thng chuyn ra cc trng trung hc ph thng khc;

T
N

thng chuyn hng nm, tng hc k c th tuyn chn b sung nhng hc sinh c
nng khiu thc s v chuyn nhng hc sinh khng iu kin hc trong cc trng

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Nghin cu i mi vic t chc thi hc sinh gii, tuyn chn, bi dng i


tuyn d thi olympic quc t v khu vc; tng cng cc k thi mang tnh cht giao lu
gia cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn thuc cc vng trn c nc.
d) Xy dng v hon thin c ch, chnh sch c th i vi nh trng, cn b
qun l, gio vin v hc sinh cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn
B sung, hon thin c ch, chnh sch nhm tng cng nh mc u t hng
nm v nhn lc v ti chnh cho cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn;
Xy dng chnh sch u tin i vi gio vin trc tip ging dy cc mn
chuyn, gio vin c hc sinh ot gii trong cc k thi quc gia, quc t v t l
i hc cao;
Xy dng chnh sch ph hp i vi hc sinh c nng khiu ni bt, t gii
trong cc k thi quc gia, quc t nh: ch hc bng, hc vt lp, c i o to ti
cc c s gio dc i hc c uy tn nc ngoi;
Xy dng c ch chnh sch khuyn khch, to iu kin thun li v hp tc
quc t gia cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn vi cc c s gio dc nc
ngoi;
Khuyn khch cc a phng c chnh sch u i, tn vinh i vi gio vin,
cn b qun l c thnh tch xut sc trong cng tc pht hin, bi dng hc sinh
nng khiu;
Khuyn khch, to iu kin cc c nhn, doanh nghip, t chc x hi, t chc x
hi ngh nghip u t pht trin trng trung hc ph thng chuyn theo tinh thn Ngh
nh s 69/2008/N-CP ngy 30 thng 5 nm 2008 ca Chnh ph v chnh sch khuyn
khch x hi ha i vi cc hot ng trong lnh vc gio dc, dy ngh, y t, vn
ha, th thao, mi trng.

27

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

e) Tng cng cng tc qun l i vi h thng cc trng trung hc ph thng


chuyn

l gio dc, cn b qun l, gio vin, hc sinh v x hi v mc tiu pht trin h


thng trng trung hc ph thng chuyn trong giai on mi;
Tng cng cng tc ch o, qun l cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn cc

Tuyn truyn lm thay i nhn thc ca cc cp chnh quyn, cc c quan qun

T
N

cp qun l gio dc; xy dng h thng thng tin qun l cc trng trung hc ph
thng chuyn trong c nc;

Tng cng quyn ch ng v qun l nhn s, ti chnh, tuyn sinh, qun l

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chuyn mn, cng tc x hi ho gio dc pht huy c hiu qu nht c s vt cht,


trang thit b, i ng gio vin c cht lng cao trong cc trng trung hc ph
thng chuyn;
Tng cng vic nh gi, kim nh cht lng gio dc trong trng trung hc
ph thng chuyn;
T chc theo di vic hc tp ca cc cu hc sinh chuyn trnh i hc,
thc s, tin s v vic s dng sau tt nghip. Hnh thnh cu lc b cc cu hc sinh
ca trng trung hc ph thng chuyn.
f) Tng cng hp tc quc t trong vic pht trin h thng trng trung hc
ph thng chuyn
y mnh hp tc v o to, nghin cu vi cc c s gio dc c uy tn nc
ngoi nhm hc tp, trao i nhng kinh nghim tt v cng tc tuyn chn, bi
dng, pht trin nng khiu ca hc sinh; ch trng hp tc v xy dng chng
trnh, ti liu dy hc, bi dng gio vin v o to hc sinh nng khiu;
Tng cng c hi gio vin, hc sinh cc trng trung hc ph thng
chuyn c tham quan, giao lu, hc tp ti cc c s gio dc c uy tn nc
ngoi.
g) T chc thc hin
L trnh thc hin:
 Giai on 1 (2010 - 2015) trng tm ca giai on ny l trin khai thc hin mt
s vic sau to c s, nn tng pht trin h thng trng trung hc ph thng
chuyn:
R sot, nh gi thc trng, xy dng k hoch v b tr kinh ph thc hin cc
mc tiu n giai on 2010 - 2015; 2016 - 2020;

28

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

R sot, nh gi, sp xp li i ng cn b qun l, gio vin v nhn vin, xy


dng k hoch tuyn dng, bi dng i ng gio vin, cn b qun l hng nm,

Xy dng, ban hnh cc vn bn quy nh v tiu chun gio vin, cn b qun l


trng trung hc ph thng chuyn; v chnh sch khuyn khch i vi gio vin trc
tip ging dy mn chuyn, gio vin c hc sinh ot gii quc gia, quc t, gio vin

tng giai on;

T
N

c t l hc sinh i hc cao; v chnh sch i vi hc sinh c nng khiu ni bt,


c gii quc gia, quc t;

Xy dng chng trnh o to gio vin cho trng trung hc ph thng chuyn

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ti cc trng i hc s phm; chng trnh, ni dung bi dng hng nm cho gio


vin, cn b qun l trng trung hc ph thng chuyn;
Xy dng chng trnh gio dc tng th trong trng trung hc ph thng
chuyn; xy dng chng trnh, bin son ti liu v t chc cc hot ng gio dc
nhm bi dng nng khiu theo lnh vc chuyn; v ging dy bng ting Anh cc
mn ton, vt l, ha hc, sinh hc, tin hc;
Bin son ti liu v hng dn pht trin chng trnh cc mn chuyn, v i
mi phng php dy hc, i mi kim tra nh gi; v dy hc trc tuyn, dy hc
theo d n;
M cc kha o to trnh thc s, bi dng v qun l gio dc, ging dy
ting Anh, ging dy cc mn ton, vt l, ha hc, sinh hc, tin hc bng ting Anh
trong nc, nc ngoi v cc kha bi dng nng cao trnh ngoi ng, tin hc,
nng lc pht trin chng trnh, ni dung dy hc cho i ng gio vin, cn b qun
l;
Nghin cu, th im p dng mt s chng trnh dy hc tin tin ca th gii
ti mt s trng trung hc ph thng chuyn trng im; th im p dng vic ging
dy mn ton, vt l, ha hc, sinh hc, tin hc bng ting Anh ti mt s trng trung
hc ph thng chuyn; tin ti thc hin ging dy cc mn ton, tin hc bng ting
Anh ti cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn vo nm 2015;
Nghin cu i mi vic t chc thi hc sinh gii; vic tuyn chn, bi dng i
tuyn d thi olympic quc t v khu vc; tng cng t chc cc k thi mang tnh cht
giao lu gia cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn;
Xy dng c ch lin kt cht ch gia trng trung hc ph thng chuyn vi
cc trng i hc c lp c nhn ti nng, k s cht lng cao v cc c s gio dc

29

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

i hc nc ngoi c cc hc sinh nng khiu xut sc ang hc tp. Hnh thnh c s


d liu theo di, nh gi kt qu hc tp, lm vic, cng hin ca cc hc sinh

u t kinh ph m rng, nng cp, xy mi nhm m bo cc trng trung hc


ph thng chuyn u t chun quc gia vo nm 2015; u tin kinh ph xy dng 15
trng trung hc ph thng chuyn trng im c la chn;

chuyn;

T
N

Xy dng h thng phng chc nng, k tc x cho nhng hc sinh ni tr, nh


n, nh tp a nng, hi trng; phng hc b mn s lng, t tiu chun vi

trang thit b ng b v hin i;

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Xy dng h thng th vin in t, nng cp h tng cng ngh thng tin, vin
thng v internet trong h thng cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn. Xy dng
website cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn ton quc;
Tng cng huy ng cc ngun lc t c nhn, doanh nghip, t chc x hi, t
chc x hi ngh nghip, hp tc quc t, thu ht u t nc ngoi vo gio dc
xy dng c s vt cht, tng cng phng tin, trang thit b dy hc hin i cho
cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn;
T chc cc hi tho trong nc, quc t v tuyn chn, bi dng, pht trin nng
khiu ca hc sinh;
T chc nh gi, kim nh cht lng gio dc ca cc trng trung hc ph
thng chuyn trn ton quc.
 Giai on 2 (2015 - 2020): trng tm ca giai on ny l thc hin mt s
vic sau pht trin vng chc h thng trng trung hc ph thng chuyn:
Tip tc cng c, thc hin cc hot ng trin khai ti giai on 1;
Tip tc nng cp cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn thnh cc trng trung
hc ph thng t chun quc gia mc cao, phn u n nm 2020 c t nht 50%
trng trung hc ph thng chuyn c cht lng dy hc tng ng vi cc trng
tin tin trong khu vc v quc t;
Nng cao cht lng dy hc ngoi ng, tin hc, dy tng cng ting Anh,
chun b trin khai dy v hc cc mn vt l, ha hc, sinh hc bng ting Anh
khong 30% s trng. Mi nm tng thm 15 - 20% s trng, hon thnh vo nm
2020;
Chn la gii thiu chng trnh, ti liu c cht lng ca nc ngoi cc
trng trung hc ph thng chuyn tham kho, vn dng.

30

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

Ch tr, phi hp vi cc B, c quan ngang B, cc a phng c th ho ni


dung n thnh chng trnh, k hoch thc hin chi tit ch o, hng dn t

Trch nhim ca cc B, ngnh, c quan


 B Gio dc v o to c trch nhim:
L c quan thng trc t chc thc hin n;

T
N

chc thc hin v tho g nhng vng mc v th tc, c ch m bo cc vn lin


quan n ti chnh, quan h quc t;
Xy dng k hoch chi tit trin khai n tng giai on, tng nm;
Ch o, hng dn cc tnh, thnh ph trc thuc Trung ng v cc c s

.Q

gio dc i hc c trng trung hc ph thng chuyn thc hin n;


T chc tp hun chuyn mn, hi tho v xy dng k hoch, cch thc trin

TP

khai thc hin n;


Kim tra, nh gi, tng hp kt qu trin khai thc hin n trong phm vi c

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nc theo tng nm, tng giai on v kt thc n, nh k bo co Th tng


Chnh ph.
 B K hoch v u t c trch nhim:
Ch tr, phi hp vi B Ti chnh, B Gio dc v o to huy ng v b tr
ngun vn trong k hoch 5 nm v hng nm thc hin n.
 B Ti chnh c trch nhim:
Ch tr, phi hp vi B Gio dc v o to v cc B, c quan lin quan phn
b, hng dn, kim tra vic chi kinh ph thc hin n theo cc quy nh hin hnh
ca Lut Ngn sch.
 B Ni v c trch nhim:
Phi hp vi B Gio dc v o to v cc B lin quan sa i, b sung, hon
thin vic ban hnh cc chnh sch i vi gio vin, cn b qun l, nhn vin trng
trung hc ph thng chuyn.
 y ban nhn dn tnh, thnh ph trc thuc Trung ng c trch nhim:
Ch o ngnh gio dc v o to, cc c quan chc nng a phng xy
dng v t chc thc hin k hoch trin khai n trn a bn; kim tra, nh gi,
tng hp kt qu thc hin n ti a phng, nh k bo co Ban Ch o cp B;
Phi hp vi B Gio dc v o to v cc B, ngnh c lin quan ch o
thng nht, ng b, ph hp vi yu cu, k hoch chung ton quc vic trin khai
thc hin n trn a bn.

31

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

 Cc s gio dc v o to v cc c s gio dc i hc c trng trung hc ph


thng chuyn c trch nhim:

T chc thc hin nghim tc, hiu qu cc hot ng lin quan n c s mnh,
p ng yu cu ch o, mc tiu, nhim v ca n;
Kim tra, nh gi, t chc s kt nh k, tng kt nh gi kt qu trong tng

Xy dng k hoch chi tit trin khai n qua tng giai on, tng nm;

T
N

giai on v kt thc n, nh k bo co Ban Ch o cp B.


 Cc trng trung hc ph thng chuyn c trch nhim:

Trin khai thc hin c hiu qu n ti trng;

TP

.Q

Thc hin vic t nh gi tng hc k, hng nm v kt thc mi giai on ca n;


Thc hin ch bo co theo quy nh.

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1.2.2 nh gi thc trng trin khai n ca B GD & T v dy hc cc mn


khoa hc t nhin bng ting Anh cc trng THPT
1.2.2.1 Hin trng ting Anh v vic dy hc mn Ha bng ting anh ca hc sinh
THPT
Trc mt cn thy rng vi a s hc sinh trung hc ph thng chuyn, trc
khi vo trng chuyn u dnh phn ln thi gian cho vic n luyn cc mn
chuyn nn a s c trnh ting Anh thp, d c hc nhiu nm cp c s v
tiu hc. Mt s nm gn y, mt s trng chuyn a mn ting Anh thnh mn
thi u vo ca trng chuyn gip cho mt bng ngoi ng ca hc sinh chuyn
c ci thin ng k v ng u hn. Cng vi vic ph cp ngoi ng cho hc sinh
ph thng theo n ngoi ng 2020 th chng ta c c s m bo vic ging
dy mn chuyn bng ting Anh c hiu qu.
Tuy nhin, cng phi tha nhn thy rng vic hc kin thc mn Ha trong hu
ht cc trng THPT hin nay cng nh s quan tm ca ph huynh u nhm ti thi
i hc trong nc. Ch mt s rt t ph huynh hng ti cho con i hc nc
ngoi. Vi nhiu ph huynh, nu con em khng i hc nc ngoi m ch c nhu cu
vo i hc hoc cao hn theo hc c chng trnh tin tin thuc cc trng i hc
thuc khi x hi, kinh t th vic hc chuyn mn bng ting Anh l khng cn thit.
Mt khc, chng trnh mn Ha hc ph thng trong nc cn nng v tnh ton
phc tp trong khi thiu nhiu kin thc l thuyt cc qu trnh hc cn cha c
cp n (nh khi so snh yu cu v trnh A-level ca Singapore hoc mt s k thi
quc t khc).

32

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

V vy khi cch hc ph thng cng nh cch ra thi i hc cn cha c


ci tin th vic thuyt phc tt c ph huynh hc sinh cng nh vic thc hin dy hc

Tuy nhin c c m hnh hc trong hc sinh vn c m bo v kin


thc, nng cao trnh chuyn mn v hi nhp tt vi vic hc i hoc ngoi hoc
cc chng trnh tin tin trong nc th vic ging dy cc mn t nhin bng ting

chuyn mn bng 100% ting Anh l phi thc t.

T
N

Anh phi nhm ti hai mc ch trong :


Dng ting Anh lm cng c tip cn hc sinh nng cao c kin thc nh

tng cng kh nng t hc v trau di kin thc, tm ti v khm ph ngun ti liu

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ID

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bt tn trn internet v trong cc th vin


Gip cho hc sinh lm quen vi mi trng ting Anh, hn ht l t duy bng
ting Anh trong hc tp. V vy, vic dy v hc ch c hiu qu nu c c s hng
ca hc sinh, s quan tm ca ph huynh v s n lc ca gio vin ging dy.
1.2.2.2 K hoch trin khai dy mn Ha bng ting Anh trong trng THPT
a) Yu cu v cch sp xp, t chc lp hc
Trc thc t v hn ch ca kin thc ting Anh ca hc sinh chuyn cng nh
trnh ging dy ting Anh ca gio vin, chung ti nhn thy cn t r l trnh thc
hin vic bi dng ging dy cho gio vin v bi dng kin thc cho hc sinh
chuyn nh sau:
 Vi gio vin
Cn ch ng, tch cc hc tp ting Anh, c bit ting Anh chuyn ngnh ;tch
cc tham gia cc kha hc ting Anh do ngnh gio dc t chc
 Vi hc sinh
Trc mt, chng ti nhn thy, song song vi dy hc mn ting Anh chnh
kha, cn xc tin dy mn ting Anh khoa hc cho hc sinh.
Mt khc, c th b tr cc phn ting Anh chuyn ngnh di dng dy t vng,
thut ng v cc cu trc cu c bn c lng vo thm vo chng trnh hc kin
thc trn lp chnh kha bng ting Vit khi ging dy.
giai on hai, vi cc lp khi kin thc ting Anh c bn v chuyn ngnh
kh th c th b tr hc mn chuyn bng ting Anh. Hc sinh c th t tim hiu
trc v vn m bui sinh hot s tho lun v gio vin c th hng dn cc
em c th lm ch bui sinh hot .
b) Chng trnh/ni dung ging dy

33

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

Trc ht cn khng nh khng nn dy li y ht cc kin thc c trong sch


ting Vit di dng chuyn ti sang ting Anh v li cng khng nn dy hc theo

Trc mt, chng ti thy cn da trn khung chng trnh/ni dung chi tit m
cc k thi Olympic quc t qui nh cho hc sinh khi tham gia phi t c, kt hp
vi cc ni dung cu hi v bi tp theo yu cu t ra ca k thi A-level vo cc

kiu song ng l sng dy ting Vit, chiu dy ting Anh vi cng ni dung kin thc.

T
N

trng i hc ca Singapore, Cambridge, thi chng ch trong cc k thi SAT,


Cn c vo ni dung yu cu phi t ca cc k thi quc t nhu A-Level u vo

ca cc trng i hc Cambridge, Singapore, thi SAT (School Attitude Test-nh gi

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TP

.Q

u vo cc trng i hc ca M),hoc TIMM th cc ni dung khng c chng


trnh gio dc THPT ca ban KHTN khng cp n nn c dy b sung bng cc
tit ting Anh cho mn khoa hc.
Trong qu trnh th nghim chng ti nhn thy, giai on hin nay, khi ngoi
ng vn cn l ro cn th vic ging dy kin thc mn chuyn bng ting Anh khng
th thay th hon ton cho vic hc bng ting Vit. Vi hc sinh ph thng vic lm
ch kin thc bng chnh ting m l phng thc ti u nht v l cch tip thu
nhanh nht, c hiu qu nht. Vi kin thc thu lm c t ting m th hc sinh
nhanh chng c kin thc c bn hc nng cao. Do vy s khng lng ph thi gian
nu bit s dng ting Anh nh l phng tin qua gip hc sinh bc u t duy
c hiu qu bng ngoi ng, bit cch s dng ngoi ng cho vic hc ca mnh (tm
kim, c ti liu, t nghin cu v trao i vi cc bn bn ngoi t nng cao kin
thc) v l c s theo hc vi kt qu cao bc hc i hc cng nh nghin cu
sau ny.
c) Phng php t chc ging dy
V l trnh ging dy, cn tin hnh theo tng giai on nh sau:
 Giai on 1
y l giai on kh khn nht i vi cc gio vin. V vy cn bin son cc
bi dy theo cc cp sau v s dng c ting Vit tr gip trong ging dy.
Dy v t vng trong Ha hc cho hc sinh theo cc ch .
Rn luyn cho hc sinh kh nng t tm kim ti liu lin quan bng ting Anh
trn internet.
Rn luyn cho sinh kh nng t trnh by mt vn ha hc: hc sinh c th
thng qua vic tm ti liu, t nghin cu v bin tp thnh bi trnh by ca mnh, tp

34

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

cch din t v trnh by bng ting Anh. y l k nng cn thit vi tt c cc sinh


vin khi hc i hc.

cha tri chy v thng qua hot ng ca hc sinh m vn c th lm ch gi dy trn


lp. Trong qu trnh dy, gio vin c th kt hp c ting Anh ln ting Vit (nu
khng kh nng din t hoc gii thch) dy nhng cn trnh kiu dy ting Anh

Bng cc hnh thc trn, gio vin c th khc phc c nhc im ting Anh

T
N

trong gi Ha.
 Giai on 2

Khi trnh ting Anh ca gio vin tt, c th lm ch c gi dy chuyn

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ID

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mn bng ting Anh cng vi kin thc ting Anh ca hc sinh tip thu th
chng ti cho rng cn s dng 100% ting Anh trong gi hc. Trong phn ny cc bi
ging c th c kt cu theo cc hng sau y:
Loi 1: Dy kin thc bng ting Anh m phn ting Vit hc sinh c
hc k (tuy nhin khng yu cu cc tnh ton phc tp, khng cn thit) theo hnh
thc n tp, tng kt, khi qut ha nhng vn chnh sao cho hc sinh c c vn
t, thut ng, cch dng t, t cu, cch trnh by vn khoa hc trong ting Anh v
quan trng hn c l tp chuyn t duy t hnh thc c hoc nghe ri dch t ting
Anh sang ting Vit v ngc li thnh cch t duy bng ting Anh.
Loi 2: Dy cc bi hc nng cao kin thc bng ting Anh (m hin
chng trnh ging dy bng ting Vit khng cung cp) trn nn tng nhng vn
m hc sinh c hc (bng ting Vit) nhm cp nht c nhng kin thc bc
cao m cc nc ang ging dy cho hc sinh ph thng, tin ti tt c cc hc sinh
chuyn u c th c tip cn v gii quyt c cc vn m cc k thi Olympic
quc t t ra.
Loi 3: Dy trc cc vn mi khng qu kh so vi chng trnh ting
Vit ang hc. Nhng bi ging ny tng bc s gip cho hc sinh tip cn c vi
cch tip thu kin thc khoa hc v t duy bng ting Anh, nghe ging c mt vn
mi m mnh hon ton cha bit.
V cch thc trin khai:
Cc gi kin thc trong sch gio khoa ting Vit: Hc sinh cn c cung cp t
vng cc t ting Anh c th t c v tra cu ti liu vn m mnh hc.
Cc gi hc mn chuyn bng ting Anh: hc sinh c hc thm bi ging v
cc kin thc m hin nay sch gio khoa Vit Nam cn thiu. Ty theo kin thc v

35

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

trnh ca gio vin m c th chn vn no th v ty theo lp hc, khng nht


thit phi tt c.

Nn c qui nh kim tra, nh gi vi cc mn hc chuyn mn bng ting Anh,


song song vi chng trnh ting Vit v cn t chc cc k thi kim tra cui nm
chung cho cc hc sinh (theo chun khu vc, quc t) nh gi nng lc t duy v

d) Kim tra,nh gi kt qu hc tp

T
N

kin thc thu nhn c.


e) C s vt cht cn h tr

Cn u t nng cp c s vt cht hin c sao cho tng cng c phng tin,

TP

.Q

trang thit b dy hc ng b, hin i. V d, cc phng hc cn c my chiu, h


thng loa, thu m, ring vi mn Ha hc phi c phng th nghim th vic dy v
hc mi c hiu qu c c th tng bc tin ti nng cao cht lng gio dc ngang
tm cc trng trung hc tin tin trong khu vc v quc t.

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1.2.3 Phn tch nhng thun li v kh khn trong vic trin khai dy hc cc mn
khoa hc t nhin bng ting Anh cc trng THPT
1.2.3.1 Nhng thun li trong vic trin khai dy hc cc mn khoa hc t nhin bng
ting Anh cc trng THPT
 S n lc, lng quyt tm vt qua kh khn, c bit l tm lng yu HS sng
to trong dy hc
t nc m ca, hi nhp vo nn kinh t ca th gii th vic hc ting cc
mn t nhin bng ting Anh c xc nh l thit yu cho mi la tui v c a
vo ging dy cc cp hc. Thng qua vic hc cc mn t nhin bng ting Anh, HS
c c hi tm ti, hc hi, hiu bit hn v t nc, con ngi v vn ha ca cc
nc trn th gii v hn ht l cc em c hiu k hn, su sc hn v t nc
mnh.
 Nhng gio vin khng ngi kh
Mn Ha hc c c im ring v hi kh hn so vi cc mn khc khi dy
bng ting Anh. son gio n cho mt tit dy thng mt vi ngy hoc c tun. V
thit k bi ging cn n gin, d hiu, sao cho hc sinh hiu c v c hnh nh
minh ho ch khng ni chay....
1.2.3.2 Nhng kh khn trong vic trin khai dy hc cc mn khoa hc t nhin bng
ting Anh cc trng THPT
 i vi hc sinh

36

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

Nhn chung hc sinh bc THCS theo hc mn ton v cc mn khoa hc bng


ting Anh c phn ng hn v cc em ho hng hn. Tuy nhin, bc hc cao hn -

cn n o.
Tr mt s t hc sinh mun i du hc, hng ti vic ly chng ch SAT th mn
m, cn li u cm thy cha cn thit phi hc.

THPT, nhiu hc sinh cha xc nh r mc tiu ca chng trnh ny s c g nn

T
N

 Thiu gio vin v chng trnh chun


Hai ci kh ln nht l thiu gio vin c trnh ting Anh t chun v thiu

chng trnh chun, thng nht. V gio vin, cc trng u b ng, phi t o to,

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ID

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.Q

t bi dng hoc tm ngun thu, hp ng t bn ngoi l chnh. Tr mt s t


trng c iu kin, a gio vin i nc ngoi o to, bi dng, tp hun, s cn
li u gp kh khn nh nhau.
Hin nay, khi tuyn dng gio vin, cc trng ch trng n nng lc chuyn
mn v kh nng ting Anh.
 Trnh qu ti
Lnh o cc trng chuyn c hi u nhn nhn, vic dy hc bng ting
Anh lc u ngi hc s thy kh khn, nhng v lu di s c li.
Tuy nhin, cn ch o ca B v chng trnh v thng nht v sch gio khoa,
o to gio vin trong v ngoi nc..
L do phi iu chnh thi lng cc mn hc bng ting Anh, theo ban gim
hiu trng l hc sinh khng b qu ti v m bo cht lng cn thit cho cc
mn chuyn.
Mt trn tr chung khc ca lnh o cc trng chuyn, nu trin khai dy cc
mn Ton, L, Ha... bng ting Anh th gio vin thiu rt nhiu. Trong khi , nu
tuyn c gio vin c kh nng ting Anh th cng phi mt t nht 5 nm mi vng
vng v chuyn mn ng lp...
Do , cn c c ch i ng ph hp gi chn gio vin gii. Bi khi h gii
ngoi ng th khng trnh khi li mi ca nhng mi trng lm vic tt hn, lng
cao hn, v h s "nhy vic".
Hin nay, cn nhiu kh khn trong vic dy v hc ting Anh trong cc trng
hc Vit Nam:
- V i ng gio vin ging dy, nhn chung l cn yu, kh nng giao tip ni
ting Anh lu lot cn hn ch.

37

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

- S s hc sinh trong trng hc Vit Nam ng trn 30 em thm ch n 45 em.


- Ti liu sch gio khoa chnh thng ting Anh dng trong cc trng cha p

kho, sch c thm bng ting Anh cho cc cp cn rt him trong cc th vin
trng hc.
T nhng nhn nh trn, chng ta a ra gii php dy v hc ting Anh ton din

ng vi trnh trong khu vc v chun luyn thi cc chng ch quc t. Sch tham

T
N

vi dch v tt nht:
- Cung cp gii php nghe nhn tng tc hin i ng b ha gip gio vin ting

Anh cng nh tt c cc gio vin khai thc nhanh chng tt c cc ti nguyn ging

TO

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dy mt cc d dng, nhanh chng. C th mi ngay gio vin bn ng hin din trn


lp thng qua internet cc trang web hc ting Anh gii bi cho cc em, lp i lp
li theo mun b khuyt cho trnh ni ting Anh ca gio vin Vit Nam.
- H thng nghe nhn tng tc ton din trn c b tr trong phng hc b mn
ngoi ng tr thnh phng hc ngoi ng tng tc (interactive language laboratory).
Trong c trang b phng tin nghe ring, ni ring gip tng thi lng nghe ni
trong mt tit hc, gip hc sinh nghe ni lu lot hn, trnh c s ngi ngng, mc
cm t ti khi s dng ting Anh trong giao tip.
- Song song vi trang b No lab, chng ti cn ci t phn mm ging dy theo cc
gio trnh ang c B GDDT cho lu hnh. Ring phn sch, chng ti da vo
khung chng trnh, tham chiu chun Chu u, cng vi nh xut bn Oxford cho ra
b sch Family and friends dnh cho tiu hc v b sch Solutions dnh cho hc sinh
t lp 6 n lp 12.
- Mt trong nhng u t hng u ca lnh o gio dc l vic a vo s dng c
hiu qu cc phng tin trang b. Kt hp vi Oxford v PolyVision chng ti tin
hnh bi dng gio vin hng nm vo dp h cng nh tp hun bn giao tn tnh,
ch hu mi chm sc khch hng chu o.
TIU KT CHNG 1

B
ID

Trong chng 1 chng ti trnh by c s l lun v thc tin ca ti bao gm:


1. Mc ch v ngha dy hc ha hc trung hc ph thng bng ting Anh:
-

Rn luyn cc k nng s dng ting Anh trong hc tp l bn k nng: nghe,


ni, c, vit.

To s t tin trong giao tip hc thut bng ting Anh.

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ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

Hi nhp vi gio dc th gii.

2. Tm hiu thc trng trin khai n dy hc cc mn khoa hc t nhin bng ting

- Gii thiu n Pht trin h thng trng trung hc ph thng giai on 2010

Anh trng trung hc ph thng.

2020 (S 959/Q-TTg ngy 24/6/2010).

T
N

- nh gi thc trng trin khai n ca B GD & T v dy hc cc mn khoa

hc t nhin bng ting Anh cc trng THPT.

- Phn tch nhng thun li v kh khn trong vic trin khai dy hc cc mn

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khoa hc t nhin bng ting Anh cc trng THPT.

39

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/DAYKEM.QUYNHON

TING ANH TRNG TRUNG HC PH THNG


2.1. Phng php dy hc ha hc bng ting Anh
2.1.1. Xy dng h thng t vng, thut ng ha hc bng ting Anh
Trong dy v hc ting Anh, t vng l mt trong ba thnh t to thnh h thng
kin thc ngn ng v ng vai tr l phng tin, iu kin hnh thnh v pht trin

Chng II: NGHIN CU PHNG PHP DY HC HA HC BNG

T
N

k nng giao tip. Nh vy, vic hc t vng v rn luyn k nng s dng t vng l
yu t hng u trong vic truyn th v tip thu mt ngn ng ni chung v ting Anh
ni ring.

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.Q

Trong dy hc ho hc bng ting Anh th vic cp t vng cho hc sinh v gip


hc sinh nh vn dng nm kin thc truyn th ca gio vin l khu ht sc quan
trng. Khi xy dng h thng t vng c th la chn sp xp h thng t vng theo
th t A, B, C theo t in ho hc Vit Anh hoc sp xp h thng t vng theo
tng ch , tng chng ca tng ni dung ho hc theo A, B, C...
Vic xy dng h thng t vng trong dy hc ho hc bng ting Anh gio vin
khng ch c tp hp thng k t vng ri chp cho hc sinh l c m vn quan
trng l gio vin sau khi xy dng h thng t vng th cn phi c phng php hc
tp nm vng h thng t vng mt cch chc chn v to cho mnh s hu mt vn
t vng phong ph. Ngoi vic xy dng v cung cp h thng t vng th gio vin
cn c phng php ph hp gii thiu t vng cho ph hp vi tng i tng
hc sinh.
Nh vy, vic xy dng h thng v cung cp t vng cho hc sinh l mt trong
nhng khu quan trng, i hi ngi gio vin phi u t rt nhiu cng sc, thi
gian su tm, sp xp, hc tp, nghin cu phng php cung cp v rn luyn k
nng tip nhn, nm bt ni dung ca hc sinh t mi t c hiu qu cao trong
vic trin khai cc khu ln lp v mc tiu bi hc.
xy dng vn t vng chng ta c th s dng nhiu cch: Chng ta c th s
dng t in, tm cc thut ng ha hc lin quan n ch v bi chng cn dy
ha hoc c th ly vn t qua cc sch ha hc ting Anh hay tra cu cc thut ng
ha hc trong sch gio khoa ha hc THPT hin hnh chuyn i sang thut ng ting
Anh.
V d: khi dy bi Bng tun hon, thuc chng 1, SGK ha hc lp 10 ban c
bn. . Chng ta c th xy dng c nh sau:

40

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON

li

kim loi kim

liquid

cht lng

main-group

nhm chnh

alkaline

adj tnh kim


kim loi kim th

mass number

s khi

atom

nguyn t

mass

khi lng

atomic

adj thuc nguyn t

metal

kim loi

atomic weight

nguyn t khi

metalloid

kim

atomic mass

nguyn t khi

metallic character n

atomic shell

v nguyn t

negatively charged adj in tch m

atomic symbol

k hiu nguyn t

neutral

atomic number

s hiu nguyn t

neutron

basic

adj tnh baz

noble gas

charge

charged

adj thuc in tch

chemical

ha hc

compound

hp cht

T
N

alkaline earth metal n

tnh kim loi

U
n

ntron

kh him

non-metals

phi kim

occupy

chim

orbit

qu o

oxide

oxit

period

chu k

periodic law

nh lut tun hon

periodic table

bng tun hon

TP

.Q

trung ha

in tch

tnh cht ha hc

combine

kt hp

decrease

gim

element

nguyn t

phosphorus

adj pht pho

element symbol

k hiu nguyn t

physical

adj thuc tnh vt l

elemental notation n

k hiu nguyn t

physicist

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

chemical property n

adj thuc v in

nh vt l

physical properties n

tnh cht vt l

quantum number

s lng t

cu hnh electron

property

tnh cht

experiment

th nghim

ray

tia

energy level

mc nng lng

react

phn ng

electron affinity

i lc electron

radius

bn knh

electronegativity

m in

atomic size

kch thc nguyn t

fundamental

adj c bn

radioactivity

phng x

group

nhm

radiation

bc x

horizontal row

hng ngang

salt

mui

increase

tng

substance

cht

TO

-L

G
N

electron
configuration

kernel

alkali metal

electrically

B
ID

Meaning

Vocabulary

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ionization energy n

nng lng ion ha

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cn dy v cn cung cp cho hc sinh trong tit hc , ch khng phi xy dng t


vng mt cch ln xn.

Cch la chn t vng dy tng phn: c rt nhiu vn t ting Anh trong ha


hc, nhng gio vin phi xy dng h thng t vng theo tng ch , tng vn

T
N

iu s lm cho ngi dy khng ch ng trong vic s dng t v ngi


hc kh th tip thu mt cch c h thng.

2.1.2. Xy dng h thng mu cu ting Anh s dng trong dy hc ha hc


Trong dy hc ni chung v trong dy hc ho hc bng ting Anh ni ring

.Q

mi chng trnh u c mu cu chung v mu cu ring c s dng trong qu


trnh dy hc. thun li trong vic dy hc ho hc bng ting Anh, chng ta cn
phi xy dng h thng cc loi mu cu chung v ring cho mi chng, mi ch .

TR

TP

Trc ht cn phi xy dng c h thng mu cu bng ting vit, sau gio vin
thc hin vic phn loi mu cu v chuyn mu cu ting Vit thnh ting Anh. Trong
qu trnh son gio n ln lp, gio vin s dng mu cu xy dng hon thin
gio n m khng cn phi va son gio n va xy dng mu cu v chuyn mu
cu thnh ting Anh. y, chng ti xy dng c mt s dng mu cu s dng
trong phm vi gii hn ca ti nh sau:

10
0

0B

Mu cu ring:
Example:

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

 So snh hn vi tnh t ngn: short - adj + er + than


- Boiling point of oxygen is lower than ozone
Nhit si ca kh oxi thp hn ca ozon.
- Chlorine is a stronger oxidizing agent than bromine
Clo l cht oxi ha mnh hn brom
- Pure oxygen is 1.1 times heavier than air.
- Oxi tinh khit nng gp 1.1 ln so vi khng kh
- In alkaline solution, the concentration of OH- is greater than of H+.
Trong dung dch kim, nng [OH-] ln hn nng [H+].

 So snh hn vi tnh t di: more + long adj + than


- Ozone is more soluble in water than oxygen.
Ozon d tan trong nc hn oxi.
- Iodine is less soluble than bromine.
Iot t tan hn brom.

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- Sulfur is more soluble in benzene than in water.


Lu hunh d tan trong benzen hn trong nc.

 So snh nht vi tnh t ngn: the + short adj + est.


- Hydrogen atom has the smallest radius of about 0.053nm.
Nguyn t hiro c bn knh nh nht khong 0.053nm.
- 1s orbital has the lowest energy.

T
N

Obitan 1s c nng lng thp nht.


- Elemental fluorine has the greatest electronegativity

TP

.Q

 So snh vi tnh t di: the + most + long adj.


- Noble gas elements are the most durable.
Nguyn t kh him l bn nht.
- Fluorine is the most powerful of all non-metallic elements.
Flo c tnh phi kim mnh nht.
- Hydrogen is the least electronegative element.
Nguyn t c m in nh nht l hiro.

Nguyn t flo c m in ln nht.

2+
3

10
0

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TR

 So snh kp (cng cng):


Tnh t ngn: the Adj-er + S +V, the Adj-er + S +V
Tnh t di: the more Adj + S + V , the more Adj + S + V
- For halogens, the higher the molecular weight, the higher boiling point
i vi cc halogen, phn t khi cng cao th nhit si cng cao.
- The higher standard electrode potential is, the stronger oxidation gets
Th in cc chun cng ln, tnh oxi ha cng mnh.

-L

 So snh bi s: half, twice, three times,


- The number of carbon atoms of maltose have two times as many as of glucose.
S nguyn t cacbon ca mantoz gp i s nguyn t cacbon ca glucoz.

B
ID

TO

 How many + countable nouns + be + there + in?


- How many grams of chlorine are there in 2.5 mol of hydrogen chloride?
C bao nhiu gam clo trong 2.5 mol hiro clorua?
- How many sulfur atoms are there in -sulfur?
C bao nhiu nguyn t lu hunh trong lu hunh n t?
 How many + countable nouns ?
- How many carboxyl groups are there in glutamic acid molecules?

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C bao nhiu nhm cacboxyl trong phn t axit glutamic?


- How many groups are there in periodic table?

C bao nhiu nhm bng tun hon?

 How much + uncountable nouns + ?


- How much of oxygen can be dissolved in 100 ml of water?
C bao nhiu oxi c th tan trong 100 ml nc?

T
N

 Dng b ng ca ng t khuyt thuyt: S + may/must/can/should+ be + P2.


- Chlorine is used to disinfect water
Kh clo c s dng kh trng nc.

TP

.Q

 S + may/can/should/must + V + O
- The equilibrium will shift to right/ left.
Cn bng s chuyn dch sang tri/ phi.

 Th hin ti hon thnh: S + have/has + P2 + O?


- Scientists have determined the size and mass of particles which make up atoms.
Cc nh khoa hc xc nh kch thc v khi lng ca cc ht to nn
nguyn t

2+
3

10
0

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TR

 Th hin ti n:
- Bromine is produced from ocean water.
Brom c sn xut t nc bin.
- Oxygen is a colourless, odourless, tasteless gas essential to living organisms.
Oxi l kh khng mu, khng mi, khng v, cn thit cho c th sng
- Ammonia is a weak base.
Amoniac l baz yu.

B
ID

TO

-L

- Neutral environment has a pH of 7.


Mi trng trung ha c pH l 7.
- In the pharmaceutical industry, sucrose is material for preparing drugs:
Trong ngnh cng nghip dc phm, saccaroz l vt liu sn xut thuc
 Depend on + something ph thuc vo ci g
- Equilibrium constant changes with temperature in a continuous way that depends
on H of the reaction.
Hng s cn bng thay i theo nhit mt cch lin tc ph thuc vo H ca
cc phn ng.

44

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- The shifting equilibrium depends on temperature, pressure and concentration of


substances in chemical reaction.

cc cht trong phn ng ha hc.

S chuyn dch cn bng ph thuc vo iu kin nhit , p sut v nng

 B ng ca hin ti n:
- This compound is named as halides.

T
N

Hp cht ny c gi tn l halogenua.
- The periodic table are divided into eight main groups.

Bng tun hon c chia thnh tm nhm chnh.

TP

.Q

- Atoms of these elements can be surrounded by more than four valence pairs in
certain compounds.
Nguyn t ca cc nguyn t ny c bao quanh hn bn cp electron ha tr.

Neither nor.: cng khng

TR

- Cellulose neither dissolve in water nor in organic solvents.


Xenluloz khng tan trong nc cng nh khng tan trong dung mi hu c.
- Law of conservation of matter: state that matter is neither created nor destroyed.
nh lut bo ton vt cht: cho bit vt cht khng to nn v cng khng mt
To be made of: cu to t ci g nhng vn gi nguyn tnh cht ban u

10
0

0B

i.

To be made from + something : cu to t ci g nhng khng gi

2+
3

- This table is made of wood.


Chic bn ny c to thnh t g.

nguyn tnh cht ban u.

B
ID

TO

-L

- Soap is made from fat.


X phng c ch to t cht bo.
- Rice is made from starch.
Go c to thnh t tinh bt.
- Buna rubber is made from buta -1,3-dien
Cao su buna c to thnh t buta - 1,3 ien

Ngoi ra, trong qu trnh ging dy chng ta s phi tri qua cc hot ng nh
yu cu mi vic trn lp, t cu hi, bt u, kt thc bi hc, thc hin cc hot
ng trong sch gio khoa v trn bng, iu khin lp hc, ng vin v khuyn khch

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hc sinh. V vy, trong dy ha hc bng ting anh vic xy dng v la chn cc mu


cu giao tip ph hp l ht sc cn thit v phi c tnh h thng.

H
N
B
H
T
N
N

Answer it, somebody: Mt ai hy tr li n


Don't be quiet now: By gi, ng yn lng
Just sit down and be quiet: Ch cn ngi xung v im lng
I want you to try exercise 1: C mun cc em c gng lm bi tp 1

V d nh cu mnh lnh
- Close your books: Gp sch li
- You say it, Mai: Bn Mai hy tr li

TP

.Q

Yu cu (tng t cu mnh lnh nhng dng ng iu thp hn)


- Come here, please: Hy n y
- Would you like to write on the board? Em c mun vit ln bng?
- Can/Could you say it again? Em c th ni mt ln na?

- Do you mind repeating what I said? Em c nh li nhng g c ni?

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

ngh:
- Let's start now: Hy bt u ngay by gi
- What about if we translate these sentences? Chng ta dch nhng cu sau s l
g?
- You can leave question 1 out: Em c th ri khi cu hi s 1
- There is no need to translate everything: Khng cn phi dch tt c mi th.

Cu hi:
- Do you agree with A? Em c ng vi A khng?
- Can you all see? Cc em c nhn thy tt c khng?
- Are you sure? Em c chc chn khng?

- Do you really think so? Em c thc s ngh nh vy?

B
ID

TO

-L

Bt u bi hc:
- Hurry up so that I can start the lesson: Nhanh ln ti c th bt u bi hc.
- Is everybody ready to start? Cc em sn sng bt u bi hc cha?
- I think we can start now: Ti ngh chng ta c th bt u by gi
- I'm waiting for you to be quiet: Ti ang i lp yn lng.
- What's the day today / What day is it today?: Hm nay l ngy my?
Kt thc bi hc:
- We'll have to stop here: Chng ta s phi dng li y.

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- All right, that's all for day: c ri, l tt c ca bui hc.


- We'll finish this next time: Chng ta s hon thnh bi hc ny vo ln sau.

chng ny vo thi gian tip.


- Please re-read this lesson for Monday's: Hy c li bi hc ny cho hm th hai.
- You were supposed to do this exercise for homework: Em phi lm bi tp ny

- We'll continue working on this chapter next time: Chng ta s tip tc lm vic

T
N

cho bi tp v nh.
- Remember your homework: Cc em nh lm bi tp v nh

- See you again on Monday: Hn gp li vo th hai

TP

.Q

Khi gio vin gy ra sai st trong lp hc hoc c vic bn phi ra ngoi, c th


xin li hc sinh bng cch:
- I'll be back in the moment: C s tr li ngay
- I'm sorry, I didn't notice it: C xin li. C khng ch iu .

Cnh bo hc sinh khi cc em gp sai lm (tr li sai, thiu tn trng gio vin):
- Be careful / Look out / Watch out: Hy cn thn / Nhn ra / Xem ra.
- Mind / watch the steps: Nh/ Xem cc bc

TR

- You will be in detention next week: Bn s b pht trong tun ti

2+
3

10
0

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Hot ng trong sch gio khoa:


- Give out a textbook, please: Vui lng a sch gio khoa ra.
- Open your books at page 10: M sch ra trang 10
- Has everybody got a book? / Does everybody have a book? Tt c mi ngi

B
ID

TO

-L

c mt cun sch?
- Look at exercise 1 on page 10: Nhn vo bi tp 1 trang 10.
- Turn back to the page 10: Tr li trang 10
- Look at the dialog on page 10: Nhn vo hp thoi trn trang 10.
- Stop working now: Dng lm vic by gi.
- Put your pens down: t bt ca bn xung.
- Let's read the text aloud: Hy c vn bn thnh ting.
- Do you understand everything? Bn c hiu tt c mi th?

Lm vic nhm:
- Work in pairs: Lm vic theo cp
- Work together with your friend: Lm vic cng nhau vi bn ca bn.

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- I want to form groups. 4 pupils in each group: C mun to thnh cc nhm. 4


hc sinh trong mi nhm.

H
N

- Everyone, look at the board, please: Tt c cc em, nhn ln bng

T
N

Lm vic trn bng


- Come out to board, please: Hy ln bng
- Come out and write the word on the board: n y v hy vit t ln bng
- Are these sentences on the board right? Nhng cu trn bng c ng khng?
- Anything wrong with sentence 1? C iu g sai vi cu 1?

- Discuss it with your neighbor: Tho lun vi bn k bn.

TP

.Q

Vic xy dng mu cu i hi ngi dy phi khng nhng c vng kin thc


chuyn mn v cn phi thc s hiu bit v cc phng php, phng tin v k thut
dy hc. T su tm, sng to cc loi mu cu ph hp vi ni dung bi hc v i
tng hc sinh t c mc tiu dy hc.

TR

2.1.3. Thit k gio n dy hc ha hc bng ting Anh


Bn cnh vic bm st chun kin thc k nng bi hc v tun th cc khu ln
lp trong dy hc th vic thit k gio n trong dy hc bng ting Anh cng cn phi
linh hot trong thit k, nht l phn ni dung cc bc ln lp. V d bng sau:

0B

Bng 2.1 So snh gio n dy ha hc bng ting vit v gio n dy bng ting Anh
Gio n dy bng ting Vit

10
0

Khu ln lp

2+
3

- Kim tra, nh gi mc nh v

- Kim tra, nh gi kin thc


lin quan ni dung bi hc...

Hi bi c

B
ID

TO

-L

- S dng cc phng php,


Dy bi mi phng tin dy hc thc
hin mc tiu bi hc.

Cng c

Gio n dy bng ting Anh

- Cng c ni dung bi hc v
vn dng, pht trin kin thc
trng tm.

hiu t vng c hc...


- Kim tra, nh gi kin thc lin
quan ni dung bi hc....
- B1: cung cp t vng, mu cu
lin quan n kin thc bi hc
- B2: S dng cc phng php,
phng tin dy hc thc hin
mc tiu bi hc.
- Cng c t vng, mu cu, k
nng pht m v vit ting Anh.
- Cng c ni dung bi hc v vn
dng, pht trin kin thc trng tm.

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Vic thit k gio n cn ph thuc vo kiu bi nh: bi mi, luyn tp, n tp.
Nhng trong tt c cc bi dy, khi thit k gio n ngoi vic trin khai ni dung

thch hp hc sinh va hiu v nm r t vng, va to c s kch thch v hng


th, am m hc tp ca hc sinh m vn m bo thc hin thnh cng mc tiu bi
hc.

trng tm bi hc th gio vin cn phi lu ch trng vic s dng phng php

T
N

2.1.3.1. Dy hc l thuyt
Trong vic tin hnh mt tit dy hc l thuyt cc mn khoa hc bng ting Anh

khng phi hon ton ging nh trong dy hc ting Anh n thun. l gio vin v

TP

.Q

hc sinh gn nh hon ton giao tip vi nhau bng ting Anh m tu tng bi, tng
tnh hung c th m gio vin v hc sinh c th s dng linh hot cc phng php
dy hc cc cp khc nhau. V d, c ba cp dy hc nh sau:
- Cp 1: dy hc cung cp mt s thut ng ha hc bng ting Anh cho hc

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
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TR

sinh sau thc hin tin trnh ln lp bng ting Vit. S dng cch ny hc sinh s
khng rn c cc k nng quan trng trong hc ting Anh nh k nng ni, vit v
giao tip
- Cp 2: dy hc song ng - ng thi 50% ting Anh v 50% ting Vit. Vic
tin hnh theo phng php ny thng c s dng trong nhng tnh hung kin
thc phc tp, qu mi m m hc sinh khng kp tip thu v khng nm bt c
ni dung vn .
- Cp 3: hon ton bng ting Anh. Phng php ny thng c s dng khi
trnh ca hc sinh ng u v nhng ni dung trin khai khng qu phc tp m
tng i quen thuc vi hc sinh. Nu pht huy c ti a vic s dng phng
php ny s gip cho hc sinh c c hi rn cc k nng s dng ngn ng hc tp
ting Anh ca mnh.
D s dng phng php v cp dy hc no th gio vin cng cn phi c
cng tc chun b ht sc chu o v cn thn mi c th thc hin t tin v thnh cng
bi dy ca mnh. Nhng ni dung quan trng v cn thit m gio vin cn phi chun
b cho bi ging nh:
- Gio n: cn th hin ng quy trnh ln lp v cc phng php, cp dy hc
tng ni dung c th m bo tnh khoa hc v thc hin c mc tiu bi dy.
- Cc mu cu giao tip thng thng trong lp hc: gio vin cn phi chun b v
th hin nhun nhuyn cc k nng s dng cc mu cu giao tip thng thng trong

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lp hc to s t tin cho mnh v kch thch s hng phn cho ngi hc, trnh
trng hp ni sai, ni khng r rng, thm ch l ni sai cc mu cu lm cho hc sinh

H
N

- I have opinions: Em c kin.


- Who has any ideal? Ai c kin g khng?
- Who has any opinion about this problem? Ai c kin g v bi tp ny khng?

hiu nhm iu mnh ni. Cc mu cu thng dng nh:

T
N

- I have some question: Ti c my cu hi


- Who will answer to these questions? Ai tr li c cu hi ny?

- What is the answer to question 4? p n cho cu hi s 4 l my?

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

TP

.Q

- Score two point for each correct answer? Ghi c 2 im cho mi cu tr li


ng?
- Think carefully before you answer! Hy suy ngh trc khi em tr li!
- Who solve this problem? Ai gii c bi tp ny?
- Did you do exercise yesterday? Em lm bi tp hm qua cha?
- There is a difficult exercise on page 20: C mt bi tp kh trang 20.
- It is too difficult for me to solve this exercise: Qu kh i vi ti gii bi tp
ny.
- It is easy to find the result of this exercise: D dng tm c kt qu bi tp ny.
- This exercise has many solution, but this is the most consice way: Bi tp ny c
nhiu cch gii nhng y l cch gii ngn gn nht.
- Did you do homework? Em lm bi tp v nh cha?
- Yesterday I was tired so I havent done my homeworks: Hm qua em mt nn
cha lm xong bi tp v nh.
- Experimental chemical exercise: Bi tp ha hc thc nghim.
- Some steps to build/ to solve chemical problem: Cc bc xy dng/ gii bi tp
ha hc.
- To form skills solving problems: Hnh thnh cc k nng gii bi tp ha hc.
- Today we are studying unit of chemical equilibrium: Hm nay, chng ta hc bi
cn bng ha hc.
- This unit has the following important content: Bi hc ny c nhng ni dung
quan trng sau y.

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Cc mu cu ting Anh lin quan n ni dung bi hc: ngoi vic chun b cc


mu cu giao tip thng thng trong lp hc th vic quan trng l gio vin cn cn

Cc thut ng ca bi tip theo: hc sinh c thi gian nghin cu, nm bt cc


ni dung ca bi mi th ngay sau khi kt thc bi hc, gio vin cn cung cp cho hc
sinh cc thut ng ca bi tip theo.

phi chun b cc mu cu lin quan n ni dung bi hc mnh trin khai.

T
N

Phng php, phng tin dy hc: trong dy hc l thuyt, gio vin nn kt hp


cc phng php dy hc mt cch nhun nhuyn. nng cao hiu qu nhm thc

hin mc tiu bi hc th ngoi vic a dng cc phng php dy hc th i hi gio

TP

.Q

vin phi tng cng s dng cc phng tin trc quan, tranh nh, hay bng biu
hc sinh d t duy hn nu cha bt kp cc vn t vng kh.
Ngoi ra, gio vin cn cung cp cho hc sinh cc tn cc nguyn t, hp cht
ha hc v ion bng ting anh nh:

Symbol

Name

Relative
atomic
mass

1.008

53

Iodine

126.90

0B

Hydrogen

He

Helium

4.003

54

Xe

Xenon

131.30

Li

Lithium

6.94

55

Cs

Cesium

132.91

Be

Beryllium

9.01

56

Ba

Barium

137.34

Boron

10.81

57

La

Lanthanum

138.91

Carbon

12.01

58

Ce

Cerium

140.12

Nitrogen

14.01

59

Pr

Praseodymium 140.91

Oxygen

16.00

60

Nd

Neodymium

144.24

Flourine

19.00

61

Pm

Promethium

147.00

Ne

Neon

20.18

62

Sm

Samarium

150.35

11

Na

Sodium

22.99

63

Eu

Europium

151.96

12

Mg

Magnesium

24.31

64

Gd

Gadolinium

157.25

13

Al

Aluminium

26.98

65

Tb

Terbium

158.92

14

Si

Silicon

28.09

66

Dy

Dysprosium

162.30

15

Phosphorus

30.97

67

Ho

Holmium

164.93

16

Sulfur

32.06

68

Er

Erbium

167.26

17

Cl

Chlorine

35.45

69

Tm

Thulium

168.93

B
ID

TO

TR

10
0

2+
3

C
A

-L

10

Symbol Name

Relative
atomic
mass

Atomic
number

Atomic
number

Bng 2.2 Tn cc nguyn t ha hcv khi lng nguyn t tng i.

51

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Yb

Ytterbium

173.04

19

Potassium

39.01

71

Lu

Lutetium

174.97

20

Ca

Calcium

40.08

72

Hf

Hafnium

178.94

21

Sc

Scandium

44.96

73

Ta

Tantalum

180.95

22

Ti

Titanium

47.90

74

Tungsten

183.85

23

Vanadium

50.94

75

Re

Rhenium

186.20

24

Cr

Chromium

52.01

76

Os

Osmium

190.20

25

Mn

Manganese

54.94

77

Ir

Iridium

26

Fe

Iron

55.85

78

Pt

Plantium

27

Co

Cobalt

58.93

79

Au

Gold

28

Ni

Nickel

58.71

80

Hg

Mercury

29

Cu

Copper

63.54

81

Ti

30

Zn

Zinc

65.37

82

Pb

31

Ga

Gallium

69.72

83

32

Ge

Germanium

72.59

84

33

As

Arsenic

74.92

85

34

Se

Selenium

78.96

35

Br

Bromine

79.91

36

Kr

Krypton

37

Rb

Rubidium

38

Sr

Strontium

39

40

T
N
N

207.20

Bi

Bismuth

208.98

Po

Polonium

210.00

At

Astatine

210.00

86

Rn

Radon

222.00

87

Fr

Francium

223.00

83.80

88

Ra

Radium

226.00

85.47

89

Ac

Actinium

227.00

87.62

90

Th

Thorium

232.04

Yttrium

88.91

91

Pa

Protactinium

231.00

Zr

Zirconium

91.22

92

Uranium

238.03

41

Nb

Niobium

92.91

93

Np

Neptunium

237.00

42

Mo

Molybdenum 95.94

94

Pu

Plutonium

239.00

43

Tc

Technetium

99.00

95

Am

Americium

241.00

Ru

Ruthenium

101.07

96

Cm

Curium

247.00

Rh

Rhodium

102.91

97

Bk

Berkbelium

249.00

46

Pd

Palladium

105.40

98

Cf

Californium

251.00

47

Ag

Silver

107.87

99

Es

Einsteinium

254.00

48

Cd

Cadmium

112.40

100

Fm

Fermium

257.00

49

In

Indium

114.82

101

Md

Mendelevium

258.00

50

Sn

Tin

118.69

102

No

Nobelium

255.00

51

Sb

Antimony

121.75

103

Lr

Lawrencium

257.00

52

Te

Tellurium

127.60

TR

10
0

2+
3

C
A

-L

TO

TP

.Q

Lead

204.37

196.97

0B

195.09

Thallium

G
N

192.20

200.59

45

70

39.95

Argon

Ar

18

44

B
ID

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Bng 2.3 Tn cc hp cht axit, baz v ion in hnh


Symbol
H2SeO4

Name
Selenic acid

C O 32

Carbonate

H2TeO4

Telluric acid

Nitrate

H C O 3

Hydrocarbonate

HF

Hydrofluoric acid

Sulfate

S iO 32

Silicate

HBr

Hydrobromic acid

Hydrosulfate

NH

+
4

Ammonium

HCl

Hydrochloric acid

Sulfide
Hydrosulfide
Phosphide

O 2

H 3O +

Oxide
Hydroxide
Hydronium

HI
LiOH
NaOH

Hydroiodic acid
Lithium hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide

P O 34

Phosphate

H2SO4

Sulfuric acid

KOH

Potassium hydroxide

H P O 24

Hydrophosphate

H2SO3

Sulfurous acid

RbOH

H 2 P O 4

Dihydrophosphate

HNO3

Nitric acid

CsOH

Sulfite

HNO2

Nitrous acid

C lO 2

Hydrosulfite
Chloride
Hypochlorite
Chlorite

HClO
HClO2
HClO3
HClO4

Hypochlorous acid
Chlorous acid
Chloric acid
Perchloric acid

C lO 3

Chlorate

HBrO

Hypobromous acid

C lO 4

Perchlorate

HBrO2

Fluoride
Bromide

C lO

H
N

T
N

Rubidium hydroxide
Cesium hydroxide

Mg(OH)2 Manganese
hydroxide
Ba(OH)2 Barium hydroxide
Fe(OH)2 Iron(II) hydroxide
Fe(OH)3 Irom(III) hydroxide
Cu(OH)2 Copper hydroxide
Cr(OH)2

Bromous acid

Cr(OH)3

HBrO3
HBrO4

Bromic acid
Perbromic acid

Be(OH)2
Al(OH)3

HIO
HIO2

Hypoiodous acid
Iodous acid

Zn(OH)2
AgOH

Chromium (II)
hydroxide
Chromium (III)
hydroxide
Berium hydroxide
Aluminum
hydroxide
Znc hydroxide
Silver hydroxide

B rO 2

Hypobromite
Bromite

B rO 3

Bromate

HIO3

Iodic acid

Ni(OH)2

Nickel hydroxide

B rO

Perbromate

HIO4

Periodic acid

Pb(OH)2

Calcium hydroxide

Br

Cl

H S

OH

TR

HS

0B

S2

10
0

HSO

S O 24

IO

N O 3

.Q

Nitride

CN

Name
Periodate

TP

Symbol

Name
Cyanide

2+
3

Symbol

IO 2

Iodide
Hypoiodite
Iodite

H3PO4
H2SiO3
H4P2O7

Phosphoric acid
Silicic acid
Diphosphoric acid

Sn(OH)2
Ca(OH)2
Sr(OH)2

Tin hydroxide
Calcium hydroxide
Strontium hydroxide

IO 3

Iodate

H2CO3

Carbonic acid

Mn(OH)2 Manganese(II)
hydroxide

B rO

B
ID

TO

IO

-L

Nh vy trong dy hc l thuyt, i hi ngi gio vin phi chun b cng phu,


khoa hc v c tnh k hoch cao. Ngoi kin thc chuyn mn, kin thc ting Anh
th gio vin cn phi bit s dng kt hp cc phng php, phng tin, k thut dy
hc mt cch ph hp. Cn v pha hc sinh, tip thu hiu qu v hon thnh nhim

53

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v ca ngi hc th hc sinh cn phi thc hin tt cc nhim v ca gio vin giao


cho, nht l nhng ni sung chun b trc khi ln lp nh t vng, mu cu, kin thc

n nhng ni dung pht trin kin thc bi hc mi nhm hiu su sc hn ni dung


v gy thm s t m, hng phn tm hiu bi hc.
2.1.3.2. Dy hc bi tp

... Bn cnh , hc sinh cng phi tch cc tm hiu cc kin thc khoa hc lin quan

T
N

Trong gio dc hc i cng, bi tp c xp trong h thng phng php dy


hc. V d phng php luyn tp, c coi l mt trong nhng phng php quan

trng nht nng cao cht lng dy hc b mn. y cng l mt phng php hc

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

TP

.Q

tp tch cc i vi hc sinh. V vy, ngi gio vin Ha hc phi nm vng cc tc


dng ca bi tp Ha hc, phn loi chng v tm ra phng hng chung gii.
mc cao hn, cn phi bit chn, cha v xy dng nhng bi tp mi.
Trong dy hc Ha hc bng ting Anh, vic dy hc bi tp cn i hi ngi
gio vin phi u t rt nhiu thi gian v tr tu thc hin thnh cng mc tiu dy
hc ca mnh. Theo chng ti, c hai bc c bn i hi gio vin phi thc hin
trong dy hc bi tp ha hc bng ting Anh.
Bc 1: Chun b ni dung trc khi ln lp
Trong khu chun b ni dung trc khi ln lp, gio vin cn phi lp k hoch
chun b cho mnh v nhng yu cu cho hc sinh chun b ni dung bi ging. C th
nh sau:
 Vic chun b ca gio vin: Vic la chn v phn loi bi tp ph hp vi ni
dung bi ging v i tng hc sinh cng i hi gio vin thc hin nghim tc v
cng phu. Sau khi chun b xong, gio vin phn loi v h thng cc vn chun
b theo tng ni dung, tng loi bi tp v tng phng php dy hc.
 La chn mu cu: trong dy hc bi tp ha hc bng ting anh cc thut ng
ton hc c s dng nhiu trong vic gii cc bi ton ha hc nh:
- Caculate Hy tnh.........
- CompareHy so snh................
- Comment Hy nhn xt ...
- Please tell me .Hy cho bit...
- Explain ..Hy gii thch...
- For example .. Hy ly v d...
- Demonstrate..Hy chng minh...

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- Identify ..;distinguish .; separate..; refine: Hy nhn bit, phn bit, tch,


tinh ch...

kin thc hc tr li cu hi sau


- Please complete the chemical equation, the following reaction scheme ....Hy hon
thnh cc phng trnh ha hc, s phn ng sau....

- Please apply their knowledge to answer the following questions: Hy vn dng

T
N

- Write the chemical equation happens ...Hy vit cc phng trnh ha hc xy ra...
- Please indicate the chemical properties of..Hy nu tnh cht ha hc ca...

- Please indicate phenomena occur ...Hy nu cc hin tng xy ra...

TP

.Q

- Present experiments, methods of preparation and application ...Hy trnh by th


nghim, phng php iu ch, ng dng...
- Almost equal: hu nh bng nhau
- Nearly/about/virtually/approximately equal: gn bng
- Just equal: va bng
- A temperature of minus ten of degree centigrade: Nhit m 100C

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

- Negative charge/ minus charge: in tch m


- Positive charge/ plus charge: in tch dng.
- It follows that x = y: T suy ra x = y.
- Since then we have: x>y: T ta c x>y.
- Thus we have: a<b: Nh vy, ta c: a<b.
- The result is: Kt qu l.
- Proportion(n): t l.(proportion of something to something).
- The proportion of three to one: t l ba mt.
- The proportion of radius to charge is increasing quickly: T l gia bn knh v
in tch tng nhanh.
- In other says, iron is passivated in cold concentrated sulfuric acid: Ni cch khc,
l st b th ng trong axit sunfuric c ngui.
- Caculation results show that: kt qu ca s tnh ton cho thy rng.
- This result is consistent with experiment: Kt qu ny ph hp vi thc nghim.
- We have a system of equations: Ta c h phng trnh.
- Knowing the mass, we can find the number of moles: Bit khi lng ta c th tm
c s mol.

55

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- How many atoms of carbon are there in 92g of ethanol? C bao nhiu nguyn t
cacbon trong 92g etanol?

Mass percent of H in NH3: Phn trm khi lng ca H trong NH3.

- Percent composition by mass: Thnh phn phn trm theo khi lng.

T
N

- This mean that, in any sample of naphthalene,the ratio of moles of C to H is: iu


c ngha l: trong mu bt k naphtalen t l s mol C vi H l.
 Cc php ton s dng: Ngoi s chun b v mu cu, vn t vng cng nh v
mt kin thc th phn dy hc bi tp gio vin cn cho hc sinh lm quen cch c,
cch vit cc php ton, biu thc, phn s. V d:

Bng 2.4 Mt s k hiu ha hc bng ting anh


Ting Anh

V d

Equal

x=y

X equals y( x is equal to y)

Plus

2+3=5 2 plus 3 equal (to) 5

Minus

5-3=2

Multiply

23=6 2 multiplied by 3 makes 6


(2 and 3 mutiply to make 6)

Divide

6:3=2

6 divided by 3 is 2

Percent

5%

5 percent

Phn
s

Fraction
1/4
(t s l s m 1/2
cn mu s l s 18/19
th t)

TP

.Q

K
hiu

TR

0B

squarter(One to fourth)

-L

2+
3

10
0

5 minus 3 equal (to) 2

half( a half)

eighteen over one nine


( t s > 10 hoc mu s >99 th thay to thnh over
v t s c s m.)

Five and two thirds.

2/3

two thirds (nu mu s > 1 th phi thm s vo mu


s).

dinary(decimal)

3.5

Three point five

Ly
tha

Power

23

Two to the power of three

B
ID

TO

Thp
phn

Bc

102

Cubic

Ten squared

10

Ten cubic

10

-6

Ten to the power of minus six

dm

Cubic decimeter

56

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ba
-5

negative five

S
plus(positive)
dng

+5

positive five

<

less than

3<5

3 less than 5

>

more
than(greater
than)

5>3

5 more than 3

less than
equal to

or x3

x less than or equal to 3

more than
equal to

or x 5

x more than or equal to 5

>>

much
than

<<

much less than

x <<y

x much less than y

rightwards
arrow

left bracket

leftwards arrow

right bracket

upwards arrow

()

parentheses(round bracket)

downwards
arrow

[]

brackets( square brackets)

rightwards
{
arrow
over
leftwards arrow

left parenthesis

right parenthesis

x much greater than y

left brace

right brace

{}

braces(curly brackets)

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

greater x >>y

TP

.Q

T
N

S m minus(negative)

B
ID

TO

 Vic chun b ca hc sinh: sau khi gio vin chun b cc ni dung lin quan n
bi ging th gio vin cn phi giao nhim v cho hc sinh chun b cc phn vic ca
mnh trc khi ln lp. Nhng vn m hc sinh cn chun b ph thuc vo tng ni
dung c th ca bi hc nhng ch yu l mt s vn nh:
- Nghin cu cc ni dung ca bi hc
- Nm vng h thng t vng, mu cu bng ting anh lin quan n bi hc
- Hon thnh phiu hc tp theo yu cu ca gio vin
- Chun b cc dng, thit b, m hnh ... phc v cho bi ging...
57

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Bc 2: Phng php thc hin khi ln lp


Trong dy hc Ha hc khi hon thin kin thc gio vin cn phi bit vn dng

a mc tiu dy hc. Trong dy hc bi tp ha hc bng ting Anh, gio vin c th


thc hin theo trnh t cc bc sau:
- n nh v nm tnh hnh lp.

v kt hp linh hot cc phng php ln lp, cc khu ln lp nhm t hiu qu ti

T
N

- Thng bo ni dung trng tm ca bi hc.


- Kim tra bi c ( nu c)

- Cung cp t vng, mu cu lin quan n bi hc.

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

TP

.Q

- Cung cp hoc yu cu nhc li cc php ton, thut ton lin quan bng ting
Anh.
- Trin khai ni dung bi hc.
- Cng c bi hc
- Nhn xt v nh gi tit hc
Trong vic cung cp t vng, mu cu hay php ton, thut ton gio vin ch cn
cung cp cho hc sinh nhng ni dung mi lin quan n bi hc, nhng ni dung hc
sinh c bit th yu cu hc sinh nhc li. Khi trin khai ni dung bi hc, gio
vin s dng cc phng php ln lp sao cho pht huy c tnh tch cc, ch ng
tham gia cc hot ng lnh hi kin thc. Nht l pht huy ti a vic hc sinh tho
lun, trao i v trnh by ni dung hiu bit ca mnh bng li hoc vit ln bng
kim tra v rn luyn k nng ni, vit bng ting Anh ca hc sinh.
2.1.3.3. Dy hc thc hnh
Dy hc thc hnh l mt c trng ring ca phng php dy hc ho hc, n

B
ID

TO

-L

khng nhng i hi nm vng cc kin thc chuyn mn, cc phng php dy hc


m cn i hi ngi hc cn phi bit c cc dng c tin hnh th nghim, hiu
c tnh nng v cch s dng chng. V vy, trong dy hc thc hnh ho hc bng
ting Anh iu u tin ngi gio vin cn thc hin l cung cp h thng cc t ng,
cc mu cu v dng c v thao tc th nghim. V d nh:
Cc dng c s dng trong dy thc hnh ha hc:

Vocabulary

Meaning

air-filter

my lc kh

absorbent cotton

bng thm

air oven

t sy khng kh

absorbent paper

giy hp th

air tank

bnh kh

air-dried paper

giy lm kh

air suction valve

van ht kh

58

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n cn

brine pan

cho nu mui

amperometer

ampe k

bracket

gi

analytical banlance n

cn phn tch

bubble flask

bnh sc kh

ashless filter paper

giy lc khng tn

cabinet

t, bung, phng

aspirator

my ht

cabinet drier:

t sy, bung sy

aspirator bottle

bnh ht

calibrated pipette

pipet hiu chun

assay flask

bnh th nghim

claisen flask

bnh claisen

automatic burette

buret t ng

clamp/ clip

ci kp

automatic recorder

my ghi t ng

clamp frame

ci cp, ci kp

automatic sampling

s ly mu t ng

chemical

average sample

mu trung bnh

cock glass

knh ng h

balloon

bnh cu

cooling agent

cht lm lnh

battery

pin

crucible

ni nu kim loi

beaker flask

bnh nn

dehydrator

cht ht nc

blotting paper

giy thm

desiccator

bnh ht m

bottle

chai

distillation flask

bnh chng ct

bottle cap

np chai

distillatory

dng c chng ct

bottom settling

cn, lng

draw cupbroad

t ht

boiler

ni chng, ni un

draught hood

t ht

boiling flask

bnh cu c di

dropping funnel

phu git

boiling kier

ni chng

dropper

ng nh git

boiling pan

ni un, ni nu

drying bottle

bnh lm kh

boiling tank

ni nu

drying cabinet

t sy

bomb

bom, bnh chu p

dust collector

my ht bi

phu Buchner

electric battery

pin in

ci, tht

emery paper

giy nhm

ci xay

exsiccator

bnh ht m

bulb stopper

nt trn

fire extinguisher

bnh cha chy

bunsen flask

bnh Bunsen

fidge

t lnh

burette

buret

filter paper

giy lc

burette clamp

ci kp buret

filter

dng c lc

burette float

phao buret

filtering flask

bnh lc ht

burette holder

ci gi buret

flask

bnh cu

burette stand

ci gi buret

funnel

phu

burette support

ci gi buret

fuming cupboard

t ht

T
N

ha cht

Y
U
.Q

TP

H
N
TR

0B

10
0

2+
3

TO

-L

buhrstone

buhr

alcohol lamp

buchner funnel

B
ID

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t ht

oven

graduated cylinder

ng ng

oxygen cylinder

bnh dng kh

gauge:

dng c o

pestle

ci chy

gauged burette

buret chia

pH meter

my o pH

gauge glass

ng o mc nc

pipette

pipet

glass rod

a thy tinh

prop

gi

ground glass stopper

nt nhm

rubber tube

ng cao su

holder

khay ng

separating funnel

phu chit

hose

ng cao su

stamp mortar

ci gi

indicator paper

giy ch th

straw

jar

bnh, l

table balance

cn bn

kink

nt, ch tht nt

tail pipe

ng ht

kipp gasgenerator

bnh kp

test bed

bn th nghim

labolatory

phng th nghim

test data:

s liu th nghim

labolatory apparatus n

thit b th nghim

tester

dng c TN

labolatory apron

tp d PTN

test glass

ng nghim

laboratory coat

o chong PTN

test indicator

cht ch th mu

laboratory sample

mu trong PTN

test sample

mu th

lighter

bt la

test tube

ng nghim

litmus paper

giy qu

test tube stand

gi ng nghim

H
N
B

T
N

H
N

Y
U
.Q

TP
O

H
N

TR
0B

test tube clamp

cp ng nghim

dng c o lng

thermometer

nhit k

measuring bottle

bnh nh mc

unknown sample

mu nghin cu

measuring burette

buret chia

vacuum flask

bnh chn khng

measuring cylinder n

ng ong chia

vacuum pump

bm chn khng

measuring flask

bnh nh mc

vase

10
0

bnh mt lt

measuring pipette

pipet chia

vessel

bnh

measuring vessel

ng ong chia

watch glass

a thy tinh

mortar

ci gi

volumetric flask

bnh nh mc

narrow- mouth flask n

bnh ming nh

weigh

cn nng

narrow necked botte n

bnh c nh

-L

TO

2+
3

liter flask
n
measuring apparatus n

G
N

ng ht

B
ID

fume cupboard

ng thi cn cung cp cho hc sinh mt s thao tc v ha cht thng s dng


trong dy th nghim:

60

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s si tro

abstraction

s chit, tch ra

boiling plate

mnh si u

according to sample n

ng theo mu

boiling point

im si

add to

thm vo

boiling range

gii hn si

adhere

dnh, bm

boil out

un cn

adherence

s dnh, s bm

burning point

im bc chy

agitate

khuy

burning velocity

tc chy

agitation

s khuy

bottom settling

cn, lng

aftertack

s lm mm

boil over

air heating system

t nng trong KK

batch distillation

s ct phn on

air inclusion

tp cht KK

batch rectification

tinh ch phn on

airing

s thng kh

batch extraction

s chit gin on

air foam

bt kh

add

thm vo

batch steam
distillation

s ct phn on
bng hi nc

addition

s thm vo

beat

p, gi, nghin

admix

pha trn, trn ln

bleach

ty trng

admixing

s pha trn

bleb

bt

admixture

s trn ln

bleed

s mt mu

ampere

ampe

calefaction

s lm nng

ashless

khng c tro

calefacient

cht lm nng

ashless filter paper

giy lc khng tn

calibrate

hiu chnh

automatic sampling n

s ly mu t ng

calibrated pipette

pipet hiu chun

average sample

mu trung bnh

cataclase

s ph vn

si

change color

mu thay i

ln, mm

change of color

s i mu

burn cream

kem cha bng

cleaning

s lm sch

blending

s trn ln

cleaning agent

cht lm sch

blowing agent

cht to bt

clean out

lm sch

boil down

chng, c

colourless

adj khng mu

boil dry

un cn

coloured compound n

hp cht c mu

boiled

adj si

coloured stock

hn hp mu

N
H

un cn

colour fast

n bn mu

boiled enough

si

chemical

ha cht

s si

cooling

s lm lnh

N
B

T
N

Y
U

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TP

H
N

TR
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A

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si tro

boiled way
boiling

boiling-over

s un cn

chit, tch

G
N

bulkiness

boiling out

abstract

boil

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Meaning

Vocabulary

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cooling agent

cht lm lnh

dry

cotton-plugged

y bng nt bng

drying agent

cht lm kh

conflagrant

chy nhanh

educe

tch ra, ly ra

conflagrantion

s chy nhanh

emery paper

giy nhm

concoct

pha ch

examamination

s kim tra

concoction

s pha ch

examine

kim tra, quan st

concentration

nng

evaporate

lm bay hi

condense

ngng t

evaporation

s bay hi

cooking water

nc lm lnh

filter

lc

coulomb

cu lng

filtration

crystal

tinh th

found

crystallization

s kt tinh

fractional distillation n

crystallize

kt tinh

freeze

dehumidify

ht m

frozen water

dehydrant

cht kh nc

dehydrate

sy

dehydration

s mt nc

desiccate

lm kh, sy kh

desiccation

s lm kh

desiccative

cht lm kh

dissolution

dissolve

H
N

H
N

T
N

Y
U

.Q

TP
O

s ct phn on

n,v s ng, lm lnh


un nng

heat drop

s h nhit

heated

adj un nng

ignite

t thnh tro

inadherent

khng dnh bm

inodorous

adj khng mi

s ha tan

incombustible

adj khng chy

ha tan

incombustibility

adj tnh khng chy

decolour

lm mt mu

insolubility

defecation

s lm trong

insolubilize

s bng chy

insoluble

adj khng tan

dung mi

insoluble

adj khng tan

chng ct

kneding

s khuy, trn

distillate

sn phm chng ct

kink

nt, ch tht nt

distillation

s chng ct

kink site

v tr nt

distilled water

nc ct

limit

n, v gii hn

discolour

lm i mu

limitation

s gii hn

discolouration

s i mu

line filling

s thm n vch

draw cupbroad

t ht

label

dn nhn

draught hood

t ht

labeling

s nh du

dropping

git, nh git

liquid

cht lng

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G
N

nu chy

heat up

distill

s lc

nc

dissolvent

kh, sy, lm kh

deflagration

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tnh khng tan


to dng khng tan

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l, l kim loi

saturated

adj tnh bo ha

measuring

s o lng

saturating

lm bo ha

melt

nng chy

saturation point

im bo ha

meltage

s nng chy

saturation

s bo ha

melting point

nhit nng chy

separate out

lc, tch ra

mix

trn ln

shake

rung, lc

mixture

s pha trn

solid

cht rn

neutral

adj trung ha

solubilize

lm ha tan

neutralization

s trung ha

soluble

adj ha tan c

neutralize

trung ha

solute

non combustible

khng chy c

solution

dung dch

proportionality

t l

solvent

dung mi

precipitate

kt ta

supersaturated

precipitation

s kt ta

supersaturation

s qu bo ha

precipitative

cht kt ta

tirant

thuc th

product

sn phm

titrate

chun

reactant

cht phn ng

titration

s chun

reagent

thuc th

refine

iu ch

refrigerant

cht lm lnh

refrigerate

refrigeration

H
N
B

T
N

H
N

Y
U
.Q
TP

H
N

cht tan

adj qu bo ha

take off the fraction

tch phn chit


v

hp th

test data

s liu th nghim

lm lnh

test indicator

cht ch th mu

s lm lnh

test sample

mu th

residue

cn, b, cht lng

unknown sample

mu nghin cu

rubber tube

ng cao su

unknown solution

Dd nghin cu

thao tc an ton

unstop

m, m nt

khng lc

volt

vn

cht lm bo ha

voltage

in p

saturated solution

dung dch bo ha

volume

khi lng

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saturant

safe operation
shakeless

0B

take up

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B
ID

Nh vy trong dy hc thc hnh ho hc bng ting Anh, u tin l gio vin


cung cp cc t vng lin quan n dng c, ho cht, cc thao tc tin hnh th
nghim ... cho hc sinh. Bc tip theo l hng dn hc sinh thc hin cc th nghim
ca bi thc hnh, nu trong nhng th nghim qu phc tp, nguy him th gio vin
phi kt hp c hng dn bng ting Vit trnh cc tnh hung ng tic xy ra do
hc sinh khng nm r. Trong khi hc sinh trnh by, gii thch hin thng th nghim
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hay vit tng trnh th gio vin yu cu hc sinh trnh by bng ting Anh, trong mt
s tnh hung kh mi cho cc em trnh by bng ting Vit. Nu lm c nh vy

2.2. p dng dy hc chng trnh ha hc lp 10


2.2.1.
Atomic structure

T
N

CHAPTER 1: ATOMIC STRUCTURE

atomic

adj nguyn t

atomic weight
(atomic mass)

nguyn t khi

kernel

atomic shell

v nguyn t

atomic number

s th t nguyn t

atomic theory

l thuyt nguyn t

atomic symbol

k hiu nguyn t

H
trng thi c bn

ng v

li

main-group

nhm chnh

matter

vt cht

mass number

s khi

mass

khi lng

TP

.Q

isotope

cu hnh electron

negatively charged adj tch in m


neutral

trung ha

average atomic
mass

neutron

ntron

nguyn t khi
trung bnh

nucleus

ht nhn

charge

in tch

nuclear charge

in tch ht nhn

charged

adj thuc v in tch

positively charged

adj tch in dng

phn ng ha hc

quantum number

s lng t

hp cht

principal quantum

ng knh

number

s lng t chnh

element

nguyn t

react

phn ng

element symbol

k hiu nguyn t

radius

bn knh

elemental notation

k hiu nguyn t

substance

cht

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s lng t ph

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-

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TO

electrically

adj tnh cht in

valence electron

electron ha tr

experiment

th nghim

valence shell

v ha tr

energy level

mc nng lng

G
N

ground state

angular momentum
n
quantum number

diameter

nguyn t

atom

compound

electron
configuration

Meaning

chemical reaction

B
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A. VOCABULARY
Vocabulary

mt cch hiu qu hn.

hc sinh va c th rn c k nng ni, k nng vit v giao tip bng ting Anh

B. SENTENCES

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- The fundamental unit of matter is the atom: n v c bn ca vt cht l nguyn


t.

electrons in an atom: Nguyn t trung ha v in, nn s proton bng s electron.


- Chemical reactions: Phn ng ha hc
- The atomic structure (the structure of an atom): Cu trc nguyn t

- Since atoms are electrically neutral, the number of protons equal the number of

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- To be made up of : c to thnh
- The modern atomic structure: Cu trc nguyn t hin i

- planetary model of the atom: m hnh hnh tinh nguyn t

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- The extra-nuclear part: Phn ngoi ht nhn (v nguyn t)


- Atomic mass unit: n v khi lng nguyn t
- The size of atom: Kch thc nguyn t
- Isotope atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but different
numbers of neutrons: Cc nguyn t ng v ca cng mt nguyn t c cng s
proton nhng khc nhau s ntron.
- The atomic masses shown on the periodic table, represent a weighted average of
the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of each element: Nguyn t khi trong
bng tun hon, c ly trung bnh khi lng ca cc ng v trong t nhin ca
mi nguyn t
- The principal quantum number is used to indicate the energy level that the electron
is found in: S lng t chnh dng xc nh mc nng lng ca electron tm
thy.
- The value for n will always be a whole number, and the higher the number, the
further away from the nucleus the electron described by n tends to be: Gi tr n lun
l s nguyn, n cng ln th electron cng xa ht nhn.
- The angular momentum quantum number which is used to indicate the type of
sublevel that the electron occupies: S lng t ph xc nh kiu phn lp m
electron chim ng.
- The electrons in the highest energy level are called valence electrons: Cc electron
mc nng lng cao nht c gi l cc electron ha tr.
- The possible values for l refer to the types of sublevels, each of which contain a
certain number of orbitals: Mi gi tr l ch mi phn lp, mi phn lp cha mt s
obitan xc nh.

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- To calculate the total number of electrons that an energy level can hold is to use
the formula 2n2: tnh tng s electron trong mt mc nng lng ta dng cng

- The superscript of 1s1 shows us that hydrogen has only one electron: S m cho
thy hiro c 1 electron.

thc 2n2

- The large number (1 in 1s2) represents the principal quantum number for the

H
N
Y

phn lp electron chim ng.


- Shorthand electron configuration: Cu hnh electron thu gn

T
N

electron: S ln i din s lng t chnh ca electron.


- The letter indicates the sublevel that the electron is located in: Ch ci cho bit

.Q

C. SUMMARY

TP

I. What is an Atom?
All substances are made up of matter and the fundamental unit of matter is the
atom.
The atom constitutes the smallest particle of an element which can take part in
chemical reactions and may not exist independently.

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II. What is the Structure of an Atom?


The history of the discovery of the atomic structure is outlined below.
The concept of atoms is believed to have originated in ancient Greece.
Democritus and his teacher Leppicutius were supporters of what has been called a
discontinuous theory of matter, which means that all matter is made up of tiny
particles, which are separated by spaces. This atomic theory didnt attract too many
followers over the next 2,000 years or so. However, in the 1600s and 1700s, early
chemists began publishing the results of experiments that they were carrying out.

John Dalton (1808) proposed the Atomic Theory. According to Dalton, matter is
made up of tiny particles called atoms. The atom is the smallest particle of matter that
takes part in a chemical reaction. Atoms are indivisible and cannot be created or
destroyed. Further, atoms of the same element are identical in every respect.

J. J. Thomson (1897) discovered electrons in Cathode Ray experiments.


According to Thomson, atoms are divisible. Atoms contain very tiny negatively
charged particles called electrons.

E. Goldstein (1900) discovered protons in Anode Ray experiments. According to


Goldstein, atoms contain positively charged particles called protons. Since atoms

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contain negatively charged particles, they must contain positively charged particles for
them to be electrically neutral.

modern atomic structure through his alpha particle scattering experiment. According to
Rutherford, the atoms is made of two parts: the atom nucleus and the extra-nuclear
part. Ernest Rutherfords famous gold-foil experiment showed that most of the atom

E. Rutherford (1911) discovered the nucleus and provided the basis for the

N. Bohr (1940) provided the modern concept of the atomic model. According to

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N

was empty space, leading to Niels Bohrs planetary model of the atom, where the
electrons orbited around the nucleus the way planets do a star..

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Bohr, the atom nucleus and the extra-nuclear part. His experiments proved that the
atom is largely empty and has a heavy positively-charged body at the center called the
nucleus. The central nucleus is positively-charged and the negatively-charged electrons
revolve around the nucleus.

James Chadwick (1932) disovered neutrons. According to Chadwick, atoms


contain neutral particles called neutrons in their nucleus along with the subatomic
particles is made of a central nucleus containing protons (positively-charged) and
neutrons (with no charge). The electrons (negatively-charged) revolve around the
nucleus in different imaginary paths called orbits or shells.
The Structure of an atom: Atoms themselves are made up of even smaller
particles. These subatomic particles protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons and
neutrons cluster together to form the central core, or nucleus, of an atom. Fast-moving
electrons occupy the space that surrounds the nucleus of the atom.
A proton is a positively charged subatomic particle with a mass of approximately
1 atomic mass unit (amu) and a charge of +1. It is the number of protons in the nucleus
of an atom, or the nuclear charge, that gives the element its identity. For example, any
atom containing only one proton in its nucleus is considered an atom of the element
hydrogen, the number of protons in an atom is called the atomic number of that
element. So, we can say that the atomic number of hydrogen is 1. A single proton is
often represented by the symbol (p+) or ( 11 p + ). Because a single proton is identical to

the nucleus of a form of hydrogen, the symbol (H+), which will we see often when we
study acids, also represents a proton.
A neutron(n0) is a neutrally charged subatomic particle, which, as does the
proton, has a mass of approximately 1 atomic mass unit (amu). When we add the total

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number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom, we get the atoms mass
number. Because the neutron has no charge, it does not affect the atomic number and

atoms of the same element with differing mass numbers, because they have different
numbers of neutrons.
Atoms of the same element with different masses are called isotopes. For

does not alter the identity of the element. For this reason, it is possible to have two

T
N

example, there are three different isotopes of hydrogen.


Electrons (e-), which are located outside of the nucleus, have essentially no mass

and a charge of -1. Each electron has a charge that is the equal and opposite to the

charge of a proton but contains only about 1/1836th of the mass of a proton. Because

Charge

Symbol

electron

proton

1+

neutron

Radius (in m)

9.0210-28

smaller than 10-18

1.6710-24

10-15

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n

1.6710-24

10-15

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Mass (in g)

Subatomic particle

TP

.Q

atoms typically have the same number of electrons as protons, they normally have a net
charge of zero and are said to be neutral. For example, if an atom of oxygen has 8
protons (8 (+1) = +8) and 8 electrons (8 (-1) = -8, then (+8) + (-8) = 0) the atom of
oxygen has a net charge of zero.
Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

The size of atom: An average atom is about 1010m in diameter. Such a tiny size
is difficult to visualize. If an average atom were the size of a grain of sand, a strand of
your hair would be about 60 m in diameter!
Atomic mass unit (AMU) = 1/12mass of 12C= 1u

-L

1u=19.926510-27kg/12 =1.661027kg

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III. The Nucleus of an Atom


1. Atomic number (Z) of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of
an atom. Since atoms are electrically neutral, the number of protons equal the number
of electrons in an atom.
Atomic Number (Z)= of protons in the nucleus = of electrons in an atom
Nucleus: protons and neutrons- very little volume but most of the mass
2. Mass number (A) of an element is the sum of the number of protons and
neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

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A=Z+N
For example, an oxygen atom, which has 8 protons and 8 neutrons in its nucleus,

a mass number of 238.


3. Elemental notation (Atomic symbol for an element , the atomic symbol is also
called the element symbol). When the elemental symbol of an element is combined

has a mass number of 16. A uranium atom, which has 92 protons and 146 neutrons, has

T
N

with additional information, such as the atomic number, mass number, or charge, it is
usually called elemental notation. Elemental notation is a simple way of summarizing a
X n+

A
Z

here:

good deal of information in a small space. Examples of elemental notation is shown

F .The mass number (the superscript 19) indicates that fluorine has a total of

19
9

fluorine:

TP

.Q

X: atomic symbol
Z: atomic number
A: mass number
n+: in tch
Each element has a different atomic symbol. For example, consider the element

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3

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19 protons and neutrons. The atomic number (subscript 9) indicates that fluorine has 9
protons. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number tells you how many neutrons
fluorine has. You can calculate this value, however, by subtracting the atomic number
from the mass number.
Number of neutrons = Mass number Atomic number = AZ
Thus, for fluorine, Number of neutrons = AZ =199 = 10

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III. Isotopes and Atomic Mass


1. Notion: Isotopes atoms of an element that have the same number of protons
but different numbers of neutrons.
For example, most of the oxygen atoms in nature have eight neutrons in their
atomic nuclei. In other words, most oxygen atoms have a mass number of 16 (8 protons
+8 neutrons). However, there are also two other naturally occurring forms of oxygen.
One of these has nine neutrons, so A=17. The other has ten neutrons, so A=18. These
three forms of oxygen are called isotopes.
The isotopes of an element have very similar chemical properties because they
have the same number of protons and electrons. They differ in mass, however, because
they have different numbers of neutrons.
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2. Atomic mass (atomic weight) of an element is the number of times an atom of


that element is heavier than an atomic mass unit.

on a particular isotope of carbon, called carbon-12. Carbon-12 is considered to have a


mass of exactly 12 u, and all of the other elemental isotopes are measured relative to
that isotope. The atomic masses, shown on the periodic table, represent a weighted

The atomic mass unit (amu), which is represented with the symbol u is based

T
N

average of the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of each element. For example,
some periodic tables show an atomic mass of 1.00794u for hydrogen, despite the fact

that no particular isotope of hydrogen has a mass number equal to that value. Chemists

TP

.Q

come up with an average, based on the mass numbers of the isotopes and the relative
abundance by which they appear. The fact that the atomic number of hydrogen is so
close to the mass number of the isotope of hydrogen known as protiumindicates that
the vast majority of the hydrogen atoms found in nature (approximately 99%) are of
this type.

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3. Average Atomic Mass


The average atomic mass of an element is the average of the masses of all the
elements isotopes. It takes into account the abundance of each isotope within the
element. The average atomic mass is the mass that is given for each element in the
periodic table.
For example, lithium exists as two isotopes: lithium-7 and lithium-6, lithium-7
has a mass of 7.015 u and makes up 92.58% of lithium. Lithium-6 has a mass of 6.015
u and makes up the remaining 7.42%. To calculate the average atomic mass of lithium,
multiply the mass of each isotope by its abundance.
92.58%x7.015u + 7.42%x6.015u = 6.94u

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IV. Quantum Numbers


Compared to the old planetary model of the atom, the quantum-mechanic model
seems much less certain. Instead of thinking of electrons as occupying fixed orbits with
predictable paths, we now think in terms of probability. Although you shouldnt think
of the electrons as being locked into fixed orbits, the way planets are, we are able to
predict the areas where electrons are most likely to be found. Imagine that you needed
to find your chemistry teacher outside of class, perhaps to give him or her a lab report.
You might start by going to the floor of the building where the science classes are
found. You might then narrow your search to the specific hallway in which the

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classroom is located. You might then check in the specific classroom. Your teacher
might not be in that classroom, but this may be the place where he or she probably is.

finding the chemistry teacher. Each electron is located in a specific energy level (in our
example, the floors of a building). Each energy level is broken up into sublevels (the
different hallways on the floor of a building). Each sublevel contains a certain number

Our model of the electron cloud is broken up into areas, as in the example of

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N

of orbitals (just as a hallway can contain some number of rooms).


Just as levels of a building are given numbers, energy levels are given numbers as

well. As a floor, or level of a building, can contain several hallways, each energy level

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is broken up into sublevels, which are designated by specific letters. Each sublevel can
contain a certain number of orbitals, which are analogous to the rooms in the hallway.
Each orbital can contain up to two electrons.
The rooms in many buildings contain numbers on their doors, so that they can be
found easily. So to, numbers are given to electrons, so that we can picture where they
are likely to be found. The numbers that are given to electrons are called quantum
numbers, and each electron is given four.
1. Principal Quantum Number (n): The principal, or first, quantum number is
used to indicate the energy level that the electron is found in. The value for n will
always be a whole number, and the higher the number, the further away from the
nucleus the electron described by n tends to be. For example, an electron with a value
of 3 for n is in the third energy level, so it is likely to be located further away from the
nucleus than an electron with a value of 1 for n.
Each energy level is divided into sublevels, the number of which is equal to the
value of n. So, for example, the third energy level (n = 3) contains 3 sublevels, whereas
the fifth energy level (n = 5) would contain 5 sublevels.
The smaller n is the lower the energy. For other atoms, the energy also depends
to a slight extent on the l quantum number. The size of an orbital also depends on n.
The larger the value of n is, the larger the orbital. Orbitals of the same quantum state n
are said to belong to the same shell. Shells are sometimes designated by the following
letters:
Letter
K L
M N...
n
1
2
3
4..
2. Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l)

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angular momentum quantum number, is used to indicate the type of sublevel that the
electron occupies. The possible values for l refer to the types of sublevels, each of
which contain a certain number of orbitals. An orbitalis a space that can be occupied by

(Also Called Azimuthal Quantum Number)


This quantum number distinguishes orbitals of given n having different shapes; it
can have any integer value from 0 to n  1. The second quantum number, called the

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up to two electrons, which occupy a specific three dimensional area. Depending on the
course that you are in, you may or may not need to know the shapes of the sublevels,

but you are very likely to need to know the number of orbitals and electrons that each

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one holds. Values of l of 0, 1, 2, and 3 refer to sublevels, which are, in turn, designated
by the letters s, p, d, and f respectively. So, an electron that has a value 3 for n (the first
quantum number) and a value of 1 for l (the second quantum number) would be found
in the third energy level, in a p sublevel.

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3. The total number of electrons that an energy level


Each orbital can hold up to two electrons, so a p sublevel, which contains 3
orbitals, can hold up to 6 electrons (2 electrons 3 orbitals). To find out how many
total electrons a certain energy level can hold, you can do one of two things. First, you
could add up the total number of electrons that each of its sublevels can hold. For
example, the fourth energy level has four sublevels (s, p, d, and f), which-hold 2, 6, 10,
and 14 electrons respectively. We can add these numbers together to find that the
fourth energy level can hold 32e- (2 + 6 + 10 + 14 = 32). Another way to calculate the

total number of electrons that an energy level can hold is to use the formula 2n2 , where

n is the energy level number. Solving for n = 4, we find that 2(4)2 = 32 e-.
The information that we have covered on quantum numbers will be used to
construct a type of notation called the electron configurations of elements.

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V. Electron Configuration
1. Valence electrons: The electrons in the highest energy level, which are called
valence electrons, are probably the most important part of the atom. It is these
electrons that determine the reactivity of an element. When we talk about electron
configuration, we are speaking of the arrangement of the electrons in a particular atom
or element. By being able to determine these arrangements, you will be able to predict
how an element reacts with other elements and what types of compounds it will form.
We will start by learning how to read an electron configuration.

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Look at the electron configuration for hydrogen H: 1s1.


The superscript shows us that hydrogen has only one electron. The large

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outer energy level. Hydrogen is said to have one electron in its valence shell.

case, because the value for n = 1, it means that this electron is located in the first
energy level. The letter indicates the sublevel that the electron is located in. Because
there is only one energy level in this particular atom, it represents the valence shell, or

(coefficient) number represents the principal quantum number for the electron. In this

2. Shorthand Electron Configuration


The Electron Configuration of Oxygen: 1s22s22p4

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First add up the superscripts and you will see that there are a total of 8 electrons
(2+2+4 = 8). This makes sense, because oxygen, with an atomic number of 8, has a
total of 8 electrons. Now, you see that there are two different coefficients (1 and 2).
This tells us that oxygens electrons occupy two different energy levels. The three
letters tell us that the electrons are spread over three different sublevels. The first
energy level (n = 1) has one sublevel, whereas the second energy level (n = 2) has two.
The six electrons that occupy the second energy level (2s22p4) represent oxygens

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valence electrons. The nucleus of the atom and the 2 electrons in the first energy level
represent the kernel, or core, of the atom.
The kernel configuration of the oxygen atom looks just like the electron
configuration of the helium atom. We can replace the kernel configuration with the
noble gas symbol that it matches, the example: The shorthand electron configuration of
Oxygen: [He]2s22p4

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3. How to write the electron configuration for elements.


1. Look up the atomic number of the element.
2. Determine the number of electrons for the specific element.
- If the atom is neutral, then the number of electrons is equal to the number of
protons.
- If the atom is charged, then algebraically subtract the charge from the atomic
number of the element. (Example 1: The atomic number of sodium is 11. An ion of
Na+ would have a total of 11 1 = 10 electrons. Example 2: The atomic number of
sulfur is 16. An ion of S2- would have 16 - (-2) = 18 total electrons)
3. Determine the order in which the sublevels should be filled:
1s 2s2p 3s3p 4s3d4p 5s4d5p 6s4f5d6p 7s5f6d7p

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4. Write the configuration, filling in up to 2 electrons in each s sublevel, up to 6


electrons in each p sublevel, up to 10 electrons in each d sublevel, and up to 14

5. When you think that you are finished, add up the exponents (superscripts) to
see if you have the correct number of electrons.
Ex: Write the full electron configuration for the element aluminum (Al).

electrons in each f sublevel.

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Step 1. Look up the atomic number of the element.The periodic table shows us
that the atomic number of aluminum is 13.

Step 2. Determine the number of electrons for the specific element.

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Because no charge was mentioned, we know that this is a neutral atom. So, the
number of electrons = 13.
Step 3. Determine the order in which the sublevels should be filled:
1s2s2p3s3p4s3d4p5s4d5p6s4f5d6p7s5f6d7p.
Step 4. Write the configuration, filling in up to 2 electrons in each s sublevel,
up to 6 electrons in each p sublevel, up to 10 electrons in each d sublevel, and up
to 14 electrons in each f sublevel.We have 1s22s22p63s23p1, and that brings us up to

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13 electrons.
Step 5. When you think that you are finished, add up the exponents (superscripts)
to see if you have the correct number of electrons.
Adding the exponents of 1s22s22p63s23p1 (2 + 2 + 6 + 2 + 1), we get 13 electrons,

so our configuration is probably correct.


The full electron configuration for the element aluminum (Al): 1s22s22p63s23p1

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Were you surprised that we only placed 1 electron in the 3p sublevel? Remember
that when we say that a p sublevel can hold up to 6 electrons, we mean that 6 is the
maximum that it can hold. In this case, we only had to place 1 electron in the final p
sublevel to get up to 13 total electrons.
The shorthand electron configuration of Aluminum: [Ne]3s23p1

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4. Exceptions to write the electron configuration for elements.


The building up principle reproduces most of the ground state configurations
correctly. There are some exceptions, however, and chromium (Z = 24) is the first we
encounter. The building-up principle predicts the configuration [Ar]3d44s2, though the

correct one is found experimentally to be [Ar]3d54s1. These two configurations are


actually very close in total energy because of the closeness in energies of the 3d and 4s

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principle, which predicts the configuration [Ar]3d94s2, although experiment shows the
ground-state configuration to be [Ar]3d104s1.

orbitals. For that reason, small effects can influence which of the two configurations is
actually lower in energy. Copper (Z = 29) is another exception to the building-up

c. electron

d. mass number

e.atomic number

b. neutron

used.
a. proton

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D. EXERCISES
1. Match the following terms to the definitions that follow. Not all answers will be

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f. kernel
g. negative
h. elemental notation
i. positive
j. quantum numbers
k. valence
l. orbital
_____1. A negatively charged particle found in the cloud region of the atom.

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_____2. The nucleus and all of the electrons, except the valence electrons.
_____3. The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
_____4. A space that can be occupied by up to two electrons.
_____5. This type of ion is formed when an atom loses some electrons.
_____6. Each electron is described by a set of four of these.
_____7. This number is equal to the number of protons in an atom.
_____8. This type of ion is formed when an atom gains additional electrons.
_____9. A positively charged particle found in the nucleus of an atom.

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2. Base your answers to questions 1015 on the following elemental notation. 13 H +

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10. Which element is represented by this elemental notation?


11. What is the atomic number of the element?
12. What is the mass number of the element?
13. How many protons does the element have?
14. How many neutrons does the element have?
15. How many electrons does the element have?
3. Base your answers to questions 1620 on the following electron configurations of
neutral atoms.
a. 1s22s22p6s1
c. 1s2
e. 1s22s22p5
b. 1s22s22p2
d. 1s22s12p3
f. 1s22s22p4
16. Which electron configuration represents a noble gas?
17. Which electron configuration shows an atom in the excited state?
18. Which electron configuration shows an alkali metal?

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19. Which electron configuration represents a halogen?


20. Which ground state configuration shows a total of 4 valence electrons?

of S (Z = 16), Ne (Z = 10)
5. Give the electron configuration, and short electron configuration of the ground state
of Fe (Z = 56), Cu (Z = 29), Cr (Z = 24)

4. Give the electron configuration, and short electron configuration of the ground state

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6. Two elements in Period 5 are adjacent to one another in the periodic table. The
ground state atom of one element has only s electrons in its valence shell; the other has

at least one d electron in an unfilled shell. Identify the elements.

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7. Two elements are in the same column of the periodic table, one above the other. The
ground state atom of one element has two s electrons in its outer shell, and no d
electrons any where in its configuration. The other element has d electrons in its
configuration. Identify the elements.

107
47

Ag has mass of 108.9u and 48.2%. Calculate the average

109
47

relative abundance 51.8%;

Ag , has mass of 106.9u and

8. Naturally occurring silver exists as two isotopes

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atomic mass of silver.


9. The two stable isotopes of boron exist in the following proportions: 19.78%
11
5

B (11.01 u). Calculate the average atomic mass of boron

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B (10.01 u) and 80.22%

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10. Boron exists as two naturally occurring isotopes:

10
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B (10.01 u) and

11
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B (11.01 u).

Calculate the relative abundance of each isotope of boron.

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Answer
1.
1. [c. electron]
2. [f. kernel]Think of a kernel of popcorn. Valence electrons are not included in
the kernel.
3. [d. mass number]Because the electrons have essentially no mass, the protons
and the neutrons make up the vast majority of the mass of an atom.
4. [l. orbital]Orbitals are not always full, but when they are, they can hold a
maximum of two electrons.
5. [i. positive]Remember, losing negative charges (electrons) leaves an atom
with extra positive charges.
6. [j. quantum numbers]
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7. [e. atomic number]The atomic number is also equal to the nuclear charge of
an atom.

8. [g. negative]When a neutral atom gains extra negative charges, it will

have a net negative charge.


9. [a. proton]

2.

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10. [hydrogen]H is the elemental symbol for hydrogen.


11. [1]The atomic number is shown in the lower left-hand corner of the

notation.

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12. [3]The mass number is shown in the upper left-hand corner of the notation.
13. [1]The number of protons is equal to the atomic number.
14. [2]The number of neutrons is equal to (the mass number the atomic
number), or 3 1 = 2.
15. [0]The number of electrons is equal to (the atomic number the charge of
atom), or 1 (+1) = 0.
3. 16. [c. 1s2 ]Although it only contains 2 electrons, helium is considered a noble

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gas because its valence shell is full.


17. [d. 1s22s12p3]- The 2s sublevel is not full, yet there are electrons in the 2p
sublevel. An electron must have jumped up from the 2s sublevel to the 2p sublevel.
18. [a. 1s22s22p63s1]With a total of 11 electrons, this neutral configuration must
represent sodium.
19. [e. 1s22s22p5]With seven valence electrons, this atom would be located

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incolumn 17. With a total of 9 electrons, it must be fluorine.


20. [b. 1s22s22p2]The question clearly asked for a ground state configuration,
so that ruled out answer d. The only other configuration that shows 4 valence electrons
is b.
4. Give the electron configuration, and short electron configuration of the ground state
of S (Z = 16): 1s22s22p63s23p4; [Ne]3s23p4

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Ne (Z = 10): 1s22s22p6; [He]2s22p6


5. Give the electron configuration, and short electron configuration of the ground state
of Fe (Z = 56): 1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2; [Ar]3d64s2
Cu (Z = 29): 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1; [Ar]3d104s1
Cr (Z = 24): 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1; [Ar]3d54s1

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6. Ag and Cd
7. Ca and Sr

8. Average atomic mass of Ag = 106.9 u (0.518)+108.9 u (0.482)=107.9 u

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B
H

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10.81 = 10.01x+11.0111.01x11.01x10.01
x = 11.0110.81

9. Average atomic mass of B = 10.01 u (19.78)+11.01 u (80.22)=10.81 u


10. Average atomic mass = x(atomic mass B-10)+(1x)(atomic mass B-11)
10.81 = x(10.01)+(1x)(11.01)

x = 0.2000

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B is therefore 20.00%. The abundance of

11
5

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10
5

B is 80.00%

The abundance of

The abundance of boron-10 is 0.2000.


The abundance of boron-11 is 1x, or 10.2000=0.8000.

Meaning

alkali metal

alkaline

adj tnh kim

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10
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nhm chnh

mass number

s khi

metal

kim loi

metalloid

kim

tnh kim loi

compound

hp cht

negatively charged adj tch in m

combine

kt hp

neutral

gim

nonmetallic character n

tnh phi kim

adj thuc v in

noble gas

kh him

energy level

mc nng lng

non-metals

phi kim

electron affinity

i lc electron

occupy

chim

electronegativity

m in

oxide

oxit

fundamental

adj c bn

period

chu k

group

nhm

periodic law

nh lut tun hon

horizontal row

hng ngang

periodic table

bng tun hon

increase

tng

phosphorus

adj photpho

ionization energy

nng lng ion ha

physical

adj thuc v vt l

liquid

cht lng

physicist

metallic character

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adj tnh baz

electrically

main group

basic

decrease

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kim loi kim th

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3

alkaline earth metal n

kim loi kim

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Vocabulary

2.1.2. The periodic table and the periodic law


CHAPTER 2: THE PERIODIC TABLE AND THE PERIODIC LAW
A. VOCABULARY

trung ha

vt l

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tnh cht vtl l

radius

bn knh

property

tnh cht

solution

dung dch

react

phn ng

tend

c xu hng

radiation

bc x

trend

xu hng

salt

mui

valence electron

electron ha tr

substance

cht

valence shell

v ha tr

separate

adj ring

vertical column

ct dc

physical properties n

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B. SENTENCES
- law of chemical change: nh lut bin i ha hc

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- law of periodicity: nh lut tun hon


- an elements period number is the same as the number of energy levels that the
electrons of its atoms occupy: s th t chu k nguyn t bng s mc nng lng
m electron chim gi.
- the outer energy level: mc nng lng ngoi cng (cao nht)
- each element is in a separate box, with its atomic number, atomic symbol, and
atomic mass: mi nguyn t trong mt ring, vi s th t nguyn t, k hiu
nguyn t v nguyn t khi.
- noble gases do not combine in nature with any other elements: cc kh him
khng kt hp t nhin vi cc nguyn t khc.
- all the elements in each main group have the same number of electrons in their
highest (outer) energy level: cc nguyn t trong mi nhm chnh c cng s
electron mc nng lng cao nht.
- trends for: s bin thin
- go down each group in the periodic table: i trn xung mi nhm trong bng
tun hon
- go across a period: theo chu k
- the number of valence electrons in any main group element by its group number:
s electron ha tr ca nguyn t trong nhm chnh bng s th t nhm.
- to tend to decrease down a group: c xu hng gim t trn xung di trong
nhm
- to tend to increase across a period: c xu hng tng theo chu k.
- to react with sth: phn ng vi
- to form = to produce: to ra
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C. SUMMARY

elements intensively and recorded detailed information about their reactivity and the
masses of their atoms. Some chemists began to recognize patterns in the properties and

I. History of the periodic table of chemical elements


By the mid 1800s, there were 65 known elements. Chemists studied these

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behaviour of many of these elements.


Other sets of elements display similar trends in their properties and behaviour.
For example, oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), and tellurium (Te) share similar
properties. The same is true of fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), and iodine (I).

.Q

These similarities prompted chemists to search for a fundamental property that could
be used to organize all the elements. One chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev (18341907),

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sequenced the known elements in order of increasing atomic mass. The result was a
table of the elements, organized so that elements with similar properties were arranged

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in the same column. Because Mendeleevs arrangement highlighted periodic


(repeating) patterns of properties, it was called a periodic table.
The modern periodic table is a modification of the arrangement first proposed by
Mendeleev. Instead of organizing elements according to atomic mass, the modern
periodic table organizes elements according to atomic number. According to the
periodic law, the chemical and physical properties of the elements repeat in a regular,
periodic pattern when they are arranged according to their atomic number.
In 1945 Glenn Seaborg identified lanthanides and actinides (atomic number >
92), which are usually placed below the periodic table.

A modern periodic table

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II. STRUCTURE OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

order of increasing atomic number. Each element is in a separate box, with its atomic
number, atomic symbol, and atomic mass.

1. The periodic tables organization


As you are probably well aware, in the periodic table, elements are arranged in

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The 18 vertical columns of the table are called groups or families, while the
seven horizontal rows are called periods and correspond to the seven principal
quantum energy levels, n = 1 through n = 7.
Groups are numbered according to two different systems. The current system

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numbers the groups from 1 to 18. An older system numbers the groups from I to VIII,
and separates them into two categories labelled A and B.

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The elements in the eight A groups are the main-group elements. They are also
called the representative elements. The elements in the ten B groups are known as the

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transition elements. (In older periodic tables, Roman numerals are used to number the
A and B groups.)
Within the B group transition elements are two horizontal series of elements
called inner transition elements. They usually appear below the main periodic table.
Notice, however, that they fit between the elements in Group 3 (IIIB) and Group 4
(IVB).
A bold staircaseline runs from the top of Group 13 (IIIA) to the bottom of
Group 16 (VIA). This line separates the elements into three broad classes: metals,
metalloids (or semi- metals), and nonmetals.
Group 1 (IA) elements are known as alkali metals. They react with water to form
alkaline, or basic, solutions.
Group 2 (IIA) elements are known as alkaline earth metals. They react with
oxygen to form compounds called oxides, which react with water to form alkaline
solutions. Early chemists called all metal oxides earths.
Group 17 (VIIA) elements are known as halogens, from the Greek word hals,
meaning salt. Elements in this group combine with other elements to form
compounds called salts.
Group 18 (VIIIA) elements are known as noble gases. Noble gases do not
combine in nature with any other elements.
2. Period

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As you can see in periodic table, elements in Period 1 have electrons in one
energy level. Elements in Period 2 have electrons in two energy levels. This pattern

energy levels that the electrons of its atoms occupy. Thus, you could predict that Period
5 elements have electrons that occupy five energy levels.

applies to all seven periods. An elements period number is the same as the number of

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3. Group
The second pattern emerges when you consider the electron arrangements in the
main-group elements: the elements in Groups 1 (IA), 2 (IIA), and 13 (IIIA) to 18

(VIIIA). All the elements in each main group have the same number of electrons in

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their highest (outer) energy level. The electrons that occupy the outer energy level are
called valence electrons. The term valencecomes from a Latin word that means to
be strong. Valence electrons is a suitable name because the outer energy level
electrons are the electrons involved when atoms form compounds. In other words,
valence electrons are responsible for the chemical behaviour of elements.
You can infer the number of valence electrons in any main-group element from
its group number. For example, Group 1 (IA) elements have one valence electron.
Group 2 (IIA) elements have two valence electrons. For elements in Groups 13 (IIIA)
to 18 (VIIIA), the number of valence electrons is the same as the second digit in the
current numbering system. It is the same as the only digit in the older numbering
system. For example, elements in Group 15 (VA) have 5 valence electrons. The
elements in Group 17 (VIIA) have 7 valence electrons.

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III. Trends for properties


1. Trends for Atomic Size (Radius)
There are two general trends for atomic size:
As you go down each group in the periodic table, the size of an atom increases.
This makes sense if you consider energy levels. As you go down a group, the valence
electrons occupy an energy level that is farther and farther from the nucleus. Thus, the
valence electrons experience less attraction for the nucleus. In addition, electrons in the
inner energy levels block, or shield, the valence electrons from the attraction of the
nucleus. As a result, the total volume of the atom, and thus the size, increases with each
additional energy level.
As you go across a period, the size of an atom decreases. This trend might
surprise you at first, since the number of electrons increases as you go across a period.

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You might think that more electrons would occupy more space, making the atom
larger. You might also think that repulsion from their like charges would force the

charge on the nucleus also increases across a period. As well, without additional energy
the electrons are restricted to their outer energy level. For example, the outer energy
level for Period 2 elements is the second energy level. Electrons cannot move beyond

electrons farther apart. The size of an atom decreases, however, because the positive

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this energy level. As a result, the positive force exerted by the nucleus pulls the outer
electrons closer, reducing the atoms total size.

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2. Trends for Ionization Energy


The first ionization energy (or first ionization potential) of an atom is the
minimum energy needed to remove the highest-energy (that is, the outermost) electron
from the neutral atom in the gaseous state. (When the unqualified term ionization
energy is used, it generally means first ionization energy.) For the lithium atom, the
first ionization energy is the energy needed for the following process (electron
configurations are in parentheses):

Li(1s2 2s1 ) 1e + Li + (1s2 )

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Although you can see a few exceptions, there are two general trends for
ionization energy:
Ionization energy tends to decrease down a group. This makes sense in terms of
the energy level that the valence electrons occupy. Electrons in the outer energy level
are farther from the positive force of the nucleus. Thus, they are easier to remove than
electrons in lower energy levels.
Ionization energy tends to increase across a period. As you go across a period,
the attraction between the nucleus and the electrons in the outer energy level increases.
Thus, more energy is needed to pull an electron away from its atom. For this trend to
be true, you would expect a noble gas to have the highest ionization energy of all the
elements in the same period. Ionization energy tends to decrease down a group and
increase across a period.
3. Trends for Electron Affinity
The electron affinityis the energy change for the process of adding an electron to
a neutral atom in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.
Electron affinity tends to decrease down a group. For example, fluorine has a
higher electron affinity than iodine.

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4. Trends for electronegativity


Electronegativity may be defined as the power of an atom to attract electrons to
itself in a chemical bond. It is the most important chemical parameter in
determining the type of chemical bonds formed between atoms. It is hard to

Electron affinity tends to increase across a period. For example, calcium has a
lower electron affinity than sulfur.

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quantify in a satisfactory way, especially as electronegativity is not strictly a property


of atoms on their own, but depends to some extent on their state of chemical

combination. Nevertheless several scales have been devised.

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Electronegativity tends to decrease down a group. For example, fluorine has a


higher electronegativity than iodine.
Electronegativity tends to increase across a period. For example, calcium has a
lower electronegativity than sulfur.

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5. Trends for metallicnonmetallic character


Move left to right in any row of the periodic table, the metallic character of the
elements decreases. As you progress down a column, however, the elements tend to
increase in metallic character.
These variations of metallicnonmetallic character can be attributed in part to
variations in the ionization energies of the corresponding atoms. Elements with low
onization energy tend to be metallic, where as those with high ionization energy tend to
be nonmetallic. As you saw in the previous section, ionization energy is a periodic
property, so it is not surprising that the metallicnonmetallic character of an element is
similarly periodic.
The basic acidic behavior of the oxides of the elements is a good indicator of the
metallicnonmetallic character of the elements. Oxides are classified as basic or acidic
depending on their reactions with acids and bases. A basic oxideis an oxide that reacts
with acids.Most metal oxides are basic. An acidic oxideis an oxide that reacts with
bases.Most nonmetal oxides are acidic oxides. An amphoteric oxideis an oxide that has
both basic and acidic properties.
In the following brief descriptions of the main-group elements, we will note the
metallicnonmetallic behavior of the elements, as well as the basicacidic character of
the oxides. Although elements in a given group are expected to be similar, the degree
of similarity does vary among the groups. The alkali metals (Group IA) show marked

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similarities, as do the halogens (Group VIIA). On the other hand, the Group IVA
elements range from a nonmetal (carbon) at the top of the column to a metal (lead) at

next lower one are systematic, and the periodic table helps us to correlate these
systematic changes.
IV. Periodic law: the chemical and physical properties of the elements repeat in

the bottom. In either case, however, the changes from one element in a column to the

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a regular, periodic pattern when they are arranged according to their atomic number.

D. EXERCISES
1. Two elements are in the same group, one following the other. One is a metalloid; the

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other is a metal. Both form oxides of the formula RO2. The first is acidic; the next is
amphoteric. Identify the two elements.

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2. A metalloid has an acidic oxide of the formula R2O3. The element has no oxide of
the formula R2O5 . What is the name of the element?
3. Using periodic trends:
a) Arrange the following elements by increasing ionization energy: Ar, Na, Cl, Al
b) Arrange the following elements in order of increasing atomic radius: O, P, S.
c) Arrange the following elements in order of increasing ionization energy: Mg, Ca, S
4. Deduce the valence-shell configuration of elements.
a. Bromine is a Group VIIA element in Period 4.
b. Antimony is a Group VA element in Period 5
c. Zirconium is a Group IVB element in Period 5
d. Chromine is a Group VIB element in Period 4.
5. Match each set of characteristics on the left with an element in the column at the
right.
a. A reactive nonmetal; atom has a large negative electron 1.The Sodium(Na)
affinity
b. A soft metal; the atom has low ionization energy
2.Antimony (Sb)
c. A metalloid that forms an oxide of formula R2O3
3.Argon (Ar)

d. A chemically unreactive gas


4.Chlorine (Cl2)
6. The ground-state electron configuration of an atom is 1s22s22p63s23p4. What is the
valence shell configuration of the atom in the same group, but in Period 5?
7. A metallic element, M, reacts vigorously with water to form a solution of MOH. If
M is in Period 5, what is the groundstate electron configuration of the atom?

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8. A 2.50-g sample of barium reacted completely with water. What is the equation for
the reaction? How many milliliters of dry H2 evolved at 210C and 748 mmHg?

9. How many valence electrons are there in an atom of each of these elements?
neon
sodium
magnesium
bromine
chlorine
silicon
sulfur helium
strontium

10. Using only a periodic table, identify the atom in each of the following pairs with

(d) I, F

(c) Ca, K

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the lower first ionization energy.


(a) B O
(b) F, N

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Choice questions
1. In the modern periodic table, elements are ordered

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(a) according to decreasing atomic mass.


(b) according to Mendeleevs original design.
(c) according to increasing atomic number.
(d) based on when they were discovered.
2. Mendeleev noticed that certain similarities in the chemical properties of elements
appeared at regular intervals when the elements were arranged in order of increasing
(a) density.
(c) atomic number
(b) reactivity
(d)atomic mass.
3. The modern periodic law states that
(a) two electrons with the same spin can be found in the same place in an atom.
(b) the physical and chemical properties of an element are functions of its atomic
number.
(c) electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves.
(d) the chemical properties of elements can be grouped according to periodicity, but
physical properties cannot.
4. The discovery of the noble gases changed periodic table by adding a new
(a) period
(b) group
(c) series
(d) level.
5. The most distinctive property of the noble gases is that they are
(a) metallic
(b) metalloid
(c) radioactive
(d)largely unreactive.
6. Lithium, the first element in Group 1, has an atomic number of 3. The second
element in this group has an atomic number of
(a) 4
(b) 11
(c) 10
(d) 18

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7. Using only a periodic table, rank the elements in each set by increasing ionization
energy.
(d) Kr, Br, Rb

8. When an electron is added to a neutral atom, energy is


(a) always absorbed
(c) either absorbed or released.
(b) always released
(d) neither absorbed nor released.

(c) Sr, Ca, Ba

(b) Rb, K, Ca

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10. From left to right across a period on the periodic table


a. electron affinity values tend to become more negative
b. ionization energy values tend to increase
c. atomic radii tend to become smaller.

(d) ionization energy .

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(b) electron energy

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9. The energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom is the atoms
(a) electron affinity
(c) electronegativity.

(a) Sn, In, Sb

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Answer
1. Two elements are Si and Ge
2. A metalloid has an acidic oxide of the formula R2O3. The element has no oxide of
the formula R2O5 . The name of the element is As

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3. Using periodic trends:


a) Arrange the following elements by increasing ionization energy: Na, Al, Cl, Ar
b) Arrange the following elements in order of increasing atomic radius: O, P, S
c) Arrange the following elements in order of increasing ionization energy: S, Mg, Ca
4. Deduce the valence-shell configuration of elements.
a. Bromine is a Group VIIA element in Period 4: 4s24p5

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b. Antimony is a Group VA element in Period 5: 5s24d105p3


c. Zirconium is a Group IVB element in Period 5: 4d25s2
d. Cromine is a Group VIB element in Period 4: 3d54s1
5. Match each set of characteristics on the left with an element in the column at the
right.
a. A reactive nonmetal; atom has a large negative electron 4.Chlorine (Cl2)
affinity
b. A soft metal; the atom has low ionization energy
c. A metalloid that forms an oxide of formula R2O3
d. A chemically unreactive gas

1.TheSodium (Na)
2.Antimony (Sb)
3.Argon (Ar)

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7. A metallic element, M reacts vigorously with water to form a solution of MOH. If


M is in Period 5, the groundstate electron configuration of the atom: [Kr]5s1

6. The ground-state electron configuration of an atom is 1s22s22p63s23p4. the valence


shell configuration of the atom in the same group, but in Period 5: 5s25p4

8. How many valence electrons are there in an atom of each of these elements?

neon: 8

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sodium: 1
magnesium: 2

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bromine: 7
9. How many valence electrons are there in an atom of each of these elements?
chlorine: 7

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silicon: 4
sulfur: 6
helium: 2
10. Using only a periodic table, identify the atom in each of the following pairs with
the lower first ionization energy.
(a) B
(b) N
(c) K
(d) I
Chemical Bonding
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL BONDING
A. VOCABULARY

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2.1.3.

Vocabulary

double bond

lc ht

electrical conductivity n

dn in

chemical bond

lin kt ha hc

excess electron

electron cho

counterbalance

s thng bng

exchange

s thay i

diagram

electrons consumed n

dissolve

ha tan

electrostatic

adj thuc v in

chemical properties n

tnh cht ha hc

electronegativity

m in

compound

hp cht

energy

nng lng

combine

kt hp

exception

ngoi l

contribute

ng gp

formation

to thnh

covalent bond

lin kt cng ha tr

gain

tng

decrease

gim

group

nhm

Meaning

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attraction

lin kt i

electron nhn

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cng

product

sn phm

ionic bond

lin kt ion

reaction involvel

tham gia phn ng

increase

tng

react

phn ng

isoelectronic

adj ng in t

reactant

cht phn ng

liquid

cht lng

repulsion

lc y

lose

mt

single bond

lin kt n

metal

kim loi

sigma bond

lin kt xicma

molecule

phn t

share

chia s

melting point

nhit si

solid

cht rn

metallic bond

lin kt kim loi

solution

noble gas

kh him

solubility

kh nng ha tan

substance

n cht

bond

lin kt cng ha
tr khng cc

ktc

octet rule

qui tc bt t

thermal conductivity

dn nhit

outer shell

lp v ngoi cng

triple bond

lin kt ba

pi bond

lin kt pi

valence electron

electron ha tr

physical property

tnh cht vt l

valence pair

cp electron ha tr

valence shell

v ha tr

H
N

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H
N

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H
N

lin kt cng ha
tr c cc

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standard condition

dung dch

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nonpolar covalent

hardness

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B. SENTENCES
- to be involved in: c tham gia vo
- to be formed: c to ra
- in order to possess: c s hu
- be surrounded by: c bao quanh bi
- to be said to obey the octet rule: c cho l tun theo qui tc bt t.
- the same configuration of noble gas: cng cu hnh ca kh him
- transfer of (one electron) from (the lithium) to (the fluorine): chuyn.. t.....ti..
- to form oppositely charged ions: to thnh ion c in tch tri du
- to achieve: t c
- to need to gain: cn nhn thm
- to be attracted to: c ht bi
- the noble gas thats nearest them on the periodic table: kh him gn n nht
trong bng tun hon.

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- electrostatic attraction between ions that have opposite charges: lc ht tnh in


gia cc ion mang in tri du.

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C. SUMMARY
I. What are chemical bonds, and why do they form?
A chemical bond is the result of an attraction between atoms or ions.

- completely filled valence shell of electrons: v ha tr hon ton y electron


- noble gases have 8 electrons in their outer shell: kh him c 8 electron lp ngoi
cng

- have an electronegativity difference greater than: c m in khc nhau hn

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The types of bonds that a molecule contains will determine its physical
properties, such as melting point, hardness, electrical and thermal conductivity, and
solubility.
How do chemical bonds occur? Only the outer most, or valence, electrons of an
atom are involved in chemical bonds. Lets begin our discussion by looking at the
simplest element, hydrogen. When two hydrogen atoms approach each other, electronelectron repulsion and proton-proton repulsion both act to try to keep the atoms apart.
However, proton-electron attraction can counterbalance this, pulling the two hydrogen
atoms together so that a bond is formed. Look at the energy diagram below for the
formation of an HH bond.

2 H: 1s1 H2 1s2
H +H H : H(electron pair covalent bond)
Atoms will often gain, lose, or share electrons in order to possess the same
number of electrons as the noble gas thats nearest them on the periodic table. All of
the noble gases have eight valence electrons (s2p6) and are very chemically stable, so
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this phenomenon is known as the octet rule. There are, however, certain exceptions to
the octet rule. One group of exceptions is atoms with fewer than eight electrons

around Be: Beryllium contributes two electrons and each hydrogen contributes one.
The second exception to the octet rule is seen in elements in periods 4 and higher.
Atoms of these elements can be surrounded by more than four valence pairs in certain

hydrogen (H) has just one electron. In BeH2, there are only four valence electrons

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compounds.

II. Types of Chemical Bonds


There are three types of chemical bonds: ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and

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metallic bonds.
1. Ionic bonds are the result of an electrostatic attraction between ions that have
opposite charges; in other words, cations and anions. Ionic bonds usually form between
metals and nonmetals; elements that participate in ionic bonds are often from opposite
ends of the periodic table and have an electronegativity difference greater than 1.67.
a. Noble gas configuration; Octet Rule. Certain elements in the periodic table are
especially stable. These are the noble gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and
radon found in group 8A. The common features of these elements is that they all have a
completely filled valence shell of electrons. Except for helium which has a filled shell
of two electrons, all the remaining noble gases have 8 electrons in their outer shell.
This special configuration can also be attained in other elements; it is the major
driving force in the formation of ions (by gain or loss of electrons). Elements or ions
which have a filled shell of electrons are said to obey the octet rule.
b. Formation of ions. Much of chemistry can be understood in terms of the
various elements' wish to gain the filled shell configuration. In the reaction of lithium
with fluorine gas, both elements can satisfy the octet rule by transfer of one electron
from the lithium to the fluorine. During this process the fluroine becomes a fluoride
anion, the lithium a lithium cation. Both ions have the same configuration of noble gas.

Li(1s2 2s1 ) 1e + Li + (1s2 )


F(1s2 2s2 2p5 ) + 1e F (1s2 2s2 2p6 )

Elements at the left of the periodic table (like groups IA and IIA) can most easily
attain a filled shell configuration by donating electrons. Conversely, elements on the
right side of the periodic table are converted to the octet configuration by accepting
electrons.
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c. Formation of ionic bonds


How does the formation of an ionic bond between sodium and chlorine reflect

chlorine, the resulting Na+ cation has an electron energy level that contains eight
electrons. It is isoelectronic with the noble gas neon. On the other hand, chlorine has an

the octet rule. Neutral sodium has one valence electron. When it loses this electron to

outer electron energy level that contains seven electrons. When chlorine gains sodium

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electron, it becomes an anion that is isoelectronic with the noble gas argon. You can
represent the formation of an ionic bond using Lewis structures. Thus, in an ionic bond,

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electrons are transferred from one atom to another so that they form oppositely charged
ions. The strong force of attraction (Electrostatic Attraction) between the oppositely
charged ions is what holds them together.

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Na+ + Cl Na+ Cl

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Ionic bonds: Electrostatic Attraction of oppositely charged particles which holds


the ions together in an ionic solid.
d. Properties of ionic compounds: Ionic bonds are very strong, so compounds that
contain these types of bonds have high melting points and exist in a solid state under
standard conditions. In an ionic bond, an electron is actually transferred from the less
electronegative atom to the more electronegative element. One example of a molecule
that contains an ionic bond is table salt, NaCl.
2. Covalent bonds
a. Writing Lewis Structures
+) Start with a central atom (usually the heaviest, but make it carbon if carbon is
present).
+) Place all the outer shell electrons on four imaginary sides. Don't pair electrons
unless more than four are in the outer shell of an atom.
+) Bring the other atoms of the molecule in to the central atom so that single electrons
on the central atom can be paired with single electrons on the other atoms.
+) If, after all atoms have been added, two adjacent atoms have unshared electrons,
they share the unshared electrons to make multiple bonds.
+) If the species is an ion, then add or subtract the appropriate number of electrons in
order to obtain the charge of the ion.
+) The final Lewis-dot structure should have eight electrons around all atoms except
hydrogen,which has two. (There are a few exceptions to the octet rule)

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b. Formation of covalent bonds


When the electronegativity difference between two atoms is greater than 1.7. The

the higher electronegativity. The resulting ions have opposite charges. They are held
together by a strong ionic bond.
What happens when the electronegativity difference is very small?

atom with the lower electronegativity transfers its valence electron(s) to the atom with

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What happens when the electronegativity difference is zero?


+) Formation of a covalent bond between two atoms of each diatomic element

- As an example, consider chlorine. Chlorine is a yellowish, noxious gas. What is

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it like at the atomic level? Each chlorine atom has seven electrons in its outer energy
level. In order for chlorine to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas
according to the octet rule, it needs to gain one electron. When two chlorine atoms
bond together, their electronegativity difference is zero. The electrons are equally
attracted to each atom.
Therefore, instead of transferring electrons, the two atoms each share one electron
with each other. In other words, each atom contributes one electron to a covalent bond.
A covalent bond consists of a pair of shared electrons. Thus, each chlorine atom
achieves a filled outer electron energy level, satisfying the octet rule. Represent a
covalent bond with a Lewis structure.
&
& : Cl
&
& :: Cl
&
& Cl
&
&:
: Cl
&
& &
&
&
& &
&
When two atoms of the same element form a bond, they share their electrons
equally in a pure covalent bond. Elements with atoms that bond to each other in this
way are known as diatomic elements.
- The fomation of molecular hyrogen
2 H: 1s1 H2 1s2

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H +H H : H(electron pair covalent bond)


+) The fomation of molecular compounds
- The fomation of molecular hyrogen chloride
H: 1s1 ; Cl: 1s22s22p63s23p5
&
& : H : Cl
&
& : H Cl
H. + .Cl
&
&
&
&
When atoms such as carbon and hydrogen bond to each other, their
electronegativities are so close that they share their electrons almost equally. Carbon
and hydrogen have an electronegativity difference of only 2.62.2 = 0.4. One atom of
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Each hydrogen atom shares one of its electrons with the carbon. The carbon
shares one of its four valence electrons with each hydrogen. Thus, each hydrogen atom
achieves a filled outer energy level, and so does carbon. (Recall that elements in the

carbon forms a covalent bond with four atoms of hydrogen. The compound methane,
CH4, is formed.

first period need only two electrons to fill their outer energy level.) When analyzing

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Lewis structures that show covalent bonds, count the shared electrons as if they belong
to each of the bonding atoms.

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When electrons are shared between atoms rather than transferred from one atom
to another. However, this sharing rarely occurs equally because of course no two atoms
have the same electronegativity value. (The obvious exception is in a bond between

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two atoms of the same element.) We say that covalent bonds are nonpolar if the
electronegativity difference between the two atoms involved falls between 0 and 0.4.
We say they are polar if the electronegativity difference falls between 0.4 and 1.67. In
both nonpolar and polar covalent bonds, the element with the higher electronegativity
attracts the electron pair more strongly. The two bonds in a molecule of carbon
dioxide, CO2, are covalent bonds.

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Covalent bonds can be single, double, or triple. If only one pair of electrons is
shared, a single bond is formed. This single bond is a sigma bond (s), in which the
electron density is concentrated along the line that represents the bond joining the two
atoms. However, double and triple bonds occur frequently (especially among carbon,
nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur atoms) and come about when atoms can
achieve a complete octet by sharing more than one pair of electrons between them. If
two electron pairs are shared between the two atoms, a double bond forms, where one
of the bonds is a sigma bond, and the other is a pi bond (p). A pi bond is a bond in
which the electron density is concentrated above and below the line that represents the
bond joining the two atoms. If three electron pairs are shared between the two nuclei,
a triple bond forms. In a triple bond, the first bond to form is a single, sigma bond and
the next two to form are both pi.
Multiple bonds increase electron density between two nuclei: they decrease
nuclear repulsion while enhancing the nucleus to electron density attractions. The
nuclei move closer together, which means that double bonds are shorter than single
bonds and triple bonds are shortest of all.

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c. Properties covalent of compounds


Some dissolve in water, and some do not. Some conduct electricity when molten

They all have low boiling points. None of them conducts electricity in the solid,
liquid, or gaseous state.
Explain : The atoms in each compound are held together by strong covalent

or dissolved in water, and some do not.

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bonds. Whether the compound is in the liquid, solid, or gaseous state, these bonds do
not break. Thus, covalent compounds (unlike ionic compounds) do not break up into

ions when they melt or boil. The molecules that make up a pure covalent compound

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cannot carry a current, even if the compound is in its liquid state or in solution
3. Metallic bonds exist only in metals, such as aluminum, gold, copper, and iron.
In metals, each atom is bonded to several other metal atoms, and their electrons are free
to move throughout the metal structure. This special situation is responsible for the
unique properties of metals, such as their high conductivity.

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D. EXERCISES
1. Two atoms X and Y have the electronic configuration
X: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s2 Y: 1s22s22p4

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Which compound are they likely to form?


Solution: XY
2. Use the electronegativity values , to determine whether each of the following bonds
is nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, or ionic.
a. HF
d. HH
b. NaCl
e. HC
c. HO
f. HN

B
ID

TO

-L

Solution:
Ionic bond: NaCl
Polar covalent bond: HF, HO, HN
Nonpolar covalent bond: HH, HC
3. Use Lewis structures to show the simplest way in which each pair of elements forms
a covalent compound, according to the octet rule.
(a) hydrogen and oxygen
(b) iodine and hydrogen
(c) chlorine and oxygen

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c. ionic bond
e. coordinate covalent bond

d. polyatomic ion
f. resonance

g. organic compounds
i. isomers

h. hydrocarbons

b. polar covalent bond

TP

.Q

used.
a. non-polar covalent bond

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N

Solution:
&
& H : O
&
&: H H O H
a) 2H. + .O.
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
b) H. + .I : H : I : H I
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
c) : Cl : O : Cl : Cl O Cl
&
& &
& &
&
4. Match the following terms to the definitions that follow. Not all of the terms will be

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_____1. Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural
formulas.

_____2. The group of compounds containing the elements carbon and hydrogen.
_____3. A group of covalently bonded atoms, which obtain a charge.

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_____4. The type of bond formed between two atoms with a difference of
electronegativity of greater than 1.7.
_____5. The type of bond formed when one atom provides both of the electrons that
will be shared between two atoms.
_____6. The name for the class of compounds that contain carbon.
_____7. The type of bond that forms between the atoms in a diatomic molecule, such
as H2

B
ID

TO

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Solution:
1. [i. isomers]
2. [h. hydrocarbons]
3. [d. polyatomic ion]
4. [c. ionic bond]
5. [e. coordinate covalent bond]
6. [g. organic compounds]All hydrocarbons are organic compounds, but not all
organic compounds are hydrocarbons.
7. [a. non-polar covalent bond]Any two atoms of the same element must have
an electronegativity difference of 0.

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5. Determine the types of bonds that form between the following pairs of elements.
A. KCl

B. H2O

C. HCl
D. O2

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N

Solution:
All we need to do is look up, and subtract, the electronegativities (E.N.) of the bonding
elements. We ignore any subscripts, such as the subscript of 2 found in the H2O
A. we find: E.N. of K = 0.8; E.N. of Cl = 3.2

.Q

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

TP

Because 2.4 is greater than 1.7, this bond is ionic.


B. we find: E.N. of H = 2.2; E.N. of O = 3.5
Difference in E.N. = 1.3 (3.5 2.2 = 1.3).
Because 1.3 is less than 1.7, this bond is covalent.
Because 1.3 is greater than 0.3, this bond is polar covalent.
C. we find: E.N. of H = 2.2; E.N. of Cl = 3.2
Difference in E.N. = 1.0 (3.2 2.2 = 1.0).
Because 1.0 is less than 1.7 this bond is covalent.
Because 1.0 is greater than 0.3, this bond is polar covalent.
D. we find: E.N. of O = 3.5; E.N. of O = 3.5
Difference in E.N. = 0.0 (3.5 3.5 = 0.0).
Because 0.0 is less than 1.7 this bond is covalent.
Because 0.0 is less than 0.3, this bond is non-polar covalent.

Difference in E.N. = 2.4 (3.2 0.8 = 2.4).

B
ID

TO

-L

Choice questions
1. A chemical bond between atoms results from the attraction between the valence
electrons and ....... of different atoms.
(a) nuclei
(b) isotopes
(c) inner electrons
(d) Lewis structures
2. A covalent bond consists of
(a) a shared electron
(c) two different ions.
(b) a shared electron pair
(d) an octet of electrons.
3. If two covalently bonded atoms are identical, the bond is identified as
(a) dipolar
(b) ionic
(c) polar covalent
(d) nonpolar covalent
4. A covalent bond in which there is an unequal attraction for the shared electrons is

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(a) nonpolar
(b) ionic
(c) polar
(d) dipolar.
5. Atoms with a strong attraction for electrons they share with another atom exhibit

H
N
B

(b) low electronegativity


(d) Lewis electronegativity.
6. Bonds that possess between 5% and 50% ionic character are considered to be
(a) ionic
(b) polar covalent
(c) pure covalent
(d) nonpolar covalent.

(c) high electronegativity.

(a) zero electronegativity

(c) metallic character.

(a) ionic character

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N

7. The greater the electronegativity difference between two atoms bonded together, the
greater the bonds percentage of

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TP

.Q

(b) nonpolar character


(d) electron sharing.
8. The notation for sodium chloride, NaCl, stands for one
(a) formula unit
(c) crystal
(b) molecule
(d) atom.
9. In a crystal of an ionic compound, each cation is surrounded by a number of
(a) molecules.
(c) dipoles.
(b) positive ions.
(d) negative ions.
10. The lattice energy of compound A is greater in magnitude than that of compound
B. What can be concluded from this fact?
(a) Compound A is not an ionic compound.
(b) It will be more difficult to break the bonds in compound A than those in B
(c) Compound B has larger crystals than compound A.
(d) Compound A has larger crystals than compound B.

-L

2.1.4. Oxidation Reduction Reactions - Redox Reactions


CHAPTER 4: OXIDATION REDUTION REACTIONS- REDOX REACTIONS
A. VOCABULARY
Meaning

decomposition

n phn ng phn hy

algebraic sum

n tng i s

excess electron

n electron cho

chemical reaction n phn ng ha hc

exchange

n s thay i

conjugate reaction n phn ng ha hp

exchange reaction n phn ng trao i

compound

n hp cht

electronegative

n m in

combine

v kt hp

decrease

v gim

equation
coefficient

n h s phng trnh

B
ID

TO

Vocabulary

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n cht oxi ha

formation

n to thnh

product

n sn phm

gain

n tng

polyatomic

n thuc a nguyn t

half-reaction

n bn phn ng

reaction involvel

n tham gia phn ng

hydride

n hirua

react

v phn ng

increase

v tng

reduction

n qu trnh kh

molecule

n phn t

reduction reaction n phn ng kh

electrons consumed n electron nhn

oxidizing- agent
(oxidant)

B
H

T
N

reactant

n cht phn ng

reducing-agent
(reductant)

n cht kh

oxidation

substance

H
N
Y

n dung dch
n n cht

n trng thi oxi ha

U
.Q

substance

oxidation state

TP

solution

oxidation number n s oxi ha

n cht

oxidation reaction n phn ng oxi ha

oxidation reduction
phn ng oxi hareaction (redox
n kh
reaction)

n qu trnh oxi ha

n th nghim

experiment

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B
ID

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B. SENTENCES
- to involve: lin quan n
- to loss of sth: mt
- to gain of sth: tng thm
- the overall reaction may be written as two half-reactions: phn ng tng th c
th chia thnh hai na phn ng.
- as the reaction progresses: khi phn ng xy ra.
- the excess electrons in the oxidation reaction must equal the number of electrons
consumed by the reduction reaction: cc electron cho trong phn ng oxi ha phi
bng s electron tiu th trong phn ng kh.
- to combine to form : kt hp to thnh
- consider the reaction between: xem xt cc phn ng gia
- to lose...... to become.... : mt ...... to thnh....
- be oxidized into: b oxi ha thnh
- to gaining .... to form : nhn.... to thnh...
- to be reduced.... b kh
- the algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers is: tng s oxi ha cc nguyn t
bng

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C. SUMMARY

bonded electrons are associated with the more electronegative atom.


When electron transfer takes place, the oxidation number of an element in a

I. Oxidation Numbers
1. Oxidation numbers are charges assigned to atoms by assuming that all the

T
N

reaction changes when it becomes part of a product. In most cases, two elements of
two reactions will be involved.
Thus we look for changes in oxidation numbers to identify redox reactions.
2. Rules for assignment of oxidation number .

a. In a free element (e.g., Ba or I2) the oxidation number for each atom is 0.

.Q

b. With the exception of hydrogen, all of the elements in group 1 show an oxidation

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3

g.
h.

f.

0B

TR

e.

d.

c.

TP

number of +1 in compounds.
Hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1 in all compounds except for hydrides
(e.g., NaH), where it shows an oxidation number of -1.
The elements found in group 2, the alkaline earth metals, show an oxidation
number of +2 in all compounds.
When any of the elements in group VII, the halogens, show a negative oxidation
state, it will be -1.
Oxygen shows an oxidation number of -2 in all compounds, except for the
peroxides, where it is -1.
In all neutral compounds, the algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers is 0.
In polyatomic ions, the algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers is equal to the
charge on the polyatomic ion.

TO

-L

II. Oxidation-Reduction or Redox Reaction


Any chemical reaction in which the oxidation numbers (oxidation states) of the
atoms are changed is an oxidation-reduction reaction. Such reactions are also known as
redox reactions, which is shorthand for reduction-oxidation reactions.

B
ID

III. Oxidation and Reduction


Oxidation and reduction are two types of chemical reactions that often work
together. Oxidation and reduction reactions involve an exchange of electrons between
reactants. Oxidation involves an increase in oxidation number, oxidation occurs when a
reactant loses electrons during the reaction. While reduction involves a decrease in
oxidation number, reduction occurs when a reactant gains electrons during the reaction

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Depending on the chemical reaction, oxidation and reduction may involve any of the
following for a given atom, ion, or molecule.

increase in oxidation state


Reduction - involves the gain of electrons or hydrogen or loss of oxygen or
decrease in oxidation state

Oxidation - involves the loss of electrons or hydrogen or gain of oxygen or

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N

IV. Example of an Oxidation Reduction Reaction


Ex 1: The reaction between hydrogen and fluorine

Y
U

F2 + 2e 2F (the reduction reaction)

TP

H 2 2H + + 2e (the oxidation reaction)

.Q

The overall reaction may be written as two half-reactions:

H 2 + F2 2HF

There is no net change in charge in a redox reaction so the excess electrons in the

oxidation reaction must equal the number of electrons consumed by the reduction
reaction. The ions combine to form hydrogen fluoride:

TR

H 2 + F2 2F + 2H + 2HF

0B

Ex2: Consider the reaction between zinc metal and hydrochloric acid.

10
0

Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl 2(aq) + H 2(g)

2+
3

If this reaction where broken down to the ion level:

2+

Zn(s) + 2H(aq)
+ 2Cl(aq)
Zn(aq)
+ 2Cl(aq)
+ H 2(g)

-L

First, look at what happens to the zinc atoms. Initially, we have a neutral zinc
atom. As the reaction progresses, the zinc atom loses two electrons to become a
Zn2+ ion.
2+
Zn(s) Zn(aq)
+ 2e

B
ID

TO

The zinc was oxidized into Zn2+ ions. This reaction is an oxidation reaction.
The second part of this reaction involves the hydrogen ions. The hydrogen ions
are gaining electrons and bonding together to form dihydrogen gas.
2 H+ + 2 e- H2(g)
The hydrogen ions each gained an electron to form the neutrally charged
hydrogen gas. The hydrogen ions are said to be reduced and the reaction is a reduction
reaction.Since both processes are going on at the same time, the initial reaction is
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called an oxidation-reduction reaction. This type of reaction is also called a redox


reaction (REDuction/ OXidation).

there are other ways. There are two mnemonics to remember which reaction is
oxidation and which reaction is reductions.
The first one is OIL RIG:

You could just memorize oxidation: lose electrons-reduction: gain electrons, but

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N

Oxidation Involves Loss of electrons. Reduction Involves Gain of electrons.


The second is "LEO the lion says GER".

Lose Electrons in Oxidation. Gain Electrons in Reduction.

Reductant: species that loses electrons

.Q

Oxidant: species that gains electrons

TR

TP

V. Importance of Redox Reactions


Oxidation-reduction reactions are vital for biochemical reactions and industrial
processes. The electron transfer system in cells and oxidation of glucose in the human
body are examples of redox reactions. Redox reactions are used to reduce ores to
obtain metals, to produce electrochemical cells, to convert ammonia into nitric acid for
fertilizers, and to coat compact discs.

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VI. Balancing redox reactions- The oxidation state method


The oxidation state method breaks the reaction into two half-reactions, the
eduction reaction and the oxidation reaction. This method us based on change in
oxidation states of the various ions.

MnO2(s) + HCl(aq) MnCl 2(aq) + Cl 2(g) + H 2O(l)

Example: Balance the equation

Step 1: Identify what is being oxidized and what is being reduced.


To identify which atoms are being reduced or oxidized, assign oxidation states to
+4

+1 1

+2

+1

-L

each atom of the reaction. Mn O2 ;H Cl;Mn Cl 2 ;Cl 2 ;H 2 O

B
ID

TO

Cl-1 went from oxidation state -1 to 0, losing one electron: Cl-1 is oxidized by this
reaction.
Mn+4 went from oxidation state +4 to +2, gaining two electrons:. Mn+4 is reduced

by this reaction.
Step 2: Break the reaction into two half reactions: oxidation and reduction.
Oxidation reaction: Cl-1 1e + Cl0
Reduction reaction: Mn+4 + 2e Mn+2

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Step 3: Balance each half-reaction, balance the number electron for and get.

Cl 1 1e + Cl 0 x2
Mn +4 + 2e Mn +2 x1

Step 4: Put into the equation coefficients and check.

MnO2(s) + 4HCl(aq) MnCl 2(aq) + Cl 2(g) + 2H 2O(l)

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VII. Types of Chemical Reactions


1. Synthesis or Direct Combination Reaction is a reaction where two or more
substances directly combine to form a new chemical compound.

TP

.Q

General Form: A + B AB
Example: Fe + S FeS
Iron + Sulfur Iron sulfide
2. Decomposition Reaction is a reaction where a chemical compound breaks up
(decomposes) into two or more substances.
General Form: AB A + B
Example: ZnCO3 ZnO + CO2

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Zinc carbonate (+ Heat) Zinc oxide + Carbon dioxide


3. Simple Displacement Reaction is a reaction where one element replaces
another in a chemical compound to produce a new compound and the displaced
element.
General Form: A + BC AC + B
Example: Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu

-L

Iron + Copper Sulfate Iron sulfate + Copper


4. Double Displacement Reaction is a reaction where two chemical compounds
exchange their radicals to form two new compounds.
General Form: AB + CD AD + CB

TO

Example: KCl + AgNO3 AgCl + KNO3

B
ID

Potassium chloride + Silver nitrate Potassium nitrate + Silver chloride

D. EXERCISES
1. Indicate the oxidation states of each of the elements in the following chemical
species:
a) NaOH
b) HBr
c) VF5
d) Na2SO4

e) NO 2

f) SiOF2

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Sol:
a) NaOH
b) HBr

Na = +1, O = -2; S = +6

e)

NO 2

O = -2; N = +3

VF5
Na2SO4

V = +5; F = -1

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N

c)
d)

Na = +1; O = -2; H = +1
H = +1; Br = -1

f)
SiOF2
O = -2; F = -1, Si = +4
2. Determine which of the following reactions are redox reactions. For those that are,

identify the element which has been oxidized, and the one that has been reduced:
2 NaOH + CaCl2 2 NaCl + Ca(OH)2

b)
c)
d)

3 Li + FeCl3 3 LiCl + Fe
CI4 + 2 Br2 CBr4 + 2 I2
HNO3 + NaHCO3 H2O + CO2 + NaNO3

U
.Q
TP
O

Solution:
a) 2 NaOH + CaCl2 2 NaCl + Ca(OH)2

a)

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3

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Not a redox reaction oxidation states dont change.


b) 3 Li + FeCl3 3 LiCl + Fe
Redox reaction: Lithium is oxidized from 0 +1, Fe is reduced from +3 0
c) CI4 + 2 Br2 CBr4 + 2 I2
Redox reaction: I is oxidized from -1 to 0, Br is reduced from 0 to -1
(Note: As handed out in class, there was an error in this problem. It has been
fixed in this version)
d) HNO3 + NaHCO3 H2O + CO2 + NaNO3

Not a redox reaction oxidation states dont change.

-L

3. Why are 2Na + Cl 2 2NaCl and 2H 2 + O2 2H 2O considered redox reactions?

B
ID

TO

Solution:
Both involve the transfer of electron density (Na has no charge, the atoms in
diatomic molecules have no partial charge. After reaction the atoms have different
shares of the electrons because of different EN values)
4. Assign the correct oxidation number to the individual atom or ion below.
a. Mn in MnO2 b. S in S8
c. Cl in CaCl2
d. I in IO3

e. C in H2CO3 f. Fe in Fe2(SO4)3

g. S in Fe2(SO4)3

Solution:
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a. Mn: +4
e. C: +4

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b. S: 0
f. Fe: +3

c. Cl: -1
g. S: +6

d. I: +5

5. In each of the following half-reactions, determine the value of x.

a. S+6 + xe S2

b. 2Br x 2e + Br2

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N

c. Sn +4 + 2e Sn x

H
N
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U

TP

.Q

Solution:
a. x = 8
b. x = -1
c. x = +2
d. The above half-reactions represent reduction processes: a, c
6. All the following equations involve redox reactions except.

d. Which of the above half-reactions represent reduction processes?

(a) CaO + H 2O Ca(OH)2 .

(b) 2SO2 + O 2 2SO3

0B

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(c) 2HgO 2Hg + O 2

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(d) SnCl 4 + 2FeCl 2 SnCl 2 + 2FeCl3 .

TO

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2+
3

7. All of the following should be done in the process of balancing redox equations
except
(a) adjusting coefficients to balance atoms.
(b) adjusting coefficients in electron equations to balance numbers of electrons lost and
gained.
(c) adjusting subscripts to balance atoms.
(d) writing two separate electron equations.
8. For the following redox reaction: SnCl2+ 2FeCl3  2FeCl2+ SnCl4 .Identify:

B
ID

A. The oxidation numbers for each substance involved.


B. The substance being oxidized.
C. The oxidizing agent.
D. The substance being reduced.
E. The reducing agent.
9. MnO 4 can be reduced to MnO2.
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a. Assign the oxidation number to Mn in these two species.


b. How many electrons are gained per Mn atom in this reduction?

10. Write the equations for the oxidation and reductionhalf-reactions for the redox

c. If 0.50 mol of MnO 4 is reduced, how many electrons are gained?

reactions below, and then balance the reaction equations.

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N

a) MnO2 + HCl MnCl 2 + Cl 2 + H 2O

b) HNO3 + S H 2SO 4 + NO2 + H 2O

.Q

2.2.5. Halogens- The elements in group VIIA


CHAPTER 5: HALOGENS- THE ELEMENTS IN GROUP VIIA

phn t

cathode

catot

chemical

ha hc

organic
compounds

hp cht hu c

concentrated

adj m c

oxidation

qu trnh oxi ha

configuration

cu hnh

compound

hp cht

combine

kt hp

dye

thuc nhum

directly

adv trc tip

element

electrolysis

molecule

s oxi ha

oxidation state

trng thi oxi ha

product

sn phm

reaction involvel

tham gia phn ng

react

phn ng

reduction

qu trnh kh

s in phn

reactant

cht phn ng

s thay i

stable

adj tnh n nh

ngoi tr

solution

m rng

soluble

adj thuc v tnh tan

force

lc ht

solubility

tnh tan

formations

to thnh

solid

cht rn

increase

tng

synthetic rubber

cao su tng hp

involvement

s tham gia

substance

n cht

insoluble

adj khng tan

sterilize

kh trng

limestone

vi

temperatures

nhit

liquid

cht lng

toxic

adj c hi

0B

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0

2+
3

nguyn t

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TO

TR

oxidation number n

G
N

v tr

anot

expand

except

location

anode

exchange

B
ID

Meaning

Vocabulary

TP

A. VOCABULARY

dung dch

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N

phng v p sut kh quyn (iu kin thng).


- to form = to produce: to ra
- to be oxidized by: b oxi ha bi
- at room temperature and pressure (at r.t.p): p sut v nhit phng.

agents: clo phn ngtrc tip vi hu ht cc nguyn t v l cht oxi ha mnh.


- to be a gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure: l cht kh nhit

B. SENTENCES
- to react with sth: phn ng vi
- Ex: Chlorine react directly with most other elements and are good oxidizing

.Q

- to be used up: c dng / phn ng ht


- to oxidize sth to: oxi ha c sth to ra

TP

- Ex: Chlorine oxidizes iodide ion to iodine: clo oxi ha c ion iodua to iot
- to be oxidized into: b oxi ha thnh

B
ID

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3

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- to be used to prepare: c s dng sn xut


- Ex: Chlorine is used to prepare silicon tetrachloride: Clo c s dng sn
xut silic tetraclorua.
- to be reduced: b kh
- to be able to promote sth: c th chuyn
- Ex: Halogens are able to promote electrons into the d orbitals and thus are able to
form more than one bond: Halogen c th chuyn electron vo obitan d, d c
th to ra nhiu hn mt lin kt.
- to be oxidizing agent: l cht oxi ha
Ex: Chlorine is a very reactive oxidizing agent: Clo l cht oxi ha mnh
- to be produced by: c sn xut bi
- to be prepared by: c iu ch bi
- Ex: Chlorine is frequently prepared by the oxidation of concentrated hydrochloric
acid with permanganate: Clo thng c iu ch bi s oxi ha axit clohiric c
vi pemangannat

C. SUMMARY
I. General properties of halogens
1. Location of the halogens
The Group VIIA elements, called the halogens, have very similar properties, or at
least they have properties that change smoothly in progressing down the column. All

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are reactive nonmetals, except perhaps for astatine, whose chemistry is not well known.

ns2np5

2. Electron configuration
The halogens have seven electrons in their outermost shell, with configuration of

3. Oxidation number
All of the halogens form stable compounds in which the element is in the -1

T
N

oxidation state. In fluorine compounds, this is the only oxidation state. Chlorine,
bromine, and iodine also have compounds in which the halogen is in one of the

positive oxidation states +1,+3,+5,+7.


Halogens will complete the octet by accepting an electron to form a halide ion X-

.Q

or by sharing an electron to form a covelent bond.

TP

With the exception of fluorine, all halogens can expand their octet configuration.
Because fluorine does not have energetically accessible d orbital for expantion of octet
configuration to take place. All other halogens are able to promote electrons into the d
orbitals and thus are able to form more than one bond.

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

4. Properties
The elements form diatomic molecules X2, F2 and Cl2 being gases at normal
temperature and pressure, Br2 liquid and I2 solid.
The boiling points of the halogens increase down the group (from gas to solid) as
the number of electrons increases, resulting in an increase in the strength of
VanderWaals forces.
Electronic
configuration

Color
at
room
temperature

State
at
room
temperature

Boiling
point/0C

1s22s22p5

Pale yellow

Gas

-188

Chlorine

[Ne] 3s23p5

Yellowish
green

Gas

-35

Bromine

[Ar]3d10 4s24p5

Dark red

Liquid

58

Iodine

[Kr]4d105s25p5

Black

Solid

183

Halogen

B
ID

TO

-L

Fluorine

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They react directly with most other elements and are good oxidizing agents. The
relative strength as oxidizing power decreases down the group, due to: the electron

A halogen with stronger oxidizing power can oxidize a halogen with weaker one.
(displacement reactions)
Only chlorine and bromine are able to oxidize iron (II) to iron (III).

affinity decrease.

T
N

The solubilities of the fluorides in water, for example, are often quite different
from those of the chlorides, bromides, and iodides. Calciumchloride, bromide, and

iodide are very soluble in water. Calcium fluoride, however, is insoluble. Silver

chloride, bromide, and iodide are insoluble, but silver fluoride is soluble.

TP

.Q

II. Chlorine
1. Physical properties:
Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.
It is two and a half times heavier than air.
Boiling point: -35oC

TR

It has a choking smell, and inhalation causes suffocation.


Chlorine is a toxic.

2+
3

10
0

0B

2. Chemical properties:
Chlorine has a high electronegativity (3.44)
Oxidation state: -1, 0, +1, +3, +5, +7
Chlorine is a very reactive oxidizing agent.
a. React with metals salt

2Na + Cl 2
2NaCl

2Fe + 3Cl 2
2FeCl3

-L

Cu + Cl 2
CuCl 2

B
ID

TO

b. React with hydrogen


light
H 2 + Cl2
2HCl

c. Chlorine oxidizes iodide, bromide ion to iodine, bromine: chlorine is a stronger


oxidizing agent than either bromine or iodine.

Cl 2(g) + 2NaBr(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + Br2(aq)


Cl 2(g) + 2NaI(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + I2(aq)

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These reactions can be used as a test for bromide and iodide ions.
d. Reacts with water by being both oxidized and reduced
+1

N
H

In an aqueous solution of chlorine at 25oC, about two-thirds of the chlorine is present


as Cl2(aq); the rest is HClO and HCl.

Cl 2(g) + 2H 2O(l) H Cl(aq) + H Cl O(aq)

T
N

3. Production
a. In industry

.Q

Chlorine is produced on a large scale by electrolysis of a concentrated solution of


sodium chloride in water. Hydrogen is generated at the cathode and chlorine at the
anode. At the same time, sodium hydroxide is produced in the electrolyte; hence, this

TP

process is often referred to as chlorine-alkali electrolysis.


To accomplish the separation of chlorine gas and the hydroxide ion, a porous wall
is inserted between the electrodes (diaphragm process)

electrolysis
2NaCl + 2H 2O
2NaOH + Cl2 + H 2
porous wall

0B

TR

b. In the laboratory
Chlorine is frequently prepared by the oxidation of concentrated hydrochloric
acid with permanganate or dichromate salts, manganese dioxide:

10
0

MnO2 + 4HCl
MnCl2 + Cl 2 + H 2O

2+
3

2KMnO 4 + 16HCl 2KCl + 2MnCl2 + 5Cl 2 + 8H 2 O

B
ID

TO

-L

4. Use
Most of the chlorine produced is used for chemical processes involving the
introduction of chlorine into organic compounds, yielding carbon tetrachloride (used as
a solvent, a fire extinguisher, and a dry-cleaning agent), glycols (used as antifreeze),
and other organic compounds for the manufacture of plastics (polyvinyl chloride),
dyes, and synthetic rubber.
Much chlorine is used to sterilize water and wastes, and the substance is
employed either directly or indirectly as a bleaching agent for paper or textiles and as
bleaching powder (Ca[OCl]2CaCl2Ca[OH]22H2O). Chlorine is applied in the
manufacturing of high-purity hydrochloric acid, the extraction of titanium with the
formation of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), and the removal of tin from old tinplate.
Anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl3) is made by the reaction of chlorine with scrap

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of silicon materials. Chlorine enters directly, or indirectly as an intermediate, into many


organic syntheses of industrial importance.

aluminum or with aluminum oxide and carbon. Chlorine is also used to prepare silicon
tetrachloride (SiCl4) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl), which are employed in the synthesis

III. Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrochloric acid

T
N

1. Hydrogen Chloride

&
& : H C l
H : Cl
&
&
A compound of the elements hydrogen and chlorine
b. Properties
Hydrogen chloride is a colourless gas of strong odour.
Boiling point: -85 C
The gas is very soluble in water: at 20C water will dissolve 477 times its own
volume of hydrogen chloride. Because of its great solubility, the gas fumes in moist air.
The gas is very soluble in water and the water solution is commonly referred to as
hydrochloric acid. In aqueous solution the compound is extensively dissociated into a
hydronium ion (H3O+) and chloride ion (Cl-); in dilute solutions the dissociation is
essentially complete. Thus, hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.
Gaseous hydrogen chloride reacts with active metals and their oxides, hydroxides,
and carbonates to produce chlorides. These reactions occur readily only in the presence
of moisture. Completely dry hydrogen chloride is very unreactive.
2. Hydrochloric acid is the fourth most important industrial acid
a. Physical properties
Hydrochloric acid is prepared by dissolving gaseous hydrogen chloride in water.
Hydrochloric acid is usually marketed as a solution containing 2835 percent by
weight hydrogen chloride, commonly known as concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Hydrochloric acid made the gas fumes in moist air.
b. Chemical properties
Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid in water. The reactions of hydrochloric acid
are those of typical strong acids, such as: reactions with metals in which hydrogen gas
is displaced, reactions with basic (metal) oxides and hydroxides that are neutralized
with the formation of a metal chloride and water, and reactions with salts of weak acids
in which the weak acid is displaced.

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

TP

.Q

a. Molecular structure

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Fe + 2HCl FeCl 2 + H 2

CuO + 2HCl CuCl 2 + H 2O

Fe(OH)3 + 3HCl FeCl3 + 3H2 O

CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl 2 + CO3 + H 2O

T
N

+) Hydrochloric acid is reductant

MnO2 + 4HCl
MnCl2 + Cl 2 + H 2O

2KMnO4 + 16HCl 2KCl + 2MnCl2 + 5Cl 2 + 8H 2 O

c. Production

TP

.Q

+) In the laboratory: Hydrogen chloride can be produced by heating sodium


chloride with concentrated sulfuric acid.
o

< 250 C
NaCl(s) + H 2SO4(l)
NaHSO4(s) + HCl(g)

On stronger heating, the sodiumhydrogen sulfate reacts with sodiumchloride to


produce additionalhydrogen chloride

> 400 C
2NaCl(s) + H 2SO4(l)
Na2SO4(s) + 2HCl(g)

> 400 C
2NaCl(s) + H 2SO4(l)
Na2SO4(s) + 2HCl(g)

2+
3

concentrated sulfuric acid.

10
0

0B

TR

+) In industry:
- Hydrogen chloride can be produced by heating sodiumchloride with

- Hydrogen chloride may be formed by the direct combination of chlorine (Cl2)


gas and hydrogen (H2) gas; the reaction is rapid at temperatures above 250C. The

H
-

moisture.

reaction is accompanied by evolution of heat and appears to be accelerated by


o

>250 C
H 2 + Cl 2
2HCl

CH 4(g) + 4Cl 2(g) CCl 4(l) + 4HCl(g)

TO

-L

- Industrial Byproducts

B
ID

3. Halide ions and ionic halides detection


a. Halide ions
The halogens can combine with other elements to form compounds known as
halides namely, fluorides, chlorides, bromides, iodides, and astatides.
Ionic chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble in water solutions of these are
neutral.

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Ionic fluorides typically are not solutions of fluorides are basic

F(aq)
+ H 2O(l) HF(aq) + OH(aq)

b. Ionic Halides Detection

+ X(aq)
AgX(s)
Ag(aq)

Precipitation with silver nitrate:

T
N

AgCl is white precipitate , AgBr is pale yellow, AgI is yellow. They darken
quickly in light.

Soluble in aqueous ammonia AgI(s), yellow precipitate, no change when it is


exposed to light, insoluble in aqueous ammonia.

TP

AgX(s) + 2NH3(aq) Ag(NH3 )2 (aq) + X(aq)

.Q

Addition of ammonia to the silver halide, AgCl is soluble, AgBr is soluble with a
concentrated ammonia solution, AgI is not soluble

4. Oxygen compounds of chlorine


Forms oxyacids and oxyanions for each odd oxidation state from +1 to +7
Acid strength increases with the amount of oxygen HClO, HClO2, HClO3, HClO4

TR

a. Hypochlorous acid sodium hypochlorite


- Hypochlorous acid is very weak acid

10
0

0B

CO2(g) + NaClO(aq) NaHCO3(aq) + HClO

2+
3

- Hypochlorous acid and sodium hypochlorite are strong oxidizing agent, used to
bleach or disinfect.
- Production sodium hypochlorite:

+) In the laboratory: Cl 2(g) + 2NaOH (aq) NaCl(aq) + NaClO(aq) + H 2O

B
ID

TO

-L

+) In industry: Solutions of sodium hypochlorite are manufactured by allowing the


chlorine gas released by the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride to mix with the
cold solution of sodium hydroxide that is also obtained in the electrolysis.
electrolysis
2NaCl + 2H 2O
2NaOH + Cl 2 + H 2

Cl 2(g) + 2NaOH (aq) NaCl(aq) + NaClO(aq) + H 2O

b. Chloride of lime
- A white powder of calcium hydroxide and chloride and hypochlorite and used to
bleach or disinfect.
- Molecular formula: CaOCl2

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- Chloride of lime reacts with carbon dioxide:

2CO2(g) + H 2 O(l) + CaClO2(aq) CaCO3(s) + CaCl2(aq) + 2HClO

- Production:

Cl 2(g) + 2Ca(OH)2(aq) NaCl(aq) + NaClO(aq) + H 2O

T
N

IV. Fluorine- Bromine-Iodine


1. Fluorine
a. Physical properties
At room temperature fluorine is a faintly yellow gas with an irritating odour.

.Q

Inhalation of the gas is dangerous. Upon cooling fluorine becomes a yellow liquid.
b. Chemical properties

2+
3

+) React with hidrogen

10
0

0B

2Fe + 3F2 2 FeF3

TR

TP

- It is the most electronegative element


- Fluorine is the most powerfully oxidizing element.
- Strong oxidizing agent. The high oxidizing power of fluorine allows the element
to produce the highest oxidation numbers possible in other elements, and many high
oxidation state fluorides of elements are known for which there are no other
corresponding halides
+) React with all metals

252 C
H 2 + F2
2HF

-L

A solution of hydrogen fluoride gas in water is called hydrofluoric acid, large


quantities of which are consumed in industry for cleaning metals and for polishing,
frosting, and etching glass.
Hydrofluoric acid reacts with SiO2

SiO2 + 4HF SiF4 + 2H2 O

B
ID

TO

+) Reacts with water by hydrofluoric acid

2F2 + 2H2 O 4HF+O2

c. Use
The element is used for the preparation of various fluorides, such as chlorine
trifluoride (ClF3), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), or cobalt trifluoride (CoF3). The chlorine
and cobalt compounds are important fluorinating agents for organic compounds. (With

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appropriate precautions, the element itself may be used for the fluorination of organic
compounds.) Sulfur hexafluoride is used as a gaseous electrical insulator.

corresponding fluorocarbons in which some or all hydrogen has been replaced by


fluorine. The resulting compounds are usually characterized by great stability,
chemical inertness, high electrical resistance, and other valuable physical and chemical

Elemental fluorine, often diluted with nitrogen, reacts with hydrocarbons to form

T
N

properties.
The element is also used for the preparation of uranium hexafluoride (UF6),

utilized in the gaseous diffusion process of separating uranium-235 from uranium-238

for reactor fuel.

TP

.Q

d. Production
The electrolysis of a potassium fluoride/hydrogen fluoride mixture

electrolysis
2HF
F2 + H 2

2. Bromine
a. Physical properties
Free bromine is a reddish brown liquid with an appreciable vapour pressure at

0B

TR

room temperature. Bromine vapour is amber in colour. Bromine has a pungent odour
and is irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Exposure to concentrated

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

bromine vapour, even for a short time, may be fatal. Like the other halogens, bromine
exists as diatomic molecules in all aggregation states.
Bromine dissolve in water, the solution is known as bromine water.
b. Chemical properties
Oxidation state: -1, 0, +1, +3, +5, +7
Like chlorine water, it is a good oxidizing agent.
+) React with metals

2Al + 3Br2
2AlBr3

Cu + Br2
CuBr2

+) React with hydrogen:

H 2 + Br2
2HBr

+) Bromine oxidizes iodide ion to iodine

Br2(aq) + 2NaI(aq) 2NaBr(aq) + I 2(aq)

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+) Reacts with water by being both oxidized and reduced:


0

+1

c. Production
In industry: Bromine is produced from ocean water. the element is extracted by

Br 2(l) + 2H 2O(l) H Br (aq) + H Br O(aq)

T
N

means of chemical displacement (oxidation) by chlorine in the presence of sulfuric acid


through the reaction

Cl 2 + 2NaBr 2NaCl + Br2

d. Use

.Q

- The industrial usage of bromine had been dominated by the compound ethylene
bromide (C2H4Br2), its use to destroy nematodes and other pests in soils. Bromine is

TP

also used in the production of catalysts, such as aluminum bromide.


- Silver bromide (AgBr), an important component of photographic film, is, like
silver chloride and iodide, light sensitive.

light
2AgBr
2Ag + Br2

0B

TR

- Traces of potassium bromate (KBrO3) are added to wheat flour to improve


baking. Other bromine compounds of significance include hydrogen bromide (HBr), a
colourless gas used as a reducing agent and a catalyst in organic reactions.

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

3. Iodine
a. Physical properties
Iodine is a nonmetallic, nearly black solid at room temperature and has a
glittering crystalline appearance.
Iodine has a moderate vapour pressure at room temperature and in an open vessel
slowly sublimes to a deep violet vapour that is irritating to the eyes, nose, and throat.
(Highly concentrated iodine is poisonous and may cause serious damage to skin and
tissues.)
b. Chemical properties:
Oxidation state: -1, 0, +1, +3, +5, +7
Iodine is a weaker oxidizing agent than bromine, chlorine, or fluorine.
+) React with metals
H O

2
2Al + 3I2
2AlI3

+) React with hydrogen:

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Cl 2(g) + 2NaI(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + I2(aq)

+) Iodine is a weaker oxidizing agent than bromine, chlorine, or fluorine so


chlorine, bromine oxidizes iodide ion to iodine

350 500 C
H 2(g) + I 2(g) Pt
2HI(g)

T
N

Br2(aq) + 2NaI(aq) 2NaBr(aq) + I 2(aq)

+) Iodine does not react with water


c. Production

TP

.Q

In industry iodine is produced from seaweed


d. Use
- Iodine is widely used as a disinfectant and antiseptic, frequently in a solution of
alcohol and water containing potassium iodide. Several compounds of iodine, such as
iodoform (CHI3), also serve as antiseptics.

TR

- Because iodine is converted to thyroxine in the thyroid gland, a small amount of


iodine is essential for the body, which contains an average of 14 mg (0.00049 ounce) of
the element. A small quantity of iodine in the form of potassium iodide (KI) is
frequently added to table salt in order to ensure against iodine deficiency.

2+
3

10
0

0B

D. EXERCISES
1. A solution of chloric acid may be prepared by reacting a solution of barium chlorate
with sulfuric acid. Barium sulfate precipitates. Write the balanced equation for the
reaction.

Solution: BaClO3 + H2SO 4 BaSO 4 +2HClO3

-L

2. Chlorine can be prepared by oxidizing chloride ion (from hydrochloric acid) with
potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7, which is reduced to Cr3+. Write the balanced equation
for the reaction.

K 2Cr2O 7 + 14HCl 2KCl + 2CrCl3 + 3Cl 2 + 7H 2O

TO

Solution:

B
ID

3. A sample of limestone was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and the carbon dioxide
gas that evolved was collected. If a 0.1662 g sample of limestone gave 33.6 mL of dry
carbon dioxide gas at standard conditions, what was the mass percentage of CaCO3 in

the limestone?
Solution:

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n CO =
2

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33.6
= 0.0015(mol)
22.4x10 3

equation: CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl 2 + Cl2 + H 2O


2

n CaCO = n CO = 0.0015(mol) m CaCO = 0.0015x100 = 0.15(g)

0.15
x100 = 90.25%
3
0.1662
4. Potassium chlorate, KClO3, is used in fireworks and explosives. It can be prepared
by bubbling chlorine into hot aqueous potassium hydroxide; KCl(aq) and H2O are the
other products in the reaction. How many grams of KClO3 can be obtained from 134.4
L of Cl2 whose standard conditions?

.Q

T
N

%m CaCO =

O
G

134.4
= 6(mol)
22.4

n Cl =

TP

Solution:

equation: 6KOH + 3Cl 2


5KCl + KClO3 + 3H 2 O

0B

TR

1
n KClO = x6 = 2(mol) n KClO = 2x122.5 = 245(g)
3
3
3

2+
3

10
0

2.2.6. Oxygen and Sulfur


CHAPTER 6: OXIGEN AND SULFUR
A. VOCABULARY

H
-

alkali

-L

absorption

allotropic

TO

atmospheric
pressure

configuration

cu hnh

hp th

compound

hp cht

dd kim

combine

kt hp

concentrated
solution

Dd m c

adj th hnh
p sut kh quyn

crystalline

adj thuc tinh th

boiling point

nhit si

distillation

chng ct

chemical reaction

phn ng ha hc

electrolysis

s in phn

chemical

ha hc

electricity

adj tnh dn in

tnh cht ha hc

electric current

dng in

emitted gas

kh thi

B
ID

Meaning

Vocabulary

chemical properties n
colourless

adj khng mu

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except

ngoi tr

odourless

exchange

s thay i

outermost

adj ngoi cng

equation

phng trnh

orthorhombic sulfur

lu hunh hnh thoi

fertilizer

phn bn

product

sn phm

fractional

adj phn on

rhombic

adj thuc hnh thoi

formations

to thnh

paramagnetism

tnh thun t

increase

tng

solution

dung dch

insoluble

adj tnh tan

stable

adj n nh

liquid

cht lng

substance

location

v tr

tasteless

adj khng v

melting point

nhit nng chy

temperatures

mobile liquid

cht lng linh ng

transparent

molecule

phn t

vaporization

moisture

hi nc

viscosity

monoclinic

adj n t

khng mi

T
N

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n cht

nhit

s bay hi

nht

TP

.Q

adj trong sut

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

B. SENTENCES
- to react with sth: phn ng vi
- to form = to produce: to ra
- to be oxidized by: b oxi ha bi
Ex: Sulfur is oxidized by nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid solution.
- at room temperature and pressure (at r.t.p): p sut v nhit phng.
- standard condition: iu kin tiu chun
- to be used up: c dng / phn ng ht
- to be left over: cn li sau phn ng
- to be unreacted: cha phn ng
- to be used up: c dng / phn ng ht
- to oxidize sth to : oxi ha c sth to ra
- to be oxidized into: b oxi ha thnh
- to be able to promote sth: c th chuyn
- to be oxidizing agent: l cht oxi ha
- to be produced by: c sn xut bi
- to be prepared by: c iu ch bi
- to be x times heavier than: nng gp bao nhiu ln so vi

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Ex: Pure oxygen is 1.1 times heavier than air: oxi nng gp 1,1 ln so vi khng kh
- About 3 parts of oxygen by volume dissolve in 100 parts of fresh water at 20C:

- to be formed at temperatures : c hnh thnh nhit


Ex: Monatomic sulfur is formed at temperatures above 1800C: Lu hunh n nguyn
t c hnh thnh nhit trn 1800oC.

Khong 3 phn khi lng oxi tan c trong 100 phn khi lng nc 200C.

T
N

- to be bubbled through an aqueous solution: c sc qua dung dch


Ex: The emitted gases are bubbled through an aqueous solution of hydrogen sulfide:

Cc kh thi c sc qua dung dch hiro sunfua.

C. SUMMARY

TP

.Q

I. Oxygen
1. Location and electron configuration
Oxygen (O), nonmetallic chemical element of Group VIA, (or the oxygen group)
of the periodic table.
Electron configuration: 1s22s22p4. Oxygen has six electrons in their outermost

shell.

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

2. Physical properties
- Oxygen is a colourless, odourless, tasteless gas essential to living organisms.
- Pure oxygen is 1.1 times heavier than air.
- Boiling point: -183oC; melting point 218.4C
- About 3 parts of oxygen by volume dissolve in 100 parts of fresh water at 20C,
slightly less in seawater. Dissolved oxygen is essential for the respiration of fish and
other marine life.
- The properties of the diatomic form suggest that six electrons bond the atoms
and two electrons remain unpaired, accounting for the paramagnetism of oxygen

B
ID

TO

-L

3. Chemical properties
Electronegativity: 3.44
Oxidation states: 1, 2, +2 (in compounds with fluorine)
Oxygen is a good oxidizing agent.
a) React with metals

3Fe + 2O 2
Fe3O 4

Cu + O 2
CuO

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b) React with nonmetals:

2H 2 + O2
2H 2O

C + O2
CO 2

c) React with compounds

2CO + O2
2CO2

T
N

4. Production

a) In industry:
+) From air: Air is filtered to remove particulates; moisture and carbon dioxide

.Q

are removed by absorption in alkali, oxygen is prepared by the fractional distillation of


liquid air.

TP

+) Electrolysis of water containing small proportions of salts or acids to allow


conduction of the electric current

H2 SO4
2H 2O
2H 2 + O2
electrolysis

b) In the laboratory: Thermal decomposition of certain salts, such as potassium


chlorate or potassium nitrate:
o

TR

250 C
2KClO3
2KCl + 3O2
MnO

0B

10
0

2KMnO 4
K 2 MnO 4 + MnO2 + O2

B
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2+
3

5. Use
- Oxygen is gas essential to living organisms.
- The steel industry.
- The treatment of sewage by oxygen.
- Incineration of wastes in closed systems using pure oxygen
- The so-called LOX of rocket oxidizer fuels is liquid oxygen;
- Pure oxygen is used in submarines and diving bells.
- In the chemical industry for the manufacture of such oxidation controlled
chemicals as acetylene, ethylene oxide, and methanol.
- Medical applications of oxygen include use in oxygen tents, inhalators, and
pediatric incubators.
- Oxygen enriched gaseous anesthetics ensure life support during general
anesthesia.
- Oxygen is significant in a number of industries that use kilns.
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6. Ozone
a) Properties:

three atoms in the ozone molecule do not lie along a straight line.

Oxygen has two allotropic forms, diatomic (O2) and triatomic (O3, ozone). The

Ozone may be produced from oxygen according to the equation:


uv

T
N

3O2
2O3

Ozone is light blue; It is 1.67 times heavier than air, and it has a boiling point of

112C at atmospheric pressure.


Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent, capable of converting sulfur dioxide to

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.Q

sulfur trioxide, sulfides to sulfates, iodides to iodine (providing an analytical method


for its estimation), and many organic compounds to oxygenated derivatives such as

aldehydes and acids.


b) Ozone in the natural

In the midlatitudes the peak concentrations of ozone occur at altitudes from 20 to


25 km. Peak concentrations are found at altitudes from 26 to 28 km in the tropics and

TR

from about 12 to 20 km toward the poles.


The production of ozone in the stratosphere results primarily from the breaking of
uv

10
0

3O2
2O3

0B

the chemical bonds within oxygen molecules (O2) by high-energy solar photons.

-L

2+
3

The ozone layer played an important role in the development of life on Earth by
screening out lethal levels of UVB radiation (ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths
between 315 and 280 nanometres)
c) Use
Commercially, ozone has been used as a chemical reagent, as a disinfectant, in
sewage treatment, water purification, and bleaching textiles.

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II. Sulfur
1. Location and electron configuration
Sulfur(S), nonmetallic chemical element belonging to the oxygen group VIA of
the periodic table.
Electron configuration: 1s22s22p43s23p4. Sulfur has six electrons in their

outermost shell
2. Physical properties

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- Pure sulfur is a tasteless, odourless, brittle solid that is pale yellow in colour, a
poor conductor of electricity, and insoluble in water.

that of the eight-membered ring molecules. One is the orthorhombic (often improperly
called rhombic) form, -sulfur. It is stable at temperatures below 96C. Another of the
crystalline S8 ring allotropes is the monoclinic or -form. This modification is stable

- Two general allotropic of sulfur is -sulfur (orthorhombic sulfur) and -sulfur

T
N

from 96C to the melting point, 118.9 C.


- At temperatures above 96C, the -allotrope changes into the -allotrope. If

.Q

enough time is allowed for this transition to occur completely, further heating causes
melting to occur at 118.9C; but if the -form is heated so rapidly that the
transformation to -form does not have time to occur, the -form melts at 112.8C.

10
0

0B

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TP

- Just above its melting point, sulfur is a yellow, transparent, mobile liquid. Upon
further heating, the viscosity of the liquid decreases gradually to a minimum at about
157C, but then rapidly increases, reaching a maximum value at about 187C; between
this temperature and the boiling point of 444.6C, the viscosity decreases. The colour
also changes, deepening from yellow through dark red, and, finally, to black at about
250C. The variations in both colour and viscosity are considered to result from
changes in the molecular structure. Beyond that temperature, the chains break down
into small fragments. Upon vaporization, cyclic molecules (S8 and S6) are formed

2+
3

again; at about 900C, S2 is the predominant form; finally, monatomic sulfur is formed
at temperatures above 1800C.

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3. Chemical properties
Electronegativity: 2.58
Oxidation states:
2, 0, +4, +6
Sulfur is being both oxidized and reduced
a) React with all metals except gold and platinum, forming sulfides
0

+2

F e + S
FeS

+2

Hg+ S H g S

b) React with hydrogen


0

+1 2

H 2 + S H2 S

c) React with several nonmetals (Sulfur is reductant)

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+4 2

S+ O2
S O2
0

+6 1

4. Production
- Sulfur is treated with superheated water in retorts, melting the sulfur, which

S+ 3F 2
S F6

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N

flows out.
- Sulfur are recovered from natural gas, petroleum refinery gases, pyrites, and

smelter gases from the processing of copper, zinc, and lead ores. In most cases sulfur is
separated from other gases as hydrogen sulfide, involves the partial burning of
hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide, with subsequent reaction between the two to yield

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sulfur. Another important source is the sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by
coal-fired steam power plants.

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3

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5. Use
- Sulfur is so widely used in industrial.
- Approximately six-sevenths of all the sulfur produced is converted into sulfuric
acid, for which the largest single use is in the manufacture of fertilizers (phosphates
and ammonium sulfate).
- Other important uses include the production of pigments, detergents, fibres,
petroleum products, sheet metal, explosives, and storage batteries; hundreds of other
applications are known.

D. EXERCISES
1. Write an equation for each of the following.
a. burning of lithium metalin oxygen
b. burning of methylamine, CH3NH2, in excess oxygen(N ends up as N2)

-L

c. burning of diethylsulfide, (C2H5)2S, in excess oxygen

Solution:

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a. 4Li + O2
Li 2O

B
ID

b. 4CH3 NH 2 + 9O2
4CO 2 + 10H 2O + 2N 2

c. 2 ( C2 H 5 )2 S + 15O2
8CO2 + 10H 2O + 2SO2

2. What are the oxidation numbers of sulfurin each of the following?


a. SF6
b. SO3
c. H2S
d.CaSO3

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+6 1

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+1 2

+6 2

+2

+4 2

Solution: S F 6 , S O3 , H 2 S , Ca S O3

3. Sodium hydrogen sulfite is prepared from sodium carbonate and sulfur dioxide:

Na2CO3(s) + 2SO 2(g) + H 2O(l) 2NaHSO3(aq) + CO2(g)

How many grams of NaHSO3 can be obtained from 25.0 g of Na2CO3?

T
N
N

25.0
= 0.236 (mol)
106

n Na CO =

Solution:

n NaHSO = 2n Na CO = 2x0.236 = 0.472 (mol)

m NaHSO = 0.472x104 = 49.1 (g)

.Q

TP

4.Write equations for each of the following.


a. reaction of H2S with SO2

c. reaction of hot, concentrated H 2SO4 with Cu

b. oxidation of SO2 with Cr2O27(aq)


to SO 24

Solution:

0B

TR

a. SO2 + 2H 2S 3S + 2H2O

10
0

b. K 2Cr2 O7 + 3SO2 + H 2SO 4 K 2SO 4 + Cr2 (SO 4 )3 + H 2 O

2+
3

c. Cu + 2H 2SO 4
CuSO 4 + SO2 + 2H 2O

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5. Sulfur is formed in volcanic gases when sulfur dioxide reacts with hydrogen sulfide.
The same reaction has been proposed as a method of removing sulfur dioxide from the
gases emitted from coal-fired electricity generation plants. The emitted gases,
containing sulfur dioxide, are bubbled through an aqueous solution of hydrogen
sulfide.
(a) Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of sulfur dioxide gas with
hydrogen sulfide gas to produce solid sulfurand water vapor.
(b) Suppose 4.48L of sulfur dioxide at standard conditions reacts with 13.6g of
hydrogen sulfide. How many grams of sulfur would be produced?
Solution:
a) SO2 + 2H 2S 3S + 2H2O

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b) n SO =
2

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4.48
13.6
= 0.2 (mol);n H S =
= 0.4(mol)
2
22.4
34

n S = 3n SO = 0.2x3 = 0.6(mol) m S = 0.6x32 = 19.2(g)

T
N

2.2.7. Rates of reaction and chemical equilibrium


CHAPTER 7: RATES OF REACTON AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

phn t

ng dng

mixture

aqueous

adj

dung dch nc

negative

balancing

cn bng

nitrogen

kh nit

balanced

adj

cn bng

phase

pha

catalyst

cht xc tc

positive

dng

concentration

nng

precipitate

kt ta

decomposition

phn hy

pressure

p sut

denote

biu th

produce

sn xut

chemical

ha hc

product

sn phm

Y
U
.Q
TP

H
N

proceed

tip din

compound

hp cht

pure

adj

tinh khit

combine

kt hp

react

phn ng

condition

iu kin

reaction

phn ng

decompose

b phn hy

reversible

thun nghch

decomposition

phn hy

reactant

cht phn ng

nh ngha

reverse reaction

phn ng nghch

cn bng ng

speed

tc

10
0

0B

cn bng ha hc

2+
3

TR

hn hp

chemical equilibrium n

trng thi cn bng

square brackets

du mc vung

equilibrium constant

hng s cn bng

substance

cht

exchange

s thay i

solid

cht rn

factor

yu t

solution

dung dch

formations

to thnh

stable

adj

n nh

forward reaction

phn ng thun

surface area

din tch b mt

principle

nguyn l

temperature

nhit

increase

tng

unit

n v

interval

khong thi gian

used up

adj

s dng ht

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equilibrium

G
N

dynamic equilibrium n

molecule

application

definition

B
ID

Meaning

Vocabulary

A. VOCABULARY

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B. SENTENCES
- to be affected by: b nh hng bi
- until equilibrium is reestablished: cho n khi cn bng c thit lp li

- to be heated in: c lm nng trong


- to decomposes to: phn hy thnh

T
N

- to be formed: c hnh thnh


- the molar concentration of: nng ca
- the average rate: tc trung bnh
Ex: The average rate over the time interval t: Tc trung bnh cu phn ng

.Q

trong khong thi gian t


- the instantaneous rate: tc tc thi

TP

- rate of formation of: tc hnh thnh ca


- rate of decomposition of: tc phn hy ca

10
0

0B

TR

Ex: The rate of reaction increases when the concentration of a reactant is increased:
tc ca phn ng tng khi nng ca cht phn ng tng
- to be consumed by: b tiu th bi
- to be added: c thm vo
- the law of mass action: nh lut tc dng khi lng
- to form sth: to ra

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3

C. SUMMARY
I. Rates of reaction.
1. Definition of Reaction Rate
The rate of a reaction is the amount of product formed or the amount of reactant
used up per unit of time. So that a rate calculation does not depend on the total quantity
of reaction mixture used, you express the rate for a unit volume of the mixture.
Therefore, the reaction rate is the increase in molar concentration of product of a
reaction per unit time or the decrease in molar concentration of reactant per unit time.
The usual unit of reaction rate is moles per liter per second, mol/(L.s).
Consider the gas-phase reaction: 2N 2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)

You denote the molar concentration of a substance by enclosing its formula in


square brackets. Thus, [O2] is the molar concentration of O2. The symbol (capital
Greek delta) means change in; you obtain the change by subtracting the initial value
from the final value. In a given time interval t. The molar concentration of oxygen,

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[O2], in the reaction vessel increases by the amount [O2].


The rate for this reaction could be found by observing the increase in molar

concentration of O2 produced.

H
N

O2

Rate of formation of oxygen =

The equation gives the average rate over the time interval t

d O
Rate = 2
dt
Note that the rate of the reaction decreases as the reaction proceeds.

T
N

t
The instantaneous rate (the rate at a given moment) when the time interval is

.Q

very short.

TP

To understand the difference between average rate and instantaneous rate, it may
help to think of the speed of an automobile. Speed can be defined as the rate of change

of position x; that is, speed equals x/t, where x is the distance traveled. If an
automobile travels 84 miles in 2.0 hours, the average speed over this time interval is 84

mi/2.0 hr = 42mi/hr. However, at any instant during this interval, the speedometer,
which registers instantaneous speed, may read more or less than 42 mi/hr. At some

0B

TR

moment on the highway, it may read 55 mi/hr, whereas on a congested city street it
may read only 20 mi/hr. The quantity x/t becomes more nearly an instantaneous

2+
3

10
0

speed as the time interval t is made smaller.


You can also express it in terms of the rate of decomposition of N2O5

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N O
Rate of decomposition of N2O5 = 2 5
t
Note the negative sign. It always occurs in a rate expression for a reactant in order
to indicate a decrease in concentration and to give a positive value for the rate. Thus,
because [N2O5] decreases, [N2O5] is negative and  [N2O5]/t is positive.
The rate of decomposition of N2O5 and the rate of formation of oxygen are easily
related. Two moles of N2O5 decompose for each mole of oxygen formed, so therate of
decomposition of N2O5 is twice the rate of formation of oxygen. To equate the rates,
you must divide the rate of decomposition of N2O5 by 2 (its coefficient in the balanced
chemical equation).
Rate of formation of O2 =

1
(rate of decomposition of N2O5)
2

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1 N 2O5
t
t
2
2. The factors that influence the reaction rate .
a. Concentrations of reactants. Often the rate of reaction increases when the
concentration of a reactant is increased. A piece of steel wool burns with some
difficulty in air (20% O2) but bursts into a dazzling white flame in pure oxygen. The
rate of burning increases with the concentration of O2. In some reactions, however, the
rate is unaffected by the concentration of a particular reactant, as long as it is present at
some concentration.
b. Catalyst. A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of reaction without
being consumed in the overall reaction. Because the catalyst is not consumed by the
reaction, it does not appear in the balanced chemical equation (although its presence
may be indicated by writing its formula over the arrow). A solution of pure hydrogen
peroxide, H2O2, is stable, but when hydrobromic acid, HBr(aq), is added H2O2
decomposes rapidly into H2O and O2

TP

.Q

T
N

O2

HBr

( aq )
2H 2O2(aq)
2H 2O(l) + O2(g)

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2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

Here HBr acts as a catalyst to speed decomposition.


c. Temperature at which the reaction occurs. Usually reactions speed up when the
temperature increases. It takes less time to boil an egg at sea level than on a
mountaintop, where water boils at a lower temperature. Reactions during cooking go
faster at higher temperature.
d. Surface area of a solid reactant or catalyst.
If a reaction involves a solid with a gas or liquid, the surface area of the solid
affects the reaction rate. Because the reaction occurs at the surface of the solid, the rate
increases with increasing surface area. The greater the surface area per unit volume, the
faster the reaction.
Similarly, the surface area of a solid catalyst is important to the rate of reaction.
Catalysis is the increase in rate of a reaction that results from the addition of a catalyst.
e. Pressure at which the reaction occurs. If a reaction involves a gas the pressure
affects the reaction rate. Often the rate of reaction increases when the pressure of gas is
increased.
II. Chemical equilibrium

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1. Reversible reaction.

Bromine (aq) is yellowish brown while all the components on the right- hand side
are colorless. When OH- is added the bromine water becomes colorless as hydroxide

Br2(aq) + H 2O(l) HBr(aq) + HBrO(aq)

Consider the reaction:

T
N

ions react with the hydrogen ions to form water. This causes the concentration of
hydrogen ions to decrease and the equilibrium will shilf to the right to counter the

reduction. This causes the bromine to turn colourless. When H+ is added, the
equilibrium shift to the left and the yellowish brown color of bromine water reappear.

a. Definition: A reversible reation is a chemical reaction that is the original

TP

.Q

reactants form products, but then the products react with themselves to give back the
original reactants.
b. Characteristic: Actually two reactions are occurring, and the eventual result is
a mixture of reactants and products, rather than simply a mixture of products.
c. The reversible reaction is written:
Forward reaction proceeds to the right, reactants to products

Reverse reaction proceeds to the left, products to reactants

TR

A double headed arrow is used to represent:

A B

10
0

0B

E.x I 2(g) + H 2(g) 2HI(g)

2+
3

2. Chemical equilibriumA Dynamic equilibrium


Consider reversible reaction, the chemical equation:

I 2(g) + H 2(g) 2HI(g)

B
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When the reaction happens, the rate of forward reaction large and the rate of
reverse reaction equal zero. Then, the concentration of I2 and H2 decrease, and the
concentration of the product HI increase, so the rate of forward reaction decrease and
the rate of reverse reaction increase. This will happen until a certain time is reached in
the reaction when the concentration of the reactants and products no longer changes, it
remains constant. At this point the reaction has reached equilibrium.
Chemical equilibrium is the state reached by a reaction mixture when the rates of
forward and reverse reactions have become equal.
If you observe the reaction mixture, you see no net change, although the forward
and reverse reactions are continuing. The continuing forward and reverse reactions
make the equilibrium a dynamic process. Chemical equilibrium is dynamic equilibrium

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Definition: Dynamic equilibrium refers to the state of the chemical reaction


whereby the rates of the forward and backward reactions are equal at equilibrium.

concentrations of both reactants and products. It can only be achived in a closed system
whre no substances are being added or removed.
Characteristics of dynamic equilibrium:

Explain: The substances are still reacting, but there is no change in the

T
N

The system is reversible.


The composition of any substance (reactant and product) is unchanged at

equilibrium.

The enthalpy change of a reaction at equilibrium is equal to zero

aA + bB cC + dD

Consider the reaction:

TP

.Q

3. The Equilibrium Constant


a. The Equilibrium Constant

C D
Kc = a b
A B

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

Where A, B, C, and D denote reactants and products, and a, b, c and d are


coefficients in the balanced chemical equation. The equilibrium constant expression for
a reaction is an expression obtained by multiplying the concentrations of products,
dividing by the concentrations of reactants, and raising each concentration term to a
power equal to the coefficient in the chemical equation. The equilibrium constant Kc is
the value obtained for the equilibrium constant expression when equilibrium
concentrations are substituted.
For the previous reaction:

B
ID

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Here you denote the molar concentration of a substance by writing its formula in
square brackets. The subscript c on the equilibrium constant means that it is defined in
terms of molar concentrations.
The Magnitude of Equilibrium Constants:
The larger K, the more products are present at equilibrium.
Conversely, the smaller K the more reactants are present at equilibrium.
If K >> 1, then products dominate at equilibrium and equilibrium lies to the right.
If K << 1, then reactants dominate at equilibrium and the equilibrium lies to the
left.

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KC is a constant at a particular temperature and it is independent of volume and


innitial composition.

constant expression Kc are constant for a particular reaction at a given temperature,


whatever equilibrium concentrations are substituted.

The law of mass action is a relation that states that the values of the equilibrium-

Note: the equilibrium-constant expression is defined in terms of the balanced

T
N

chemical equation. If the equation is rewritten with different coefficients, the


equilibrium constant expression will be changed.

.Q

b. Heterogeneous Equilibrium
When all reactants and products are in one phase, the equilibrium is
homogeneous.

CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO 2(g)

Consider:

TP

If one or more reactants or products are in a different phase, the equilibrium is


heterogeneous.

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

Experimentally, the amount of CO2 does not seem to depend on the amounts of
CaO and CaCO3. Because neither density nor molar mass is a variable, the
concentrations of solids and pure liquids are constant.
We ignore the concentrations of pure liquids and pure solids in equilibrium
constant expressions.
The amount of CO2 formed will not depend greatly on the amounts of CaO and
CaCO3 present.

CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO 2(g)

K c = CO2

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4. The factors that influence chemical equilibrium ; Le Chteliers Principle


Obtaining the maximum amount of product from a reaction depends on the proper
selection of reaction conditions. By changing these conditions, you can increase or
decrease the yield of product. There are three ways to alter the equilibrium composition
of a gaseous reaction mixture and possibly increase the yield of product:
+) Changing the concentrations by removing products or adding reactants to the
reaction vessel.
+) Changing the partial pressure of gaseous reactants and products by changing
the volume.

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+) Changing the temperature.


Note that a catalyst cannot alter equilibrium composition, although it can change

Le Chteliers principle, when a system in chemical equilibrium is disturbed by


a change of temperature, pressure, or a concentration, the system shifts in equilibrium
composition in a way that tends to counteract this change of variable.

the rate at which a product is formed and affect the result.

T
N

a. Changing the concentrations (Removing Products or Adding Reactants)


When a system in chemical equilibrium. Suppose you remove a substance from

or add a substance to the equilibrium mixture in order to alter the concentration of the

0B

TR

TP

.Q

substance. Chemical reaction then occurs to partially restore the initial concentration of
the removed or added substance. (However, if the concentration of substance cannot be
changed, as in the case of a pure solid or liquid reactant or product, changes in amount
will have no effect on the equilibrium composition.)
For example, suppose that water vapor is removed from the reaction vessel
containing the equilibrium mixture for methanation. Le Chteliers principle predicts
that net chemical change will occur to partially reinstate the original concentration of
wate vapor. This means that the methanation reaction momentarily goes in the forward
direction,

10
0

CO(g) + 3H 2(g) CH 4(g) + H 2O(g)

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2+
3

until equilibrium is reestablished. Going in the forward direction, the concentrations of


both water vapor and methane increase.
A practical way to remove water vapor in this reaction would be to cool the
reaction mixture quickly to condense the water. Liquid water could be removed and the
gases reheated until equilibrium is again established. The concentration of water vapor
would build up as the concentration of methane increases.
b. Effect of Pressure Change
A pressure change obtained by changing the volumecan affect the yield of
product in a gaseous reaction if the reaction involves a change in total moles of gas.
The methanation reaction, CO(g) + 3H 2(g) CH 4(g) + H 2O(g) , is an example of a

change in moles of gas. When the reaction goes in the forward direction, four moles of
reactant gas (CO +3H2) become two moles of product gas (CH4 +H2O).
To see the effect of such a pressure change, consider what happens when an

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equilibrium mixture from the methanation reaction is compressed to one-half of its


original volume at a fixed temperature. The total pressure is doubled. Because the

changed, the mixture is no longer at equilibrium. The direction in which the reaction
goes to re-establish equilibrium can be predicted by applying Le Chteliers principle.
Reaction should go in the forward direction, because then the moles of gas decrease,

partial pressures and therefore the concentrations of reactants and products have

T
N

and the pressure (which is proportional to moles of gas) decreases. In this way, the
initial pressure increase is partially reduced.

c. Effect of Temperature Change

.Q

For an endothermic reaction (Ho positive), the amounts of products are


increased at equilibrium by an increase in temperature (Kc is larger at higher T).

TP

For an exothermic reaction (Ho negative), the amounts of products are increased
at equilibrium by a decrease in temperature (Kc is larger at lower T).
Consider the methanation reaction:

CO(g) + 3H2(g) CH 4(g) + H 2O(g) Ho = 206.2kJ

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

The value of Ho shows this reaction to be quite exothermic. As products are


formed, considerable heat is released. According to Le Chteliers principle, as the
temperature is raised, the reaction shifts to form more reactants, thereby absorbing heat
and attempting to counter the increase in temperature.
d. Effect of a Catalyst
A catalystis a substance that increases the rate of a reaction but is not consumed
by it. It is important to understand that a catalyst has no effect on the equilibrium
omposition of a reaction mixture.A catalyst merely speeds up the attainment of
equilibrium.

-L

D. EXERCISES
1. Calculate the average rate of decomposition of N2O5,  [N2O5]/t, by the reaction

TO

2N 2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)

B
ID

during the time interval from t= 600 s to t=1200 s (regard all time figures as
significant).
Use the following data:
Time
[N2O5]
600 s

1.24 x10 2M

134

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0.93x10 2M

Solution:

N O
Rate of decomposition of N2O5 = 2 5
t

1200 s

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N O
(0.93 1.24)x10 2 M
2 5 =
= 5.2x106 M / s
(1200 600)s
t

T
N

2. A nitrogen- hydrogen mixture, initially in the mole ratio of 1:3, reached equilibrium
with ammonia when 50% of the nitrogen had reacted. The total final pressure was p at

standard conditions.

N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) 2NH 3(g)

.Q

Solution:

TP

N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) 2NH 3(g)

10
0

a) 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)

0B

TR

Initial:
1
3
0
Change:
0.5
1.5
1
Equil:
0.5
1.5
1
The total mol of gases is: 1+1.5+0.5 = 3 mol
The total final pressure was p at standard conditions: p = 22.4x3 = 67.2 atm
3. Write out the expression of equilibrium constant

2+
3

b) CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO 2(g)


2

SO
Solution: a) K c = 23
SO2 O2

B
ID

TO

-L

b) K c = CO2
4. Sulfur dioxide reacts with oxygen to produce sulfur trioxide according to this
reaction:

2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)

Suppose that 1.4 mole of SO2 and 0.8 mole of SO3 are placed in a 1.0 dm3 container.
At equilibrium it was found that there were 0.6 mole of SO3. Calculate the equilibrium
concentrations of [SO2] and [O2] and the equilibrium constant.
5. The decomposition of HI at low temperature was studied by injecting 2.5mole of HI
into a 10.32 L vessel at 250C. What is [H2] at quilibrium for the reaction; Kc= 1.26x10-3
135

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Solution:
Note the moles into a 10.32 L vessel ... calculate molarity.
Starting concentration of HI: 2.5 mol/10.32 L = 0.242 M

0.242-2x x

Equil:

0
x

0
x

T
N

0.242M
-2x

Initial:
Change:

2HI(g) H 2(g) + I 2(g)

TP

.Q

H I
x.x
= 1.26x10 3
K c = 2 22 =
2
(0.242 2x)
HI
x = 0.00802MThe [H2] at equilibrium is 0.00802M
6. In a study of halogen bond strenght, 0,50 mol of I2 was heated in a 2.5 L vessel, and

the following reaction occred: I 2(g) 2I(g)

a) Calculate [I2] and [I] at equilibrium at 600oK; KC= 2.94x10-10


b) Calculate [I2] anfd [I] at equilibrium at 2000oK; KC=0.209

TR

Solution:
a) Initial concentration of I2: 0.50 mol/2.5L = 0.20 M

10
0

0
+2x
2x

2+
3

0.20
-x
0.20-x

Initial:
change:
equil:

0B

I 2(g) 2I(g)

I
(2x)2
Kc = =
= 2.94x10 10
I 2 (0.20 x)

-L

With an equilibrium constant that small, whatever x is, its near dink, and 0.20 minus
dink is 0.20, 0.20 x is the same as 0.20
2

B
ID

TO

I
(2x)2
=
= 2.94x10 10 x = 3.83x10-6 M
I2 0.20

b) Initial Concentration of I2: 0.50 mol/2.5L = 0.20 M

I 2(g) 2I(g)
Initial:
change:

0.20
-x

0
+2x
136

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equil:

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0.20-x 2x
2

With an equilibrium constant that small, whatever x is, its near dink, and 0.20 minus

I
(2x)2
Kc = =
= 0.209
I 2 (0.20 x)

T
N

dink is 0.20, 0.20 x is the same as 0.20


x = 0.1 mol

8. Consider the following equilibrium equation: H 2O(g) + C(s) CO(g) + H 2(g) H < 0

At equilibrium, which reaction will be favored (forward, reverse, or neither) when


a. extra CO gas is introduced?

TP

.Q

b. a catalyst is introduced?
c. the temperature of the system is lowered?
d. the pressure on the system is increased due to a decrease in the container volume?

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

Choice questions
1. Raising the temperature of any equilibrium system always
(a) favors the forward reaction.
(b) favors the reverse reaction.
(c) favors the exothermic reaction.
(d) favors the endothermic reaction.
2.Consider the following equilibrium equation:

CH3OH(g) 2H 2(g) + CO(g) H o = 101kJ

Increasing [CO] will


(a) increase [H2]

CH3OH(g) 2H 2(g) + CO(g) H o = 101kJ

TO

-L

(c) not change [H2].


(b) decrease [H2]
(d) cause [H2] to fluctuate.
3. Consider the following equilibrium equation:

B
ID

Raising the temperature will cause the equilibrium of the system to


(a) favor the reverse reaction
(c) shift back and forth.
(b) favor the forward reaction (d) remain as it was before.
4. Consider the following equilibrium equation:

CH3OH(g) 2H 2(g) + CO(g) H o = 101kJ


Raising the temperature will

137

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(a) increase the value of K.


(b) decrease the value of K.

(d) make the value of K fluctuate.


5. Addition of the salt of a weak acid to a solution of the weak acid
(a) lowers the concentration of the nonionized acid and the concentration of the H3O+

(c) not change the value of K.

T
N

ion.
(b) lowers the concentration of the nonionized acid and raises the concentration of the

H3O+ ion.

.Q

(c) raises the concentration of the nonionized acid and the concentration of the H3O+
ion.

Ag2CrO4(s) 2Ag2(aq)
+ CrO24(aq)

TP

(d) raises the concentration of the nonionized acid and lowers the concentration of the
H3O+ ion.
6. Silver chromate dissolves in water according to thefollowing equation:

0B

Ag2CrO4

2+
3

Ag+ CrO 24

c) K c =
Ag2CrO 4

Ag+ CrO24

b) K c =
1

TR

2 Ag+ + CrO24

10
0

a) K c =

Which of these correctly represents the equilibriumexpression for the above equation?

Ag+ CrO24

d) K c =
2
Ag2CrO4

B
ID

TO

-L

7. Why dont all collisions between particles cause a reaction?


A. The particles also need to collide with a catalyst.
B. Not all the particles collide with enough energy.
C. Not all the particles collide at a high enough temperature.
D. The particles need to collide with each other twice.
8. In the mixture of NO and CO2 (innitially containing 4 mol of NO and 0.9 mol of
CO2) reaction occures according to the equation below:

NO(g) + CO2(g) NO2(g) + CO(g)


At equilibrium, 0.1 mol of CO2 was present. What is the equilibrium constant, KC, at
the temperature of this experiement?
A. 0.2
B. 0.5
C. 1.6
D. 2.0
138

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9. A nitrogen hydrogen mixture, innitially in the mole ratio of 1:3, reached equilibrium
with ammonia when 50% of the nitrogen had reacted. What was the partial pressure of

A. p/8
B. p/6
C. p/4
D. p/3
10. For which system does the equilibrium constant KC, have units of (concentration)-1

ammonia in the equilibrium muxture?

T
N

A. 2HI(g) H 2(g) + I 2(g)


H + ,t o

B. H 2O + CH3COOC2 H 5
CH 3COOH + C2 H 5OH

C. 2NO2(g) N 2O 4(g)

.Q

D. CH 4(g) + H 2O(g) CO(g) + 3H 2(g)

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

TP

2.3. Kim tra nh gi kt qu hc tp ha hc bng ting Anh


2.3.1. Mc ch kim tra, nh gi
Trong qu trnh dy hc bng ting Anh, kim tra nh gi kt qu hc tp ca
hc sinh l mt khu quan trng nhm xc nh thnh tch hc tp v mc chim
lnh kin thc, k nng, vn dng ca ngi hc. Kim tra, nh gi l hai cng vic
c tin hnh theo trnh t nht nh hoc an xen ln nhau nhm kho st, xem xt
v c nh lng v nh tnh kt qu hc tp, nh gi mc chim lnh ni dung
hc vn ca hc sinh. Bi vy, cn phi xc nh mc ch kim tra v chun nh gi
mt cch khoa hc, khch quan t rt ra c bi hc kinh nghim cho c gio vin
v hc sinh trong vic iu chnh hnh vi dy hc ca mnh.
i vi hc sinh, nhn vt trung tm ca qu trnh dy hc, kim tra, nh gi c
tc dng thc y qu trnh hc tp pht trin khng ngng. Qua kt qu kim tra, hc
sinh t nh gi mc t c ca bn thn, c phng php t mnh n tp,
cng c b sung nhm hon thin kin thc, k nng bng phng php t hc vi h
thng thao tc t duy ca chnh mnh.
i vi gio vin, kt qu kim tra, nh gi mi gio vin t nh gi qu trnh
ging dy ca mnh. Trn c s khng ngng nng cao v hon thin mnh v trnh
hc vn, v phng php ging dy.
i cc cp qun l, lnh o nh trng th kim tra, nh gi l bin php
nh gi kt qu o to v c nh lng v nh tnh. l c s xy dng i
ng gio vin, v vn i mi ni dung, phng php v hnh thc t chc hot
ng dy hc, v.v

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kim tra vic pht trin cc k nng hc lc ting Anh. Do hnh thc kim tra cng
i hi phi a dng v linh hot hn nh:

2.3.2. Ni dung kim tra


Trong dy hc ha hc bng ting Anh, ni dung kim tra khng ch dng li
kim tra vic nm vng cc kin thc v ha hc m ni dung kim tra cn bao gm c

ting Anh kim tra k nng giao tip ting Anh ca hc sinh.

T
N

- Kim tra bng li: vn p tr li cu hi, thuyt trnh ni dung ha hc...


- Kim tra vit: kim tra 15 pht, 1 tit hoc tng trnh, gii thch mt vn v
ha hc bng ting Anh
- Kim tra hnh ng: thng qua cc hot ng hc tp, tr li ca hc sinh bng

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

TP

.Q

2.3.3. nh gi kt qu
nh gi khch quan kt qu hc tp ca hc sinh cn phi da vo kt qu
kim tra ri so snh vi mc tiu dy hc nh gi hiu qu dy hc ca gio vin
v hc sinh. Ngoi ra, gio vin cn phi bit so snh kt qu kim tra ca nhng lp
hc ha hc bng ting Anh vi nhng lp tng ng nhng khng hc theo chng
trnh bng ting Anh. Cc kt qu kim tra u c x l thng k bng phng php
ton hc v tin hnh nhiu ln nhiu thi im khc nhau mi c c kt qu nh
gi va mang tnh khch quan v va st vi thc t dy hc. T mi rt ra c
chnh xc nhng u, nhc im ca ni dung v cc phng dy hc c bin php
iu chnh cho ph hp vi thc t.

TIU KT CHNG 2

B
ID

TO

-L

Trn c s l lun v thc tin trnh by chng 1, trong chng 2 chng ti


hon thnh cc nhim v ca ti nh sau:
1. Xy dng c h thng t vng, thut ng ha hc, mu cu bng ting Anh
chng trnh ca lp 10 c bn.
2. Xy dng mt s bi tp c km theo hng dn gii bng ting Anh s dng
sau mi gio n dy hc ha hc lp 10 trng THPT.
3. Tm tt ni dung kin thc cc chng trong chng trnh ha hc lp 10 c
bn.
4. Thit k mt gio n ha hc bng ting Anh dy hc phn: L thuyt

140

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Chng 3: THC NGHIM S PHM

ca h thng cc phng php nu ra, thng qua xy dng tin trnh dy hc ho


hc bng ting Anh cho hc sinh THPT.

3.1 Mc ch ca thc nghim s phm


nh gi hiu qu ni dung v bin php mang tnh phng php lun xut,

T
N

i chiu kt qu ca lp thc nghim v kt qu ca lp i chng nh gi


kh nng p dng nhng bin php xut vo qu trnh dy hc ho hc bng
ting Anh trng THPT.

3.2 Nhim v ca thc nghim s phm


S dng cc bi ging bng ting Anh, thng qua qu trnh dy hc rn k

TP

.Q

nng nghe, ni, vit v giao tip ting Anh cho hc sinh.
Kim tra, nh gi tnh hiu qu ca nhng ni dung, phng php ra nhm
pht trin nng lc hc ting Anh cho hc sinh.
Phn tch, x l kt qu thc nghim rt ra kt lun cn thit.

TR

3.3 i tng thc nghip s phm


Chng ti d gi, ging dy v lm kho st trn hc sinh ti trng THPT
Chuyn V Ngyn Gip Qung Bnh.

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

3.4 Ni dung v tin trnh thc nghim s phm


3.4.1 Ni dung thc nghim s phm
Ni dung ca lun vn l xy dng cc bi ging ho hc bng ting Anh trong
phm vi ho hc i cng ca chung trnh ho hc ph thng v phng php dy
cc bi ging ho hc bng ting Anh nhm nng cao nng lc hc ting Anh v rn k
nng giao tip ting Anh cho hc sinh. H thng t vng, mu cu v phn tm tt ni
dung son trong ti c ni dung kin thc bm st vi chng trnh sch gio
khoa ha hc 10, do vy chng ti chn thc nghim s phm i vi hc sinh lp 10.
Ni dung kin thc cp trong cc bi ging v cc bi kim tra.
Chng ti chn 4 lp.
Hai lp i chng: gio vin khng dy theo ni dung v phng php m lun
vn xut.
Hai lp thc nghim: c s lng v trnh tng ng vi lp i chng,
c gio vin dy theo ni dung v phong php m lun vn xut.
Cc lp ny s cng lm mt kim tra ting Anh c ni dung lin quan n
ha hc trong thi gian 15 pht v so snh kt qu thu c.

141

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T
N

ho hc THPT v dy ho hc bng ting Anh.


C tm huyt trong vic bi dng, nng cao nng lc t duy cho hc sinh.
C th cc gio vin thc nghim gm:
C Cao Th Thu Hin (Trng THPT Chuyn V Nguyn Gip- Qung Bnh)

nghim trong ging dy, c nng lc ting Anh tt.


dy qua c ba khi 10, 11, 12 c ci nhn tng qut nht v chng trnh

3.4.2 Tin trnh thc nghim s phm


- Chn gio vin thc nghim, theo tiu chun sau:
Nhit tnh, c tinh thn trch nhim cao, c chuyn mn vng vng, c kinh

.Q

Thy T S Chng (Trng THPT Chuyn V Nguyn Gip- Qung Bnh)


- Chn lp thc nghim v lp i chng: tng ng v cc mt.

TP

S lng hc sinh, cht lng hc tp b mn, cng mt gio vin ging dy.
C th, s lng v kt qu hc tp mn ting Anh ca cc lp i chng v thc

nghim nh sau:

Kh

TB

20

15

35

15

18

35

12

17

35

10

18

Gii

10V

TN2

10T

C2

10L

TR

C1

35

0B

10A

2+
3

10
0

TN1

Hc lc mn ting Anh

S s

Lp

B
ID

TO

-L

- Trao i vi gio vin lm thc nghim: mt s vn trc khi thc nghim.


Tnh hnh hc tp, nng lc nhn thc ca hc sinh cc lp v mn ting Anh.
nh gi ca gio vin thc nghim v h thng bi ging dy ho hc bng ting
Anh v thc nghim.
Nhn xt ca gio vin thc nghim v cch thc xy dng cc phng php dy
ho hc bng ting Anh nhm pht trin nng lc hc tp v giao tip ting Anh.
- Tin hnh thc nghim s phm
Gio vin thc nghim dy cc lp i chng theo chun kin thc v k nng,
cn dy cc lp thc nghim bng h thng bi ging ho hc bng ting Anh.
Sau khi dy xong h thng bi ging ho hc bng ting Anh tin hnh kim tra
nng lc hc tp v giao tip ting Anh, ng thi kim tra kt qu hc mn ting Anh
ca hc sinh hai lp

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7
10

6
5

10
8

7
6

3
4

1
2

6.74
6,94

8
10

5
6

3
3

1
2

0
0

5.60
5.86

35

1
2

0
0

0
0

0
0

2
1

4
5

12 13
9 11

35

1
2

0
0

0
0

0
0

2
2

6
5

10
7

35

11

TP

5.46
5.74

3
3

6.66
6,82

C1

1
2

T
N

im
10 TB

.Q

35

C2

TN1

im Xi

S
HS 0

TN2

Bng 3.1. Tng hp kt qu thc nghim s phm


TT Phng n

hc hc thuc phm vi ca ti nghin cu v thu c kt qu nh sau:

3.5 Kt qu thc nghim s phm


nh gi kt qu thc nghim s phm, chng ti cho hc sinh cc lp thc
nghim v i chng lm kim tra cc bi bng ting Anh c ni dung lin quan n

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

3.6 X l kt qu thc nghim s phm


Lp bng phn phi tn s, tn sut, tn sut lu tch
V th ng lu tch t bng phn phi tn sut lu tch
Tnh cc tham s c trng
Trung bnh cng: c trng cho s tp trung s liu
k
Vi : ni l tn s ca cc gi tr xi

ni xi
i=1

X=

n l s hc sinh thc nghim.

S =

n i (xi -x)2
n-1

B
ID

TO

-L

Phng sai S v lch chun S: L cc tham s o mc phn tn ca cc s liu


quanh gi tr trung bnh

S=

ni (x i -x)2
n-1

Gi tr S cng nh chng t s liu t phn tn


Sai s tiu chun m

m=

S
; gi tr X s bin thin trong on [ X - m; X + m]
n

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- Khi 2 bng s liu ca 2 nhm c gi tr X tng ng th cn c vo gi tr lch


chun S, nhm c S nh l nhm c cht lng tt hn.

S
.100%
X

V=

H s bin thin V

T
N

- Khi 2 bng s liu ca 2 nhm c X khc nhau th so snh gi tr ca V. Nhm c


gi tr V nh l nhm c cht lng ng u hn.

.Q

2
(STN
+ S2C )

TP

t = (X TN - X C )

khng nh s khc nhau gia 2 gi tr X TN v X C l c ngha vi mc ngha


, chng ti dng php th t-Student

Chn t 0,01 n 0,05, tra bng phn phi student tm gi tr t, k vi lch t


do k = 2n 2

- Nu t t, k th s khc nhau gia X TN v X C l c ngha vi mc ngha

- Nu t < t, k th s khc nhau gia X TN v X C l cha ngha vi mc ngha .

0B

TR

Bng 3.2. Bng phn phi tn s, tn sut, tn sut lu tch (bi s 1)

B
ID

TO

2+
3

C
0
0
0
4
10
22
21
7
4
2
0
nC = 70

H
-

-L

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

TN
0
0
0
0
5
10
17
17
13
6
2
nTN = 70

10
0

S HS t im Xi

im
Xi

%HS t im Xi
TN
0
0
0
0
7,14
14,28
24,29
24,29
18,57
8,57
2,86
100

C
0
0
0
5,71
14,29
31,43
30
10
5,71
2,86
0
100

%HS t im Xi tr
xung
TN
0
0
0
0
7,14
21,42
45,71
70
88,57
97,14
100

C
0
0
0
5,71
20
51,43
81,43
91,43
97,14
100
100

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Bng 3.3. Bng phn phi tn s, tn sut, tn sut lu tch (bi s 2)

Hnh 3.1. Phn trm HS t im Xi tr xung (bi 1)

T
N

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U
.Q

100

G
N

nC = 70

TP

100

2+
3
P

C
0
0
0
4,29
14,29
22,86
30
17,14
7,14
4,28
0

B
ID

TO

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TN
0
0
0
0
2,85
15,71
24,29
25,72
15,71
10
5,72

TR

nTN = 70

%HS t im Xi

0B

C
0
0
0
3
10
16
21
12
5
3
0

10
0

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

TN
0
0
0
0
2
11
17
18
11
7
4

%HS t im Xi
tr xung
TN
C
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4,29
2,85
18,58
18,56
41,44
42,85
71,44
68,57
88,58
84,28
95,72
94,28
100
100
100

S HS t im Xi

im
Xi

Hnh 3.2. Phn trm HS t im Xi tr xung (bi 2)

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Bng 3.4. Bng phn loi kt qu hc tp


Yu - km

TN

TN

TN

38

13

27

43

14

40

20

28

37

13

kim tra

Trung bnh

Kh gii

T
N

Nguyn tc phn loi


Kh gii: im t 7 tr ln
Trung bnh: im t 5 n 6

Yu km: im di 5

Bng 3.5. Bng tng hp cc tham s c trng


S
C

TN

6,70 0,17

5,53 0,16

1,48

6,88 0,18

5,80 0,17

1,49

TP

.Q

TN

X m

kim tra

V (%)
C

1,33

21,51

22,93

1,44

22,65

24,82

TN

kim tra s 1

2+
3

10
0

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3.7 Phn tch kt qu thc nghim s phm


+ T l % hc sinh km cc lp thc nghim lun thp hn so vi cc lp i chng
v ngc li, t l % hc sinh kh, gii, trung bnh ca lp thc nghim cao hn lp
i chng
+ th cc ng lu tch ca lp thc nghim nm bn phi v pha di th cc
ng lu tch ca lp i chng
+ Trung bnh cng im ca lp thc nghim cao hn lp i chng
+ Dng php th student i vi 2 bi kim tra

-L

t1 = (6,70 - 5,53).

70
= 4,91
(1.482 + 1,332 )

TO

Trong bng phn phi Student, ly = 0,01 vi k = 35.2 2 = 68 tk, = 2,644


kim tra s 2

B
ID

Nh vy, t1 > tk, nn s khc nhau gia X TN v X C l c ngha

t2 = (6,88 5,80).

70
= 4,39
(1.49 + 1,442 )
2

Trong bng phn phi student, ly = 0,01 vi k = 35.2 2 = 68 tk, = 2,644.


Nh vy, t2 > tk, nn s khc nhau gia X TN v X C l c ngha.
146

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Thng qua cc bi ging bng ting Anh, hc sinh c b sung kin thc ng
thi c rn cc k nng quan trng nghe, ni, vit bng ting Anh.

Nhn xt
Vic la chn v s dng phng php ng n, t chc hot ng dy hc c
hiu qu mang li s hng th v kt qu hc tp tch cc cho hc sinh.

T
N

Hc sinh cc lp thc nghim khng ch pht trin nng lc hc tp ting Anh,


rn k nng giao tip m cn c m rng v cch hiu, cch tin hnh, cch vn
dng v chim lnh tri thc. Qua vic cc bi ging bng ting Anh, hc sinh lp thc
nghim c rn cch s dng ngn ng, phong cch giao tip, hc tp v kh nng t

.Q

tm kim kin thc ting Anh bn thn mnh.


Hc sinh lp i chng khng th gii quyt vn mt cch nhanh chng l do

TP

hc sinh lp ny khng c thc hnh ni, vit nhiu bng ting Anh v thi lng
ca mn ting Anh trn lp khng nhiu, vn t t, khng phong ph, ng thi hc

2+
3

10
0

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sinh khng c nhiu c hi trnh by cc vn khoa hc bng ting Anh. Hc sinh


nhng lp ny nu hi kin thc khoa hc bng ting Anh thng rt lng tng v
khng c kh nng din t vn m gio vin yu cu, cha ni n phong cch
trnh by v giao tip.
Bi ging ho hc bng ting Anh c bit l bi ging ho hc cha ng yu t
va l kin thc chuyn mn, va l kin thc ting Anh chnh l cng c qu bu gip
gio vin hon thnh xut sc nhim v ging dy, gip hc sinh hon thin tri thc
nhng li c kh nng rn luyn k nng hc tp v k nng giao tip ca hc sinh.

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TIU KT CHNG 3
1. Qu trnh TNSP cng vi kt qu thu c t TNSP cho thy: mc ch TNSP c
hon thnh, tnh kh thi v hiu qu ca cc bin php xut c khng nh.
2. Vic xy dng h thng t vng, mu cu, gio n, bi tp trong dy hc Ha hc bng
ting Anh gip gy hng th hc tp, pht huy tnh tch cc ca HS, gp phn nng cao
cht lng dy Ha hc bng ting Anh trong cc trng THPT hin nay.
3. Qua cng tc t chc, trao i, theo di v phn tch din bin cc gi dy TNSP cng
vi nhng kt qu thu c t TNSP cho php chng ta kt lun: Gi thuyt khoa hc ca
ti l ng n, cc bin php xut trong tin trnh dy hc theo nh hng ca
ti c tnh kh thi v hiu qu cao.

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KT LUN V KIN NGH

vn sau y:
- Nghin cu c s l lun, c s thc tin ca ti bao gm: l lun v phng

 Kt lun
i chiu vi mc ch v nhim v nghin cu, ti cn bn hon thnh nhng

T
N

php dy hc ho hc bng ting Anh, phn loi cc phng php dy hc da vo tnh


c th mn hc v tng loi bi hc; lm r vai tr ca dy hc ho hc bng ting
Anh trong qu trnh dy hc v thc trng dy hc ha hc bng ting Anh trng
THPT hin nay.

.Q

- xut cc gii php nhm pht trin nng lc t duy, k nng hc tp mn ting
Anh cho hc sinh thng qua hc mn ha hc bng ting Anh. Thng qua vic tr li

TP

cu hi, trnh by kin thc khoa hc bng li ni v vit ting Anh m hc sinh c th
rn c cc k nng giao tip v phng php hc tp ting Anh ph hp. Nh vy

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ID

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2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

hc sinh thm t tin, hng th trong hc tp, lm ch c tri thc v c c hi hi


nhp quc t.
- Nhn mnh vai tr ch th ca qu trnh nhn thc ca ngi hc trong qu trnh
dy hc ha hc bng ting Anh. Coi trng vic trnh by kin thc bng ting Anh ca
mi hc sinh, to c hi cho hc sinh c ch ng tm kim tri thc, linh hot s
dng tri thc c thc hin vic rn luyn k nng hc tp mn ting Anh, bit
nh gi v t nh gi vic vn dng kin thc v rn luyn k nng ca mnh trong
hc tp.
- a ra h thng t vng, mu cu vi ni dung kin thc tri rng ton chng
trnh ho hc i cng ph thng; cc phng php gii a dng, ph hp vi tng
loi bi hc gip cho ngi dy v ngi hc thun li trong vic trin khai v thc
hin hot ng dy hc ca mnh. Cng ni dung kin thc, chng ti c gng xy
dng cc bi tp ca cc chng mang c c trng ring ca mn hc v bm st
chng trnh ho hc ph thng nhm gip hc sinh va nm vng kin thc ha hc
v rn luyn c k nng hc tp mn ting Anh.
- Thc nghim s phm vi i tng hc sinh cc trng c c im khc nhau.
Kt qu thc nghim s phm gip chng ti khng nh d n dy hc cc mn khoa
hc bng ting Anh thc s ph hp vi xu th dy hc hin i ca cc nc trn th
gii v hi nhp kinh t quc t, gp phn thc hin tt nhim v c bn ca qu trnh
dy hc.

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i sng, pht huy ti a th mnh, c trng ca mn hc, nng cao hiu qu dy hc.
- Quan tm ng mc v c chin lc o to, bi dng trnh , nng lc ngoi

 Kin ngh
- Tng cng trang b c c vt cht v nhn lc phc v chuyn nghip cho cc
phng dy hc v th nghim gip gio vin gn l thuyt bi ging vi thc tin

T
N

ng cho cn b qun l, gio vin nhm m bo nhn lc thc hin tnh cng mc
tiu n.
- i mi phng php dy hc, tng cng cc tit hc cc mn khoa hc bng
ting Anh nhm to ti a c hi cho hc sinh rn luyn k nng hc tp ting Anh v

.Q

lnh hi kin thc khoa hc bng ting Anh .


- Ch trng hn na vic dy hc sinh phng php hc tp va m bo tip nhn

TP

kin thc chuyn mn va s dng hiu qu cc tnh hung hc tp rn cc k nng


hc tp v giao tip trong ting Anh.

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3

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- Khuyn khch cc ti nghin cu, xy dng, gp cc phng php nhm


thc hin thnh cng v hiu qu n.
- Cc c quan gio dc v c s gio dc tng cng kim tra, nh gi vic thc
hin mc tiu, k hoch n. Kp thi nm bt v iu chnh nhng hn ch trong qu
trnh thc hin n nhm nng cao hic hin v m bo tin qu thc n.

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TI LIU THAM KHO

Anh. i hc Vinh.
2. Cao C Gic (2011), Nhng vin kim cng trong ho hc. Nxb i hc S phm.

A. TING VIT
1. Cao C Gic (2012), Bi ging dy hc ha hc trng ph thng bng ting

T
N

3. Cao C Gic (2012), Mt s k thut gii nhanh bi tp trc nghim ha hc (B


quyt v Kinh nghim). Nxb HQG H Ni.
4. Cao C Gic (2007), Cc dng thi trc nghim ha hc. NxbGD H Ni.
5. Cao C Gic (2013), Gio trnh ng dng cng ngh thng tin trong dy hc ha

.Q

hc. Nxb i hc Vinh.


6. Cao C Gic, Thc trng v gii php dy hc cc mn khoa hc t nhin bng

TP

ting Anh trng THPT. Tp ch Gio dc, (4/2014).


7. Cao C Gic, T Th Tho, La Thanh Ng, Nguyn Thy Linh a. Mt s bin

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

php nhm nng cao hiu qu dy hc ha hc bng ting Anh trng trung hc
ph thng. Tp ch Gio dc, (3/2014).
8. L Vn Nm (2007), Hnh thnh khi nim c bn v ha i cng, v c v ha
hc hu c trong chng trnh ha hc ph thng. i Hc Vinh (Chuyn cao
hc Chuyn ngnh LL & PPDH).
9. L Vn Nm (2007), Cc phng php dy hc hin i, i Hc Vinh. (Chuyn
cao hc Chuyn ngnh LL & PPDH).
10. Nguyn Xun Trng (2007), SGK Ha hc 10 ban c bn. NxbGD.

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B. TING NC NGOI
1. A Harcourt education company. Modern Chemistry - Study Guide.
2. Darrell D. Ebbing, Steven D. Gammon (2009), General Chemistry. Publisher
Houghton Mifflin Company.
3. E.H. Witten, G. Davies (1997), Study guide chemistry (Principles & Practice).
Harcourt Brace & Company.
4. Greg Curran (2004), Chemistry-homework helpers. Greg Curran.
5. John Eastwood (1997), Oxford guide to English Grammar. Oxford University
Press.
6. Martin S. Silberberg (2007), Principles of General Chemistry. Copyright by The
McGraw-Hill Companies.

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PH LC 1: MT TIT DY BI CN BNG HA HC

T
N

I.
Objectives:
When the lesson is complete, students will be able to:
- State the meaning and significance of the following terms: forward reaction,
reversible reaction.
- Definition of the equilibrium state of a chemical reaction system.

UNIT 1: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

- Explain the meaning of statement Chemical equilibrium A Dynamic equilibrium


- Calculate the values of equilibrium constants.

- Calculate the quantities present at equilibrium.

TP

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II.
Method:
- Student centered learning
- Giving problems and situations

III. Preparation:
- Teaching materials: handout papers, computer and Projection System

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IV.
Progress of teaching:
Introduction: The word equilibrium often brings to mind the concept of balance,
for example the balancing of two people on a seesaw. However, equilibrium in
chemistry has a very different meaning. Dynamic equilibrium is like trying to remain
on a fixed point on an escalator. The only way to do this is to walk upwards at the same
rate as which you are walking downward. Weve already used the phrase equilibrium
when talking about reactions.
Contents

Activities of teacher and


students

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Activity 1
T: Gives an example of a
person who trying to remain on
a fixed point on an escalator.

I. Reversible reation :
1. Definition:A reversible reaction is a chemical
reaction that is the original reactants form
products, but then the products react with
themselves to give back the original reactants.
2. Characteristic: Actually two reactions are
occurring, and the eventual result is a mixture of
reactants and products, rather than simply a
mixture of products

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products
Reverse reaction proceeds to the left, products to
HBr(aq) + HBrO(aq)
reactants

Forward reaction proceeds to the right, reactants to

I 2(g) + H 2(g) 2HI(g)

the bromine water becomes

TP
O

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N

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II. Chemical equilibrium-Dynamic equilibrium.


Consider reversible reaction, the chemical
equation:

10
0

Activity 3
T: Require students look the
following diagram and give
conclusion about the change in

.Q

colorless. When H+ is added, the


yellowish brown color of
bromine water reappear.
S: students give some examples
about reversible reation.

TO

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2+
3

the rate of reaction with time in


establishing equilibrium

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ID

E.x

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on the right- hand side are


colorless. When OH- is added

brown while all the components

A double headed arrow is used to represent:


A B

Bromine (aq) is yellowish

Br2(a) + H 2O(l)

3. How to write the reversible reation:

Activity 2
Teacher gives an example of
reversible reaction:

S: When the reaction happens,


the rate of forward reaction
large and the rate of reverse
reaction equal zero. Then, the

I 2(g) + H 2(g) 2HI(g)

When the reaction happens, the rate of forward


reaction large and the rate of reverse reaction equal
zero. Then, the concentration of I2 and H2

decrease, and the concentration of the product HI


increase, so the rate of forward reaction decrease
and the rate of reverse reaction increase. This will
happen until a certain time is reached in the
reaction when the concentration of the reactants
and products no longer changes, it remains
constant. At this point the reaction has reached
equilibrium.Chemical equilibrium is the state
reached by a reaction mixture when the rates of
forward and reverse reactions have become equal.

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concentration of I2 and H2
decrease, and the concentration

H
N
B
H

T
N

Chemical equilibrium is dynamic equilibrium

*Definition: Dynamic equilibrium refers to the

the rate of forward reaction


decrease and the rate of reverse
reaction increase.
T: If you observe the reaction
mixture, you see no net change,

of the product HI increase, so

state of the chemical reaction whereby the rates of


reverse reactions are continuing. the forward and backward reactions are equal at
equilibrium.
The continuing forward and
*Explain: The substances are still reacting, but
reverse reactions make the
there is no change in the concentrations of both
equilibrium a dynamic process
reactants and products. It can only be achived in a
closed system whre no substances are being added
or removed.
* Characteristics of dynamic equilibrium:
- The system is reversible.
- The composition of any substance (reactant and
product) is unchanged at equilibrium.

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3

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although the forward and

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Activity 4
T: The equilibrium constant
expression for a reaction is an
expression obtained by
multiplying the equilibrium
concentrations of products,
dividing by the equilibrium
concentrations of reactants, and
raising each concentration term
to a power equal to the
coefficient in the chemical
equation.

III. THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT


3.1. The Equilibrium Constant
Consider the reaction:
aA + bB cC + dD
+) The equilibrium constant Kc
c

C D
Kc = a b
A B
+) The Magnitude of Equilibrium Constants:
The larger K, the more products are present at
equilibrium.
Conversely, the smaller K the more reactants are

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present at equilibrium.
If K >> 1, then products dominate at equilibrium

writing its formula in square

and equilibrium lies to the right.

brackets. The subscript c on the


equilibrium constant means that
it is defined in terms of molar
concentrations.

If K << 1, then reactants dominate at equilibrium


and the equilibrium lies to the left.
+) KC is a constant at a particular temperature and
it is independent of volume and innitial
composition.

T: Here you denote the molar


concentration of a substance by

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+) The law of mass action is a relation that states


that the values of the equilibrium constant
expression Kc are constant for a particular reaction

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at a given temperature, whatever equilibrium


concentrations are substituted.
Note: The equilibrium-constant expression is
defined in terms of the balanced chemical
equation. If the equation is rewritten with different
coefficients, the equilibrium constant expression
will be changed.

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3.2 Heterogeneous Equilibrium


When all reactants and products are in one phase,
the equilibrium is homogeneous.
If one or more reactants or products are in a
different phase, the equilibrium is heterogeneous.
Consider: CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO 2(g)

Experimentally, the amount of CO2 does not seem


to depend on the amounts of CaO and CaCO3.
Because, neither density nor molar mass is a
variable, the concentrations of solids and pure
liquids are constant.
We ignore the concentrations of pure liquids and
pure solids in equilibrium constant expressions.
The amount of CO2 formed will not depend greatly
on the amounts of CaO and CaCO3 present.
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CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO 2(g)

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a. CO(g) + 3H 2(g) H 2O(g) + CH 4(g)

H O CH
a. K c = 2 43
CO H 2

Solution 1:

Example:
1. Write the expression of equilibrium constant KC

K c = CO2

Heat

Fe O + 4H
b. 3Fe(s) + 4H 2O(g)

3 4(s)
2(g)

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H
b. K c = 2 4
H 2O
Solution 2:
Initial concentration of I2:
0.50 mol/2.5L = 0.20 M

2. In a study of halogen bond strenght, 0,50 mol of


I2 was heated in a 2.5 L vessel, and the following

I 2I(g)
reaction occred: 2(g)
Calculate [I2] and [I] at equilibrium at 600oK; KC=
2.94x10-10

TR

10
0

-x

0.20
0
+2x
0.20-x

0B

Initial:
change:
equil:
2x

I 2(g) 2I(g)

2+
3

I
(2x)2
= 2.94x10
Kc = =
I 2 (0.20 x)

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With an equilibrium constant


that small, whatever x is, its
near dink, and 0.20 minus dink
is 0.20,
0.20 x is the same as 0.20
2

I
(2x)2
=
= 2.94x10 10
I2 0.20
x = 3.83x10-6 M

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Learning check and homework assignment


1. Definition a) Reversible reaction,
b) Dynamic equilibrium
2. The decomposition of HI at low temperature

was studied by injecting 2.5 mole of HI into a

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10.32 L vessel at 250C. What is [H2] at quilibrium


for the reaction ; Kc= 1.26x10-3

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PH LC 2: BI KIM TRA

I. BI KIM TRA S 1

Student name:

MARKS

Class: ..

T
N

1. Raising the temperature of any equilibrium system always


a. favors the forward reaction.

b. favors the reverse reaction.

TP

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c. favors the exothermic reaction.


d. favors the endothermic reaction.
2. Consider the following equilibrium equation:

Increasing [CO] will


a. increase [H2]

CH3OH(g) 2H 2(g) + CO(g)Ho = 101kJ

c. decrease [H2]

b. not change [H2]

d. cause [H2] to fluctuate


3. Consider the following equilibrium equation:

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CH3OH(g) 2H 2(g) + CO(g)Ho = 101kJ

2+
3

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Raising the temperature will cause the equilibrium of the system to


a. favor the reverse reaction.
b. shift back and forth.
c. favor the forward reaction. d. remain as it was before.
4. Consider the following equilibrium equation:

CH3OH(g) 2H 2(g) + CO(g)Ho = 101kJ

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Raising the temperature will


a. increase the value of K.
b. decrease the value of K.
c. not change the value of K.
d. make the value of K fluctuate.
5. Addition of the salt of a weak acid to a solution of the weak acid
a. lowers the concentration of the nonionized acid and the concentration of the H3O+

ion.
b. lowers the concentration of the nonionized acid and raises the concentration of the
H3O+ ion.
c. raises the concentration of the nonionized acid and the concentration of the H3O+
ion.
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d. raises the concentration of the nonionized acid and lowers the concentration of the
H3O+ ion.

6. Silver chromate dissolves in water according to thefollowing equation:

Ag2CrO4(s) 2Ag2(aq)
+ CrO24(aq)

Ag2CrO4

T
N

Ag+ CrO24

b) K c =
1

2 Ag+ + CrO24

Ag+ CrO24

c) K c =
Ag2CrO 4

Ag+ CrO24

d) K c =
2
Ag2CrO4

TP

.Q

a) K c =

Which of these correctly represents the equilibriumexpression for the above equation?

7. The decomposition of HI at low temperature was studied by injecting 2.5 mole of HI


into a 10.32 L vessel at 250C. [H2] at quilibrium for the reaction is? Kc= 1.26x10-3
a. 0.005M
b. 0.00802M
c. 0.8001M
d. 0.0802M
8. In the mixture of NO and CO2 (innitially containing 4 mol of NO and 0.9 mol of

CO2) reaction occures according to the equation below:

TR

NO(g) + CO 2(g) NO 2(g) + CO(g)

2+
3

10
0

0B

At equilibrium, 0.1 mol of CO2 was present. What is the equilibrium constant, KC, at
the temperature of this experiement?
a. 0.2
b. 0.5
c. 1.6
d. 2.0
9. In a study of halogen bond strenght, 0,50 mol of I2 was heated in a 2.5 L vessel, and

the following reaction occred: I 2(g) 2I(g) , [I2] and [I] at equilibrium at 600oK; KC=

TO

-L

2.94x10-10
a. 3.83x10-6 M b. 3.53x10-6 M c. 3.63x10-6 M d. 2.83x10-6 M
10. For which system does the equilibrium constant, KC, have units of (concentration)1

B
ID

A. 2HI(g) H 2(g) + I 2(g)


H + ,t o

B. H 2 O + CH 3COOC2 H 5
CH 3COOH + C2 H 5OH
C. 2NO 2(g) N 2 O 4(g)
D. CH 4(g) + H 2 O(g) CO(g) + 3H 2(g)

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ANSWER KEY:
2

10

T
N

Solution:
7. Note the moles into a 10.32 L vessel ... calculate molarity.
Starting concentration of HI: 2.5 mol/10.32 L = 0.242 M

H
Y

.Q

0.242M 0
-2x
x
x
0.242-2x x

TP

Initial:
Change:
Equil:

2HI(g) H 2(g) + I 2(g)

H I
x.x
K c = 2 22 =
= 1.26x10 3
2
(0.242 2x)
HI
x = 0.00802MThe [H2] at equilibrium is 0.00802M
9. Initial concentration of I2: 0.50 mol/2.5L = 0.20 M

2+
3

-x

0B

0.20
0
+2x
0.20-x

10
0

Initial:
change:
equil:

TR

I 2(g) 2I(g)

2x

I
(2x)2
Kc =
=
= 2.94x10 10
I 2 (0.20 x)

-L

With an equilibrium constant that small, whatever x is, its near dink, and 0.20 minus
dink is 0.20, 0.20 x is the same as 0.20

B
ID

TO

I
(2x)2
=
= 2.94x10 10 x = 3.83x10-6 M
I2 0.20

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II.

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BI KIM TRA S 2:

Student name:

MARKS

Class: ..

T
N

1. In the modern periodic table, elements are ordered


a. According to decreasing atomic mass.

b. According to Mendeleevs original design.


c. According to increasing atomic number.

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

TP

.Q

d. Based on when they were discovered.


2. Mendeleev noticed that certain similarities in the chemical properties of elements
appeared at regular intervals when the elements were arranged in order of increasing
a. density.
b. atomic number
c. reactivity
d. atomic mass.
3. How many sublevels would the energy level represented by n = 4 be broken up into?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
4. The discovery of the noble gases changed Mendeleevs periodic table by adding a
new
a. period
b. group
c. series
d. level.
5. The most distinctive property of the noble gases is that they are
a. metallic
b. metalloid
c. radioactive
d. largely unreactive.
6. 6. How many total electrons can the second energy level hold?
a. 2
b. 6
c. 8
d. 16
7. Using only a periodic table, rank the elements in each set by increasing ionization
energy.
a. Rb, K, Ca
b. Sn, In, Sb
c. Sr, Ca, Ba
f. Kr, Br, Rb
8. Which of the following compounds contains only ionic bonds?
a. H2O
b. MgF2
c. CH4
d. SO2

B
ID

9. Boron exists as two naturally occurring isotopes:

The relative abundance of

11
5

10
5

B (10.01 u) and

11
5

B (11.01 u).

B.

a. 80%
b. 70%
c. 60%
d. 50%
10. Which of the following compounds contains both ionic and covalent bonds?
a. BaI2
b. N2O
c. NaNO3
d. CaBr2

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10

ANSWER KEY:

T
N

Solution:
3. [D. four]The number of sublevels that an energy level contains is equal to the
value for n. So, the third energy level (n= 3) contains 3 sublevels and the fourth energy

level (n= 4) contains 4 sublevels.


6. [C. 8]The total number of electrons that an energy level can hold is given by the

11
5

B is 80.00%

The abundance of

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

TP

.Q

formula 2n
8. [B. MgF2]We look for an electronegativity difference of greater than 1.7,and we
find that in answer B only. Magnesium has an electronegativity of 1.2 and fluorine has
an electronegativity of 4.0, making the difference 2.8.Notice that these two elements
are on the opposite sides of the periodic table.
9. Average atomic mass = x(atomic mass B-10)+(1x)(atomic mass B-11)
10.81 = x(10.01)+(1x)(11.01)
10.81 = 10.01x+11.0111.01x11.01x10.01
x = 11.0110.81
x = 0.2000
The abundance of boron-10 is 0.2000.
The abundance of boron-11 is 1x, or 10.2000=0.8000.

10. [C. NaNO3]To answer this question correctly, we look for a compound that

-L

contains a polyatomic ion. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3) contains the nitrate ( NO3 ) ion,

B
ID

TO

which is held together by covalent bonds. The polyatomic ion then attaches to the
sodium ion with an ionic bond.

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